World War 1- Differing Perspectives Mr. Scales Grade Level: 10th Overview & Purpose (What will be learned and why it is useful. Be sure to address real-world application) Education Standards Addressed (The state/national education standards that this lesson satisfies.) X x Subject: AP World History Date/Time: 80 minute block This lesson will be further discussing World War I as it is presented in the book, History Lessons: How Textbooks From Around the World Portray U.S. History. This lesson will focus on Chapter 21 of the book entitled The Great War. Within this lesson it will be demonstrated to students to the concept that the majority of U.S. History Textbooks focus on the viciousness of the war. From the bias U.S. standpoint as well, these textbooks also claim that despite the late arrival of U.S. troops, it was their intervention which decided the result of the war. As the chapter illustrates, there remains controversy over to who actually “won” the war. From the reading and analyzing of the chapter, the students will gain insight into the point of views of the French, Canadians, English, Italians, and Germans during the time of World War I. Standard 1:US and NYS History Standard 2:World History NYS Key Idea: 1 __ 2___3___4 Key Idea: __X_1_X__2___3___4 Performance Indicator # --Performance Indicator #---Key Idea #1, Indicator #1; Key Idea #2, Indicator #3; Standard 3:Geography Key Idea: ___1___2 Performance Indicator # Standard 4:Economics Key Idea: ___1___2 Performance Indicator # Standard 5:Civics/Citizenship/Gov’t Key Idea: ___1___2___3___4 Performance Indicator # ___ Intermediate _X__ Commencement NETS*S (2007) 1. Creativity & Innovation 4. Critical Thinking/Problem-Solving/Decision-Making 2. Communication & Collaboration 5. Digital Citizenship 3. Research & Information Fluency 6. Technology Operations & Concepts Objectives (Specify skills/information that will be learned.) Be sure to include all 4 elements. 1. Students will be able to cite and record information from their assigned reading (relating to World War I) in the text to be written in a graphic organizer titled “Different Perspectives Graphic Outline” with 100 percent accuracy. 2. Students will be able to infer, analyze, and asses information from the assigned text (relating to World War I) to be written in the graphic organizer labeled “Different Perspectives Graphic Outline” with 100 percent accuracy. 3. Students will be able to collaborate with other students to exchange ideas about the differing perspectives of French, Canadian, British, Italian, or German soldiers during World War I with 100 percent accuracy. 4. Students will be able to assess their knowledge of the topic, interacting in groups with the game “Jeopardy” from Smart Notebook and individually interacting with the Smart Response tools, with 100 percent accuracy. Information/Content to be covered (Give and/or demonstrate necessary information; for ex. Outline of teacher notes) Chapter 21---The Great War “Most U.S. textbooks focus on the brutality of the war. And despite the late entrance of U.S. soldiers into the conflict, U.S. textbooks are unanimous that U.S. intervention decided the outcome of the war. But there remains disagreement over who actually “won” the “war to end all wars.” France—The French excerpt is notable for the degree to which it subjects the French experience to criticism. From a War of Movements to a War of Position o Because of the German plan based on the Schlieffen plan of speed and rapidity----In four months the illusion of a short war evaporated. o The plan was designed to pass through Belgium in order to encircle the French Army before turning toward Russia. o After the French failed at Loraine (under Joffre) led a winning counter-offensive in the Marne---Russia simultaneously attacked the Germans in Eastern Prussia----FORCED GERMANS TO fight on 2 fronts. o Later attempts to wear down enemy failed by 1916. Strategy went from exhausting enemy to killing most to seek negotiations. Western Front 1.7 million victims in1916. New Forms of War o Trenches---barb wire and mind fields, with mud, rats, and lice o Weapons---heavy artillery, grenades, machine guns, mortars, tanks (1916). o Asphyxiating Gases and Flame throwers National Unity until 1916 o Opinion was censored in the mail, press and books as well as subjected to propaganda through film and song; “it was nothing short of brain-washing.” o INCREASE in mutinies in 1917 on the fronts because of the breakdown of allied forces on western front and the failure of German submarine warfare. 49 executions for mutiny. Canada---the text gives credit to the bravery of the Canadian soldiers who fought and suffered far from home. Its celebratory tone contrasts sharply with other excerpts in this section. The Great War o “entrance into war marks a triumph of sorts for Canadian Imperialism.” 60,661 KIA, 172,000 wounded….620,000- Canadians from population of 8 million. o the text illustrates the Canadians of this sort of brave and ultimate race of sorts…almost like telling a story o Canadians meet modern warfare at Ypres, Belgium in 1915.