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THE CONTRIBUTION OF ADESOYE HOLDINGS NIG. PLC TO THE ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OF OFFA 1982 TO 2009
BY
OLAWOYIN JOHN OLAJIRE
MATRIC NO:
07/15CA082
BEING A PROPOSAL FOR THE B.A. PROJECT IN DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND
INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN.
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE AWARD OF B.A. DEGREE.
SUPERVISOR:
DR. BASHIR OLAITAN IBRAHIM
i
CERTIFICATION
This project was read and approved as meeting the requirement for the
award of Bachelor of Arts (Hons) Degree in History and International Studies, of the
University of Ilorin Nigeria.
DR. BASHIR O. IBRAHIM
SUPERVISOR
DATE
SIGNATURE
DATE
SIGNATURE
DATE
SIGNATURE
DR. SAMUEL O. AGHALINO
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
EXTERNAL EXAMINER
ii
DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to almighty God, the giver and taker of life, He that
pave way, where there is no way. Also to my beloved Parent, Mr. and Mrs. S.A.
Olawoyin for your care throughout my University years.
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Glory be to God, the Alpha and the Omega, the unchangeable changer, who
had been my inception. I am very grateful to my Supervisor, Dr. Bashir Olaitan
Ibrahim, for his effort which was of immense help to me during the process of writing
this essay. I am particularly grateful for his support and guidance which culminated in
the successful completion of this research. I pray that may your mission be
accomplished. Thank you sir.
Am using this opportunity to appreciate all the lecturers of History and
International Studies Department for their contributions to my academic pursuit, and
all the non-teaching staff of the department.
If there is anybody in this party that deserves much of gratitude, My Parent
Mr. & Mrs. Olawoyin should be number one, whom my source of courage and zeal
rest. You are my great matigue of which my power is sourced from and all my
achievements and a foot in life so far lies. I give it all to you Father, and Mother for
being there at all time.
My appreciation also goes to Ven. Samuel O. Ojo, and Ven. & Mrs. Deleola
Opeyemi (Daddy G.O) of Iyeru Okin African Church Offa. Your prayer, advice and
encouragement kept me moving. May the heaven’s light continue to be your guild;
your ministries and Families shall never lack good things.
I can not forget the unlimited support of Dr. and Mrs. Bayo Afolabi of Obafemi
Awolowo University, Ile-ife. Your support during my information gathering for this
project would linger for life in my memory. Also, Dr. (Mrs.) R.O. Bukoye (My
Landlady) of Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger state. Mummy,
your motherly care was all that sustained when the road seems blocked, God
Almighty would repay you in hundred folds. Unforgettably, is Rev. Mobolaji
Thompson of African Church Ibadan, Oyo state, thank you sir.
My appreciation also goes to my sisters, Mrs. Bunmi Olawoyin-Bakare, Kemi
and Doyin for being there for me. I can not forget the contribution of Mr. Lekan
Adepoju (Baba Ibeji), you gave assistance at the very point of my need, may almighty
meet you at the very point of your need.
To my friends, Onifade John Olalekan (The Auditor), Olaniyi Omokayode
(Engr. Kaydot), Adeshina Ridwan, You are too much. Also to my friends in Unilorin,
Rotr. Ajibola Segun Michael, Adebara Michael Oladimeji, Jimoh Kayode, Folashade
Olubukola Abioje, Tinuoye Aderonke, Sen. AbdulLateef Damilare (Sen. Dre) and lots
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more. I say thank you all, I pray we meet again in future to come, the sky is never the
limit but a sleeping stone to success.
Lastly, I am externally grateful to all who have made this work a success
through indispensable co-operation.
Thank you all.
Olawoyin John Olajire
(Abọrẹ) 2011
v
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
i
Certification
ii
Dedication
iii
Acknowledgement
iv-v
Table of content
vi
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Background of the Study
1
1.2
Aims and Objectives
2-3
1.3
Scope of the Study
3-4
1.4
Research Methodology
4
1.5
Limitation of the Study
5-6
1.6
Literature Review
6-7
1.7
Foot notes and References
8
CHAPTER TWO
THE EVOLUTION AND GROWTH OF INDIGENOUS INDUSTRIES BEFORE THE COMING
OF ADESOYE HOLDINGS
2.1
Weaving Industry
9-11
2.2
Factor for the growth of weaving industries in Offa
11-12
2.3
Problems of indigenous weaving industry
12
2.4
The Socio-Economic importance of weaving industry
12-13
2.5
Blacksmith Industry
13-14
2.6
The Importance of Blacksmiths Industry
14-15
2.7
Decorated Calabashes
15-16
2.8
Importance of Decorated Calabashes
16-17
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2.9
References
18
CHAPTER THREE
THE EVOLUTION AND GROWTH OF ADESOYE HOLDINGS
3.1
Okin Biscuit Industrial Limited
19-20
3.2
The factors responsible for the growth of Okin Biscuit Limited, Offa 20-21
3.3
Okin Foam Industrial Limited, Offa
21
3.4
The factors for the growth of Okin Foam Industrial Limited, Offa
21-22
3.5
Okin Malt
22-23
3.6
Noble Beer Breweries, Offa
23
3.7
The Socio-Economic contribution of the Industry (Brewing Industry) 23-25
3.8
Adesoye College
25-26
3.9
Factors for the growth of Adesoye College
26-27
3.10
References
28
CHAPTER FOUR
CONCLUSION
4.1
The importance of Adesoye Holding in the Socio-Economic Development of
Offa
29-32
4.2
Problems encountered by Adesoye Holdings
33-34
4.3
References
35
BIBLIOGRAPHY
36-39
APPENDIXES
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Adesoye holdings are a multi-company organization, which is situated in Offa Local
Government area of Kwara. Although, it has branches all over the country, but its
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headquarters based in Offa. Offa is a known town in Western Nigeria and it is a town
in present day Kwara state. Offa is located on latitude 8100 North and longitude 4400
east on the map of Nigeria. The town occupied a prominent position in pre-colonial
Nigeria history. Its eminence rested on the fact that it played a crucial role in the
socio-economic and political events that took place in Yoruba land. For example,
Moremi, an heroine in Yoruba history came from Offa to save the People of Ife from
the incursion of the Igbos. Also, the Bashorun in AlaafinOjigi,s reign, died in a ditch
while he was leading an expedition towards Offa.
