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Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing – SSA Introduction Tensile testing provides engineers with the ability to verify and establish material properties related to a specific material. This verification process is critical in insures the selected material will meet design specifications. In this activity you will interpret and make sample specific calculations related to the material properties of a dog bone test sample. Equipment Dog bone test sample SSA 1000 Tensile Tester Computer with SSA 1000 Software Dial Caliper Permanent Marker Material Testing Formula Sheet Procedure 1. Identify test sample material type :______________________________ 2. Using a dial caliper measure and record five diameter measurements of the narrowed dog bone testing region. a. __________ b. __________ c. __________ d. __________ e. __________ 3. Identify and rerecord the smallest :______________________________ measurement from the dog bone testing region. 4. Using a permanent marker place two indexing dots on the dog bone testing region. (Dots should be positioned at the ends of the region) 5. Using a dial caliper measure and :______________________________ © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 1 record the distance between the two indexing dots. 6. Position the test sample in the tensile tester as directed by your teacher. 7. Tensile test your test sample as directed by your teacher. 8. Position your broken dog bone broken end to end. 9. Using a dial caliper measure and record the distance between the two indexing dots. :______________________________ 10. Using a dial caliper measure the diameter of the necking region of the dog bone test sample :______________________________ 11. Calculate the test samples total Strain/Deformation – The total amount of elongation of a sample to rupture normalized (divided) by the initial length. total = total/L0 total = 12. Calculate the test samples ductility- The ability of a material to be deformed plastically without rupture. % of Elongation = total (100) % of Elongation = 13. Calculate the test samples reduction in area Reduction in area = (A original – A final)/A original*100 Reduction in area = 14. Create a print screen of your completed tensile test and insert the graph into the test sample calculations tables. © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 2 Test sample calculations Proportional Limit Stress The greatest stress that a material is capable of withstanding without deviation from straight line proportionality between the stress and strain. If the force applied to a material is released, the material will return to its original size and shape. Tensile test results graph (Insert test graph) Locate the proportional limit on the test graph. Solve for the proportional limit stress: = F/A © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 3 Yield Point Stress The point at which a sudden elongation takes place, while the load on the sample remains the same or actually drops. If the force applied to the material is released, the material will not return to its original shape. Tensile test results graph (Insert test graph) Locate the Yield Point on the test graph. Solve for the Yield Point stress: = F/A © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 4 Ultimate/Tensile Stress The point at which a maximum load for a sample is achieved. Beyond this point elongation of the sample continues, but the force exerted decreases. Tensile test results graph (Insert test graph) Locate the maximum load location on the test graph. Solve for the Ultimate/Tensile stress: = F/A © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 5 Breaking/Rupture Point The maximum amount of stress that can be applied before rupture occurs. The specimen fractures in the necking region where the material reduces in diameter as it elongates. Tensile test results graph (Insert test graph) Locate the Breaking/Rupture Point on the test graph. Solve for the Breaking/Rupture Point stress: = F/A © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 6 Modulus of Elasticity A measure of a material’s ability to regain its original dimensions after the removal of a load or force. The modulus is the slope of the straight line portion of the stressstrain diagram up to the proportional limit. Tensile test results graph (Insert test graph) Solve for the Modulus of Elasticity: E = (F2 -F1)L0 (δ2 -δ1)A © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 7 Modulus of Resilience A measure of a material’s ability to absorb energy up to the elastic limit. This modulus is represented by the area under the stress vs. strain curve from 0-force to the elastic limit. Tensile test results graph (Insert test graph) Solve for the Modulus of Resilience: Ur = ½(yp yp) © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 8 Modulus of Toughness A measure of a material’s ability to plastically deform without fracturing. Work is performed by the material absorbing energy from the blow or deformation. This measurement is equal to the area under the stress vs. strain curve from its origin through the rupture point Tensile test results graph (Insert test graph) Solve for the Modulus of Toughness: Ut = 1/3 (br)( yp + 2 ult) © 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc. POE Activity 2.3.2 Tensile Testing SSA – Page 9