---Germans used Chlorine Gas, makes yellow thick clouds…handkerchiefs soaked in urine and continued to fight. o Mentions capturing of Vimy Ridge in France in 1917----tone is very inspiring almost Great Britain---Focuses on the war abrasion and the war at sea. Focuses on strategy and tactics more than the experience itself. British Expeditionary Force (BEF)---100,000 troops—fought alongside French---because of trenches and machine guns, the BEF tried without success to extend defensive lines Eastern Strategy---DIDN’T work--o seize Gallipoli o take Constantinople o link with Russia to defeat Austria- Hungry o Germany would then have to make peace Italy---Discusses what life was like for the Italians and their soldiers who fought against the Central Powers. It offers a stark contrast to the jaunty tone of the Canadian and the British excerpts. Very depressing tone “Heroism for Few: Hunger, Death, and Rebellion for Many” o Two and half year’s--- war consumed all provisions and revolt has insulated itself everywhere. o Arrived on front in trains or bus—immediately sent to front lines o Trenches became a permanent fixture for the soldiers---three lines in them..1st and 2nd death most likely…. o No women on front lines---only in back for Red Cross or auxiliaries o Very little food and weeks on end of wearing the same clothes, without showering---winter mud, snow and frost; summer—scorching heat and the stink of latrines. o Intensive strikes on trenches with heavy artillery by the enemy o Snipers killing on every onset; you can hear the enemy bc so close at night you could talk to them Germany---this especially jaded perspective of this excerpt must be read in light of Germany’s 20 th-century history of militarism and defeat. Starts out by discussing the horrors of WWI; artillery, machine guns, battle cruisers, and submarines; tanks and bombers leading to mass casualties This excerpt if read by anyone with prior knowledge of WWI without knowing it was from a German text would never know what country’s perspective this is from. o It seems to be a modern summary of the war that just states generally accepted opinion and fact o Discusses Total War Breakdown of the system of states Existential struggle for survival War propaganda Mobilization, nationalization, fanaticism Introductory Activity and Procedures (include time frames) as you provide details be sure to include instructional method(s) used. If use groups be sure to specify size and Instructional Method(s): Lecture PowerPoint (Smart Board graphic organizer) Presentation Notes Board work Video/DVD Computer X Outside speaker Field Trip Other (specify): Open discussion, question clarification, homework check, group work means of group creation. Details about this segment of lesson: The teacher will first spot check to see if each student completed the homework assignment that was assigned the previous night. ( 3 Minutes Total) o The homework assignment that was given was: Read Chapter 21 of History Lessons: How textbooks from around the world portray U.S. History Complete the “Different Perspectives Graphic Outline”---each student was assigned a different section of the chapter to complete this handout: either France, Canada, Great Britain, Italy, or Germany. (see attached at bottom) If students have completed the graphic organizer, they receive full credit for their homework section The teacher will then instruct the student to work with the student sitting next to them (desks have previously arranged in a 2x2 formation in rows) to discuss their answers from the previous night. The teacher will then open a discussion with the class to answer any questions the students may have from their homework assignment. (5-15 Minutes Total) o The questions may include issues with filling out the graphic organizer or with the information presented in the text to clarify any issues Developmental Activity and Procedures (include time frames) as you provide details be sure to include instructional method(s) used. If use groups be sure to specify size and means of group creation. Instructional Method(s): Lecture Video/DVD X PowerPoint (interactive graphic Computer organizer on Smart Board) Presentation Outside speaker Notes Field Trip Board work Other (specify): Details about this segment of lesson: The teacher will then open up the “Different Perspectives Graphic Outline” from the computer onto the Smart Board. (see attached at bottom) Here the teacher will ask the students to share their thoughts on the “Your Reactions” and “Text Statements” of the handout. o The teacher will then call upon students to fill in their responses for each section for each of the 5 countries. If the students aren’t responding, fill in examples from teacher’s notes and encourage the class to participate. (15-20 minutes Total) Concluding Activity (Describe the independent/concluding activity to reinforce this Instructional Method(s): Lecture X