The town also played host to the Fulani Jihadists from Ilorin. The process of
territorial conquest led to the subjugation of Offa in the 1830s. it featured
prominently in the Ekiti-Parapo wars at the end of which the British came to dictate
peace in 1893. All these demonstrated the socio-economic importance of Offa before
and during colonial period. Apart from the above, however, Offa dwellers engaged in
various commercial economic activities such as farming, craftwork e.g. weaving,
blacksmith, goldsmith, pot-making and calabash decoration. It was noted through an
interview that only fishing work is not prominent in the area.
1.2
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The Adesoye holdings is an economic organization that is non-governmental in
funding, but has board of directors with Chief E.O. Adesoye as the chairman of the
Board of Directors. The Adesoye holdings was sub-divided into groups with each of
them producing one thing or the other, which have no doubt, better the lots of Offa
citizen, Kwara as a whole, and Nigeria at large. The organization has its aim and
viii
objectives as “conformability and enjoyment at low cost”. Therefore, all the branches
of the holding take part one way or the other in achieving this aims and objectives.
This work is set to discuss the history of Adesoye Holdings, how it came to
being, its early formation stages, various challenges encountered by the chairman
board of directors in ensuring the sustainability of the age-long achievement of the
holdings.
Without mincing words, the study would let the entire holdings know the importance
of the good work they are doing for the community that enjoyed their services, and
as such should continue in the good work they’ve embark upon, thus it also aim at
telling the society to be suggestive whenever they have any advice that can move the
Adesoye Holdings forward, as they stand to lose a lot if the holdings fail in its
productions.
This essay is embarked upon to make an in-depth study of Adesoye Holdings in Offa.
It also looks into the roles, aims and objectives of the Adesoye Holdings to the
economic development of Offa, how it contributed to the spread and growth of more
industries in Offa, it also aimed at evaluating and simplifying a number of growth
within the holdings itself, most especially, the spread of its branches all over the
country.
The work tends to look at the financing of the holdings, and how, or the manner
which the holdings use in sustaining the tempo and creating more awareness about
the goods and services coming out of the holdings. It shall also inform the society,
the extent to which the Adesoye holdings had use the human and natural resources
in producing several goods which are of great use to the populace.
ix
It is also meant to sensitize the workers of the holdings on the importance of their
contributions to the development of the holdings, and also the need for the workers
to appreciate the board of directors for the employment given to them, which had
assisted them in keeping their various families. It is also important to state that this
study is not merely aimed at highlighting the empirical and theoretical writings of the
study, rather, it aims at increasing our understanding in all ramifications of the study
and to contribute to scholars by critically examining the roles of Adesoye Holdings in
the economic development of Offa. In other words, this study would aim at throwing
more light on the more practical aspect of this topic.
1.3
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is very wide, as the study attempts shall be made to trace the
emergence of some firms in Offa before the coming of Adesoye Holdings in 1982.
Thus, the establishment of Adesoye Holdings in Offa Local Government Areas of
Kwara State, with its aims and objectives to be looked into. This work tends to bring
out the various goods produce in each of the companies under the Adesoye holdings,
and that is why the cheaper three of this project talks about various companies
under the Adesoye Holdings like the Okin Biscuit Nigeria Limited, Adesoye College,
Labande cereals and many others.
The chapter four of the work deals with the economic impact of the Adesoye
Holdings to the development of Offa most especially during the first early years of its
establishment, when few firms are only in existence in Offa.
1.4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
x
In the course of writing this project both primary and secondary sources were
consulted. It must be stressed that only few people had worked on the personality of
the chairman board directors Adesoye Holdings, Chief Emmanuel Olatunji Adesoye
being an industrialist, but the uniqueness of this project is that no one has deemed it
fit to look into the aspect of the economic contribution of the Holdings, most
especially to the Offa community, and Kwara State as a whole. Knowing fully well
that there cannot be a successful community or state without the contributions of
industries in order to boost the economic statues of such community or state.
However, since is an attempt to contribute to human knowledge additional
information (which forms one of the aims and objectives of the study), this provides
a new insight, and an eye-opener about the operatives of the Adesoye Holdings.
