Vocab. Patterns of Heredity

1. Sexual reproduction
a type of reproduction in which male and female
reproductive cells combine to form offspring with
genetic material from both cells
2. Gene
a part of DNA or sometimes RNA that is usually
located on a chromosome and that contains
chemical information needed to make a particular
protein (as an enzyme) controlling or influencing an
inherited bodily trait or activity (as eye color,
height, or metabolism) or that influences or
controls the activity of another gene or genes
3. Heredity
the passing on of genes and genetic traits from
parent to offspring
4. Allele
one of several forms of a gene that determine
alternate forms of one or more genetic traits and
occupy identical places on two chromosomes having
the same genes arranged in the same order Ex: Dd
5. Phenotype
the visible characteristics of a plant or animal that
result from the combined effects of the genes and
the environment Ex: black fur, brown hair
6. Genotype
the whole set of genes of an individual or group
Ex: the genes that control the development of
7. Homolog
either chromosome of a homologous pair Ex: it’s
the A or the a OR the d or the d in a pair of
8. Feature
a part or detail that stands out
9. Inherited Traits
a distinguishing quality; an inherited characteristic
10. Self-pollination
pollination of a flower by its own pollen or
sometimes by pollen from another flower on the
same plant
11. Cross Pollination
the transfer of pollen from one flower to the
stigma of another
12. Gregor Mendel
is considered by many to be the "Father of Modern
Genetics" - he discovered the patterns between
'parent' pea plants and their offspring, including
the same pea color and plant size
13. First Generation
the first offspring generation (f1)
14. Second Generation
the next generation is referred to as f2
15. Variation
divergence in the structural or functional
characteristics of an organism from the species or
population norm or average
16. Chromosome
any of the rod-shaped or threadlike DNAcontaining structures of cellular organisms that
are located in the nucleus of eukaryotes, are
usually ring-shaped in prokaryotes (as bacteria),
and contain all or most of the genes of the
organism Ex: BB or Bb or Gg
17. X-chromosome
a sex chromosome that is associated with
femaleness and usually occurs paired in each
female cell and single in each male cell in organisms
(as human beings) in which the male normally has
two unlike sex chromosomes Ex: XX
18. Y-chromosome
a sex chromosome that is associated with maleness
and occurs only in male cells paired with an X
chromosome in organisms (as human beings) in
which the male normally has two unlike sex
chromosomes Ex: XY
19. Homozygous Gene
having the two genes at corresponding loci on
homologous chromosomes identical for one or more
20. Heterozygous Gene
having the two alleles at corresponding loci on
homologous chromosomes different for one or
more loci
21. Dominant
being the one of a pair of bodily structures that is
the more effective or predominant in action Ex:
it’s the D in Dd
22. Recessive
producing a bodily characteristic (as eye color)
when homozygous and not masked by a copy of the
gene that is dominant Ex: It’s the d in Dd
23. Punnett Square
an n × n square used in genetics to calculate the
frequencies of the different genotypes and
phenotypes among the offspring of a cross
24. Gamete
a mature sex cell that usually has half of the
normal number of chromosomes and is capable of
uniting with a gamete of the opposite sex to begin
the formation of a new individual
25. Probability
the chance that a given event will occur
26. Pedigree
a table or list showing the line of ancestors of a
person or animal