PowerPoint Presentation Notes x Video/DVD Computer Outside speaker Field Trip lesson) as you provide details be sure to include instructional method(s) used. If use groups be sure to specify size and means of group creation. Board work Other (specify): Details about this segment of lesson: Once the graphic organizer has been completed on the Smart Board, the teacher will begin by diving the class into groups (as defined on the Jeopardy game introduction slide). (see attached) o The teacher will then present the rules/purpose of the assessment tool with the class (as described on the interactive game slide). Plans for students with diverse needs From the Assessment, the students are instructed to not only collaborate with their group on their answer choice, but to also submit an individual response using the Smart Response Clicker. (Previously each student was assigned a specific clicker with a certain serial number that only corresponds to their name. These answers will be used to give a participation grade to the students, and will allow the teacher to see if any students who disagree with the correct answer need further guidance. o The students will first submit their individual response to the question before talking with any of their group members. o Once this is completed, students will then collaborate and discuss their answer choices with their groups until a consensus is formed. o All detailed instructions and formatting will be present on the Jeopardy Interactive Smart Notebook tool. o The winner of the game will receive some prize to be named later. (40-50 minutes Total) Accommodations: Seating Assignment notebook Segmented assignments Test/quiz accommodations Assignment length Peer tutor Directions clarified Resource room Copy of teacher notes X Other (specify): tablet/iPad Details about accommodations for student(s): One student in the room in partially blind. Instead of the student straining to read off of the interactive whiteboard screen, student will be provided with a tablet that mirrors what is on the interactive whiteboard. The tablet only allows to view the game with no controls to change what the class sees. Alternative activities (emergency plans/flexibility) Evaluation/Verification (Steps to check for student understanding which can but are not limited to assignments, in-class work, etc.) Type of Assessment(s): X Homework check Test/Quiz Project X Participation X Class work Details & Connection to Objectives: Include links to the objectives Materials Needed Paper Pencil Others Other Resources If there is no Smart Board in the classroom, the teacher will then recreate the graphic organizer/Jeopardy on the Chalkboard and through verbal cues. o The teacher will then follow all the instructions as followed in the “Development Activity” Section, with the exception of using the Smart Board. o The teacher will use the recreation of the graphic organizer on the Chalkboard, just as if they were using the graphic on the Smart Board. o NO OTHER Plans will change, lesson will follow as suit If there is neither a Smart Board nor a Chalkboard, the teacher will then use the overhead to write down the responses for the class to see during the “Development Activity” as noted above. o The teacher will then follow all the instructions as followed in the “Development Activity” Section, with the exception of using the Smart Board. o The teacher will use the overhead to record responses of the class, just as if they were recording responses using the graphic on the Smart Board. o NO OTHER Plans will change, lesson will follow as suit X X X X X Review Presentation Oral Responses Observation Other (specify) Letter/Writing Response Teachers will first spot check students “Different Perspective Graphic Outline” to assure Homework was completed. (Connects to Objectives #1, #2) Teacher will hold open discussion and recording session (participation and class work) on the Smart Board to assure students have understood the assignment, as well as evaluating if the students analyzed, inferred, and assessed the information from the text adequately to gain an understanding of the material. This will be done completing the “Different Perspectives Graphic Outline” on the Smart Board with class collaboration. (Connects to Objectives #1, #2, #3) Teacher will then assess student responses through the Smart Response software to gain an understanding of the individual students knowledge of the topic. Responses will be graded. (Connects to Objective #4) Textbook : History Lessons: How Textbooks From Around the World Portray U.S. History Overheads (specify): Overhead transparency paper needed if 2nd alternative activity is employed Workbook/Handouts (specify): “Different Perspective Graphic Outline” Multimedia Materials (specify): Smart Notebook, Smart Response clickers and software Hands-on materials (specify): Reference materials (specify): (e.g. Web, books, etc. be sure to include source information) X Other (specify):Tablets/iPads for visually impaired students.