1.5
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of sourcing for materials for this work, I was faced with the
herculean task of knowing the location of the various companies under the Adesoye
Holdings in Offa. When I got to those industries, the needed information given was
not detailed, then I embarked on individual interview with important personalities at
those companies. At the Adesoye college, a new principal Mr. Bradley Sailes had just
taken over from Miss. J. Steward, therefore, he was not willing to grant an oral
interviews, because, he does not want to be quoted. But after a much persuasion, he
agreed to be interviewed. Also, I was faced with the problem of collecting conflicting
information, especially in the aspect of knowing the exact kick-off date of the
Adesoye Holdings. Although the dates given were correct, as some companies had
been establish under the holdings in other part of the country like Adesoye was
xi
established in 1969, but this work is mostly concern with industries established in
Offa under this holdings, and the first to be established is the Okin Biscuits Limited,
which was established in 1982.
In other to establish the validity of oral interview, attempts were made to
cross check the information given. Thus, the researcher has been able to separate
the truth from fallacy in the information obtained and was finally able to collate this
project.
Another constraint is the issue of fund. There was no enough fund at the disposal of
the researcher to carry out a more field work, because there are series of interviews
needed for the detailed assessment of the roles and contribution of industries under
the Adesoye Holdings that were sited in other towns and states, to the economic
development of the various towns and states which they were sited. In addition,
relevant text could not be found in libraries as related to the Adesoye Holdings.
There was also problem of time, because there were other students and
researcher trying to reach the new principal of the Adesoyecollege, Mr. Bradley
Sailes who came from America not quite long. Also, Mr FataiBabatunde who also
have othe engagement and other activities of Labande Cereals Limited to attend to.
This made the oral interview meeting time, to be rescheduled for more than two
times.
Furthermore, on realizing that the researcher was not one of them, they
vehemently refuse to give out their information and therefore, he was subjected to
series of interrogations and in most cases, cross examined as if in the law court to
xii
ascertain that the researcher is not on a spying mission into the activities of the
holdings. Moreover, most of the libraries visited were not in any way useful.
1.6
LITERATURE REVIEW
Many scholars and writers had written on the economic development in Offa, but on
a few had written on the contribution of Adesoye Holdings to the economic
development of Offa. Therefore, the bulk of materials used were obtained through
oral interview, some unpublished materials and a few published material etc.
However, some works have been consulted, among which is “Itan Offa” by Rev. J. B.
Olafimihan.Olafinmihan gave a clear look of Offa before the colonial masters, how
the people earn living through war with other weak communities and enslaving
them. Rev. J. B. Olafimihan extended his writings to the period of colonial masters,
the socio-cultural heritage of Offa, but fails to bring out economic activities of the
people of Offa.1
Another relevant material is that of OkesholaToyinAdewuyi, “The growth of Industry
in Offa/Oyun local government, 1960-1990’’ This project is very important to my
work in the sense they, it’s about industries that had existed in Offa and Oyun local
government area, but it fails to give details of the various industries which it talked
about, in fact it was unable to mention all the companies under the Adesoye
Holdings, not to talk about other companies in Offa, this is because its area of
coverage is wide, it combined two local government area (Offa/Oyun), and this made
the beauty of the work unable to be achieved.2
Another important contribution to this work is ‘Ijakadi’, a quarterly
publication in Offa, which talked about industrial growth in Offa. Not only that the
xiii
magazine was brief, but also failed to point out the economic contribution of the
Adesoye holdings to the people of Offa3. In addition, a yearly publication of Offa
Students’ Union: ‘Offa M’ojo’, talked about some crisis that had rocked the holdings
which led to the closure of Okin Biscuit Limited in the year 2008, but failed to tell,
how the holdings overcame the crisis period, and bounced back to life, with Okin
Biscuit Limited now working more efficiently than ever.4
xiv
REFERENCES
1.
J.B. Olafimihan, Itan Ofa, Ibadan: Abriprina press Ltd, 1967, p.74.
2.
Okeshola, Toyin A., The growth of industry in Offa/Oyun Local Government,
1960- 1990 (Ibadan: Oluade Press, 1995)
3.
E. Mogaji, “Industrial growth in Offa”, Ijakadi (March, 2009) p.33
4.
K. Ojokure, “Industrial Crisis in Offa” , Offa M’ojo (October,2008) p.52
5.
Macmillan, Nation Atlas, (Ibadan: macmillan educational press Ltd. 1978),
6.
O. Aboyade, Industrial location and development policy; Nigeria journal of
economic and social studies, vol. 10, 1968.
7.
The Kwara State magazine, “The Achiever” No.1 Vol. 1, march 1993, p.30
8.
O. E. Babatunde, Growth of industries in the western Nigeria, ( Ibadan:
Ojebode
press Ltd 1982), p. 23
9.
J.K. Francis “More Industries, More Growth”, Nigeria Tribune June 1996, p. 29.
10.
http://www.international-schoolfriends.com/schools-Adesoye_College-
OffaNigeria-11947-show.html
CHAPTER TWO
xv
THE EVOLUTION AND GROWTH OF INDIGENOUS INDUSTRIES BEFORE THE COMING
OF ADESOYE HOLDINGS
Because of no traces of any Industry before the arrival of Adesoye Holdings, then it is
necessary to talk more on the economic engagement of Offa people before the
coming of the holding.
2.1
WEAVING INDUSTRY
Considerable documentary source materials, both Arabic, European and
impressive archaeological evidence exist on the origin of narrowstrip weaving in
West African countries. A survey of these sources is most valuable introduction to
the understanding of the nature of weaving in Nigeria, and Offa in Kwara state, in
particular.
According to Venice Lamb, cotton weaving emanated in Indian Subcontinent, where
fragment from Mohenjo-Daro was recovered, dated to between 3000 and 2500 B.C.
He further explained through cryptogenic evidence that cultivated species of cotton
was found among the African and Arabian Anomaly, which drill along the fringes of
the Sahara.1
Coming to Africa, wearing (narrow strip weaving) started in Ghana and
extended to other Africa countries including Nigeria through cultural interaction.
Oral tradition, through with presumptive evidence proved that weaving in Nigeria
originated and spread from Old Oyo to different part of Yoruba. This could be the
aftermath of the nineteenth century wars, which variable led to the fall of Old Oyo
Empire and the migration of people from Old Oyo to different part of the Yoruba
land. This however, explained the origin of weaving industry in Offa and her
xvi
neighboring towns such as Ipee, Irra, Erin-ile, Igosun etc. Weaving is lucrative to the
society. Weaving products are called “ASO OKE” or “ASO OFI” respectively. The cloth
is important particularly during ceremonies such as marriage, burial house warming
etc.
According to Mr. Olushola Hassan, the manager of Orita-merin weaving
industry, Offa; weaving style can be divided into two. The first is known as
‘Alawekan’, while the second is called ‘Alawe-meta’. In Mr. Hassan’s words, “though
alawemeta is quiker, it is more expensive than alawekan” for instance, while the
production cost of alawekan is N2, 500, alawemeta cost N5, 000. Weaving profession
is carried out by both sexes but in different styles of manufacture. The loom is
operated with both hands and feet, the threads of the warps are arranged that they
open and close by a mechanical contrivance worked by both feet moving
alternatively as the pedals of harmonium, with the opening, the disengaged hand is
rapidly used in ramming in the thread. The cloth is woven in one strip and cut to
required lengths, then tacked together.2
Weaving instrument are obtained locally, these enhances the industrial
production. The first instrument is called ‘serin’ and ‘akanmole’. It is used to
straighten cotton meant for production. Oko is another instrument for weaving. The
cotton to be used is stored in it. Production is impossible without ‘oko’, it means
‘oko’ plays a vital role in weaving. ‘Assa’ is also an important instrument used for
production, and is made of ‘Ifon’. It is used to tie the cloth woven, making it more
durable during usage. ‘Gogo’ is part of the materials used by the weavers. It
controlled by the legs of the weaver.
xvii
The raw-materials used by weavers are cotton, shinning, white, multi-color
shining and silk. The weavers used 75% cotton, 15% shinning and 10% silk materials
respectively. Shinning materials makes the cloth woven shine, while silk is meant for
blending. There are many factors that led to the growth of weaving industries in
Offa.
2.2
FACTORS FOR THE GROWTH OF WEAVING INDUSTRIES IN OFFA.
Weaving is a lucrative and profitable venture to which the society attached
more importance. As earlier mentioned, the cloth, particularly among the Yoruba is a
ceremonial dress, worn during ceremonies such as marriage, burial, coronation
ceremonies etc. the huge demand of it necessitated industrial expansion and
accumulation of more capital for industrial growth. The product also served as
foreign exchange goods especially with the European goods in the nineteenth
century. The importance of this indigenous industry can be traced to the period of
European trade with the Africans in the nineteenth century. People’s aims at
acquisition of more cloth in exchange, necessitated the need for industrial
development.
The adaptability of local weavers to modern technique enhances their
production. The skillful weavers studied the imported woven production and
adapted it into their own production. Unlike in the past when shinning silk cloth
production is impossible, it is factually easy move in production. This attractiveness
made it more demanding. The cheapness of instruments used, which are being
produced locally, limit industrial instrumental problems, and facilitate industrial
production; this invariably encouraged development of the weaving industries.
xviii
The development however, is not to dispute the fact that the industry has
obstacles which hindered it production.
2.3
PROBLEMS OF INDIGENOUS WEAVING INDUSTRY
The first obstacle to the industry is lack of sufficient capital needed for
industrial development or expansion. Interviews conducted with weavers, it was
noted that inadequate capital prevented them from meeting market demands.
Government ban on imported raw-materials greatly affects the industry. The
unbanned imported materials were subjected to heavy tariff or custom duty, coupled
with inflationary trend. These however, affected the industrial cost of production
and subdued their industrial capability. Weaving industries were socio-economically
important to the nation as a whole.
2.4
THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WEAVING INDUSTRY
The industry created employment opportunity for the people in the area.
Many people livelihood depends on the industry. The product portrays the culture
and tradition of the people in the area. It is commonly used in ceremonies such as
coronation, marriage, house warming, burial, naming, birthday ceremonies etc. Local
government obtained part of their revenue from the industries through collection of
toll, which could be in form of rent, tax or royalty. It will be of great advantage, if
encouragement is given to the weaving industry by the government, because its
socio-economic importance cannot be underestimated.
2.5
BLACKSMITH INDUSTRY
xix
Iron work has been known in Nigeria from the earliest time. According to
Talbot P. Biobaku,in his work traced the historical origin of blacksmith in Yoruba land
to “Lade’s period”. ‘Lade’ according to Biobaku was the mightiest smith of the past
and when he died, ‘Ogun’, god of iron changed all his tools to stone. The stone in the
Ooni’s palace according to him is Lade’s anvil. It was also noted that there was a man
called Sokoti-Alagbedeorun who was a spirit and lived in heaven, but was expelled
from heaven to earth for his bad deeds. He mixed with the people and became a
good blacksmith. In other words, it was Sokoti-Alagbedeorun who brought the idea
of blacksmithery to the earth.3
Frobenius also gave his own myth or tradition about the presence of
blacksmith in Yoruba land. Frobenius myth was derived from Ife by the propitiation
of Ogun in Oyo kingship ritual, and the tradition in which Ogun was noted as a
warrior. According to him, Yoruba people embodied in him concepts of natural
energy, impersonal devastation and superhuman destruction. To Frobenius, it seems
the coming of iron was apprehended among the Yoruba within a pre-existing Orisa
system in which the potency of the unfamiliar metal was explained.
However, the blacksmith work spread to almost all Yoruba land in which Offa
is one of the Yoruba lands which the widespread of the work reached in the middle
of nineteenth century. The blacksmiths in Offa compete with weavers and the
goldsmiths, as the most respected craftsmen on the land. The major raw material
used is the iron-ore. The blacksmith industrial products include gun, hoes, axe,
hammer, cutlass, key, pliers, and many more. In an interview conducted with Mr.
Tiamiyu Adebayo, a 50years old blacksmith at isale-ago in Offa, it was noted that
xx
blacksmithers could produce identically any iron sample work they see. The
blacksmiths apparently know how to harden, temper and weld. Their chief
implements are hammers, fire-hooks, anvils, files, chisels, tongs, “ewiri”, or bellow as
called by whitemen, “akanmole”, “ilu-eruko” etc.4
2.6
THE IMPORTANCE OF BLACKSMITHS INDUSTRY
The importance of blacksmith industries is not far-fetched, when we note the
employment opportunity derived from it by Offa people during this time. For
instance, about 15% of the total populations of the area depend directly or indirectly
on these industries for their livelihood. Some skillful blacksmiths make the elaborate
wrought-iron staffs that are set up in the shrines of the ancestors and the staff of
office meant for the King. They also make the iron double gongs that odd their belllike note to the rhythm of the drum orchestra.
With the socio-economic benefit of this industry, it will be an encouraging
measure if the Federal Government could establish this type of industry all over the
country. This move would limit unemployment problem the nation is currently facing
and reduce government dependence on imported arms and ammunitions.
2.7
DECORATED CALABASHES
Calabashes play an important role in the varied music of West Africa. They serve as
rattle, large and small with the addition of a skin drum head; they became fat round
calabash drums. They are also resonators for xylophones, hanging underneath the
wooden keys and sound flutes for stringed instruments. To make a calabash
xxi
container, the ripe fruit is soaked to water until the seeds and pulp have rotted and
can be scraped out. The calabash can be shaped in various ways, depending on the
shape one needs. When the skin of the calabash has been thoroughly dried, it’s then
ready for decoration. The craft is usually done by men.5
Digressing into the background, the historical origin of decorated calabashes
work could be traced to decorative arts. First noticed in wood and brass work, and
later in pottery and calabash. According to Talbot, the principal classical patterns are
those derived from the Greek vine scroll, egg and dart and other border designs
while many forms of twisty and plaits would appear to have come via Babylonia and
Egypt from central Asia. Following the oral tradition, though with presumptive
evidence; this work or profession was said to have been established firmly in the land
as a result of the people’s interaction with Arab traders during trade transactions.
The craft is usually done by men as earlier mentioned. When the calabash is
dried, it will change to warm yellow in colour. Though it can be stained into rosy red,
dark blue etc. depending on the interest colour. The smooth surface is carved,
scraped or engraved. Black patterns are made on it with hot iron. Offa carvers uses
simple tools such as sharped knife to cut its geometric designs, they make mark on
calabash initiative before carving.
2.8
THE IMPORTANCE OF DECORATED CALABASH
Calabash dressers are always found in a row in market places plying their trade. All
sorts of geometrical figures traced or cut in calabashes make them more attractive.
Names, mottoes and phrases are burnt into calabashes by educated artists, while ‘g’
figures are used by uneducated artists. Socially, it serves as a gift during marriages. A
xxii
decorated calabash is the traditional present from a young man to the girl he is
betroth to; this is very common among the Hausa and Fulani people.6
Each of the designs represents a proverb, if the proverbs are correctly
understood, the lid of the calabash can be read like a love letter, and in other words,
it served as communication means. However, the various indigenous industries
discusses above, it as a result of non-existence of modem industry not until the
establishment of modern industry not until the establishment of the Adesoye
Holdings in Offa marks the arrival of modern industries, as industries like Olalomi
carpet, Amukude Steel company, and many more came into being.8
xxiii
REFERENCES
1. Lamb Venice, West African weaving, (London, Gerald Duck worth and co. Ltd.)
1961, P. 73
2. Interview with Mr. Olushola Hassan (45years). The manager “Oritamerin”
Weaving industry Offa, 14/03/2011.
3. P. Amauri Talbot, the people of southern Nigeria, (London: Humphrey Milford,
1926), P. 939.
4. Interview with Mr.Tiamiyu Adebayo (50 years), Manager, Isale Ago blacksmith
Industry, Offa, 18/03/2011.
5. J.F.A Ajayi, S.A. Akintoye, “Yoruba in the nineteenth century” in Obaro Ikimi,
Ground work of Nigerian History. (Heinemann Educational Books (Nig.)
Limited) P. 299.
6. Samuel Johnson. The History of the Yoruba: (ed.) (Lagos, Lowe&Brydone,
London, 1921). P. 119.
7. Prince Christine, made in west Africa, (London, Studies vista 1971), P. 971.
8. K.B.C. Onwubiko, History of West Africa, (Nigeria, Africana-Fep Publishers
Limited), 1975), P. 44.
xxiv
CHAPTER THREE
THE EVOLUTION AND GROWTH OF ADESOYE HOLDINGS
3.1.
OKIN BISCUIT INDUSTRIAL LIMITED
The first modern industry to be established in Offa was Okin Biscuit (one of
the companies of Adesoye Holdings) group of company. Okin Biscuit Limited was
based in Offa and was incorporated in May 1978 by one of the Nigeria known
Industrialist and Philanthropist, Chief E.O. Adesoye, in response to the call by colonel
Sunday Ifere, the military administrator of Kwara State, to indigenous businessmen,
to come home and give Kwara State a sound Industrial base. The company is one of
the confectionary manufacturing industries in Nigeria, and especially in Kwara State,
in which both the Government and people place much premium due to its role in
economic growth and social development.
Okin Biscuit Industry Limited has growth both in staff, strength and in the
quantity and quality of the producers. This phenomenal growth cannot be divorced
from the business acumen and astuteness of the holding’s chairman who ensured
that the necessary machinery and other vital equipment were brought into the
country before December 1979. Between January and May 31, 1980, a period of five
months, all the need necessary machines had been completely installed, and by June
2, 1980, an industrial miracle performance had taken place. Within few years of its
incorporation, Okin Biscuit Nigeria Limited joined the league of big companies
representing the country in trade missions’ abroad.1
3.2
THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE GROWTH OF OKIN BISCUIT LIMITED,
OFFA.
xxv
The secret behind the growth of Okin Biscuit Limited Offa, lies in the
management skill and the dexterity of the managers who ensure that the
relationship between management and workers is not only cordial but also that the
ugly system of master-servant relationship is not incorporated into the company’s
management policy. The ability of the management to produce their own raw
material locally is no doubts one of the factors for the growth of the company. In
1984, when the Federal Government banned the importation of raw materials from
abroad, the company shifted to the usage of 90% local raw materials for its products.
Conscious of its responsibility both socially and economically to the society, Okin
Biscuit Limited devised an indigenous means of overcoming the Federal Government
ban on wheat importation. Thus, the company to the giant stride of pioneering the
growth of wheat in this part of the country as a step which naturally affected the
company’s profit margin especially since high loan interest rate from banks almost
coupled it.2
Though the ban on wheat importation under Chief P.K Keshavan (Then
General Manager) initially affected the usage of local raw materials as earlier
mentioned. The management established some farms in areas like Ira in Oyun Local
Government and Babanla in Ifelodun local government of Kwara State. The
management also established in Kano state where irrigation lands were available on
hire or lease. This was according to the General Manger, Engr. Gbenga Adesoye.3
Apart from the good technology possessed by the company, the company also
has the advantage of good infrastructural facility which invariably facilitated the sale
of her product throughout the nation and abroad. The huge development of the
xxvi
company within a short time of its existence led to the establishment of her new
branch known as Okin foam industrial limited.
3.3
OKIN FOAM INDUSTRIAL LIMITED, OFFA.
Okin foam industrial limited Offa possessed the same historical origin with
Okin Biscuit Limited, Offa, because they were both under the umbrella of Adesoye
Holding. A business survey of Kwara state cannot be complete without mentioning
Okin Foam industrial limited. The company was established in Offa in 1981, beside
Okiniscuit limited directly opposite Oyun Baptist High School Ijagbo Kwara State.
Okin foam offers the maximum comfort quality product made from the latest plant
machinery and technical knowhow. Its products are quality pillow, mattress, and
cushion of various sizes.
3.4
THE FACTORS FOR THE GROWTH OF OKIN FOAM INDUSTRIAL LIMITED,
OFFA.
The first notable factor for its growth was the quality of her products. Okin
foam produces high quality products to be sought for all over the country. This huge
demands however affect the profit made from it positively, and was used in the
development and comfortability of households in the country. The raw materials
used in its production are got easily from abroad through the state government
support. The Government assisted the company in purchasing foreign exchange and
makes her raw materials importation quicker, by discouraging any process which
could hinder their importation. The availability of raw materials needed could also be
said to be one of the factors that enhanced the growth of the company and the
establishment of the Okin Malt drink.
xxvii
3.5
OKIN MALT
Okin Malt commenced in 1992. It should be noted that this product was been
produced initially by Noble Beer Kwara Breweries Limited, Ijagbo Offa, Kwara State
(State Breweries). Though it was the State that established it, but after privatization
in 1992, it became a partial property of the Adesoye Holding, with about 70% of the
shares of Okin Malt been owned by Adesoye Holdings. Okin Malt also shared the
same historical origin as the rest of the Adesoye Holdings, because they were all
owned by Chief E.O. Adesoye. The company maintained a non-discriminatory
employment policy. No fewer than three hundred workers were employed since he
started operation.
The company organized “plant training courses” for its workers through the
support of the Industrial Training Fund (I.T.F.) and at the same time, utilizes the
courses conducted by the Management Training Organization (M.T.O.).
All these training programmes are meant to develop the skill of the
employees. This move encouraged easy production of their product. The availability
of the raw materials, is therefore as a result of fact that these raw materials are been
got locally, this however, added to the quality of Okin Malt.
3.6
NOBLE BEER BREWERIES, OFFA.
The company was established by Kwara State Government, and like Okin Malt,
it was during the privatization it became a company under the Adesoye Holdings. The
company had its major product as beer. The company became an important in Kwara
state and the entire country in general with the quality of beer been produce the
company. The company produced qualitative product and this enable the company
xxviii
to win both local and international awards. For example, in 1982, Nigeria Standard
Organization gave the company an award for its product as the best beer producing
company in Nigeria. The company won the award also in 1984, 1986, 1987, 1988 and
1990 respectively.4
3.7
THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF THE INDUSTRY (BREWING
INDUSTRY)
The brewing industry made an annual financial contribution of N1billion to the
coffers of the Federal Government by way of import exercise duties and other taxes.
Noble beer breweries for example made an annual contribution of over N200, 000 to
the purse of the Kwara State Government, apart from the federal government import
/ exercise duties and other taxes leveled on her. While agriculture and other allied
sectors recorded an average growth of less than 3% annually, the manufacturing
sector to which the breweries belong, recorded an annual average of 15% between
1970 and 1984, according to the general view of the brewing industry in Nigeria.
According to a publication of the Beer sectoral group of MAN, 1993 magazine,
brewing industry creates direct employment for 30,000 Nigerians and generates
indirect employment for 300,000 in other establishment and individuals who are
solely dependent on the brewing industries for their livelihood. Noble beer industry
however created about 300 employment opportunity to the people of within and
outside Offa. About 500 people livelihood depends solely directly or indirectly on this
industry. The multiplier effect of brewery operations is a big boost to the National
economy.
xxix
The gigantic integration programmes embarked upon by the breweries did not
only boost food production, but also increased rural employment opportunities, and
at the same time provide the much needed industrial raw materials for the
breweries. In the process of milling sorghum and maize for example, valuable coproducts will be produced. These included quality flour, edible oil and feed proteins,
which can be used by other food industries and animal feed compounders. Noble
beer breweries contributed undoubtedly to the socio-economic development of the
state and the local government in which it was situated (Offa), through the company
reflection on the lives of the community in Offa and the state in general by
participating in many community projects. It has several time undertaken road
construction activities in the area and had donated financially and hospital
equipment to the general (now specialist), and some rural hospitals in the area.
Another area where the breweries have participated very actively is the field
of sports sponsorship. The company has a football team known as Noble beer
football team, which as once won the Kwara State challenge cup award, and took
second on several occasions. The company had also sponsored some social activities
in the area such as club week, noble night etc. It could be rightly said that the
presence of the Noble Beer Company in Offa is a blessing to the area due to her
socio-economic development advantage derived from its establishment.
Nevertheless, the company added more spice to various occasions like house
warming, marriage, birthday etc. as the beer became most sought-after in various
ceremonies.
3.8
ADESOYE COLLEGE
xxx
Adesoye College is a subsidiary of Adesoye Holdings, which was established by
Chief E.O Adesoye in response to the quest for qualitative education in Offa, and it
was established in 1986. Adesoye College, a co-educational high-school was situated
at no. 1 Igosun road, Offa Kwara state. The founder of Adesoye College has a vision
of turning the college to a citadel of learning and to be leader of host of other
educational institutions, and this among other factors accounted for the
international partnership the college had with University of Sussex, United Kingdom.
The total population of students at Adesoye College as at February 2011 was
487, with the population of both teaching and non-teaching staff being 85. Going by
the aforementioned figures, learning process would not be a difficult thing, as each
class is of moderate and adequate population of students. It was the vision of the
founder to give qualitative education to students, which made him acquire the
service of Mr. Bradley Sailes as the principal of the college, who took over from Miss
J. Steward from United States of America.
3.9
FACTORS FOR THE GROWTH OF ADESOYE COLLEGE.
According to the principal Mr. Bradley Sailes , the first factor that assisted the
growth of Adesoye College is the zeal to give qualitative education. Adesoye College
had produce graduates who have assume leadership position in their various filed of
Studies, and this is as a result of the zeal, love, and position to impact knowledge to
the Students by the teachers. Also, the location of the college is also an unelectable
factor. The college was situated along Igosun road in Offa, a place known for its
calmness and noiselessness characteristics. The land also acquired by the founder of
xxxi
the college is a large one, capable of establishing a modern and international college
of high standard, and this was a blessing for the success of academic processes in the
college.5
Another important factor was the motivation given to the teachers by the
founder. Periodically, teachers at the college are being sent for seminars, workshops
etc. in order to be in shape for their latest education trend. Nonetheless, the fact
that the college came early enough before other schools and colleges in the area,
was another helping factor, as parents send their wards from far and near to
Adesoye College to obtain sound education.6
xxxii
REFERENCES
1. Kwara State Magazine, The Achiever, No. 1, Vol. 1, March 1993 P. 30.
2. O. Aboyade, “Industrial location and Development Policy” Nigeria Journal of
Economic and Social Studies, vol. 10 1968, P. 275.
3. Interview with Engr. Gbenga Adesoye (51 years), General Manager, Okin
Biscuit Industrial Limited, Offa. 29/03/2011.
4. The Brewing Industry: A major contributor to Nigeria Development (M.A.N.
Publication) Nigeria: Academy Press Limited Lagos, P. 1.
5. Interview with Mr. Bradley Sailes (47 years), The Principal Adesoye College
Offa. 21/03/2011.
6. The Achiever, opcit
xxxiii
CHAPTER FOUR
CONCLUSION
4.1
THE IMPORTANCE OF ADESOYE HOLDING IN THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OF OFFA.
Industrialization is a vital factor which influences the growth of Offa. Indeed,
the established industries under the Adesoye Holding in Offa contributed immensely
to the socio-economic development of the area in various ways. The location and
establishment of these industries in Offa reduced the level of unemployment
problem in the town. Many unemployed citizens got themselves involved in different
kinds of jobs created by Adesoye Holdings. This however, elucidates the employment
benefit derived from the industrial establishment in Offa.1
Companies under the Adesoye Holdings like the Okin Biscuit limited, Adesoye
College, involved themselves in some social activities, such as environmental
sanitation exercise, construction of roads, and building of water dams to facilitate
water supply for industrial production. Looking critically for instance, Adesoye
College rebuilt the Afelele-Igosun town together. Since it is the only road leading to
the company, she undertakes reconstruction process annually especially during the
raining season which cause great damage to the road.
In 1990, Chief E.A. Adesoye, the Chairman Adesoye Holding, built IgonnaSecretariat road, the road which linked Igbonna and Offa town together. The
importance of this road is that it leads to his company’s headquarters, which
xxxiv
encapsulated the chairman’s residence, company’s guest house, conference centre
etc.
Also, the holdings had executed electrification project to enhance the
effective production of the companies. For instance, Noble Beer limited Offa,
embarked on electrification project, and this led to the development of villages
situated around the company; for example, village like Oga-kunrin enjoyed from this
gesture. Some social programmes that enhanced unity and progress in the area were
sponsored by companies under the holding. They donated generously to the
specialist hospitals and local clinics in the area. Some hospital equipment and
financial needs of these hospitals and clinics were given out generously. Adesoye
Holdings also assisted in developing the social welfare of the town, for example,
motherless babies in Offa, were given assistance. This donation is made annually by
this company as their own contribution to the growth and development of Offa. This
is particularly done during their various end of the year programs.2
Adesoye Holdings also promotes educational development in the area. This is
done by organizing Interschool’s debates and scholarship to students in Offa. For
instance, Adesoye College Offa, and Okin Biscuit limited Offa, jointly sponsored 1989
inter-primary school debates in Offa. Notable also is Offa Students’ Union annual
Summer School, organized by the Offa Students’ in the higher institution, which aims
at improving the educational skills of primary and secondary school students, is been
sponsored annually by Okin Biscuit limited, Offa.
In order to improve the mental alertness of the primary school pupils, several
sporting activities such as table tennis and football competitions in Offa in 1990 and
xxxv
1992 respectively. The love and passion the Adesoye Holdings had for sports, made
the then manager of Okin biscuit to have a football team, which was named after
him “Keshavan F.C.” which had won several competitions in Offa and its environs,
and promote peace and harmony among the youths. It should be noted however,
that industrial development in Offa through Adesoye Holdings, did not only improve
the living standard of people, but also enhance the growth and development of Offa.
Annually, the Adesoye Holdings gave some financial assistance to the local,
state and federal government by way of rents, royalties import/exercise duties and
other taxes. According to MAN 1993 publication;
Brewing industries made a total
contribution of about N1billion to
the coffers of the Federal Government
by way of import/excise duties and
other taxes. Definitely brewing
Industry is a strong pillar of support
for the Government’s programmes for
speedy economic recovery.
Apart from the financial contribution made by the established companies in
Offa, specifically the Adesoye Holding, also help in capital investment over the years.
This is achieved through savings of part of their incomes either in banks or
investment companies. This undoubtedly enhanced the economic development of
Offa Local Government because part of it is used for economic development.
According to MAN publication,
xxxvi
The Federal, State and Local Government
as well as individuals realise the financial
profitabilities of the industries, hence
their attraction to substancial equity holdings
in a number of them. Even where Governments
do not hold equity shares, the companies no doubt
boost the economy of the states and Local
Government in which are located, and directly
benefit them through employment of labour and
payments of rents, rates, taxes and other charges
All these are meant to prove the socio-economic importance of Adesoye Holdings in
Offa her environs.3
4.2
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY ADESOYE HOLDINGS
The main problem facing the holding is a lack of sufficient capital to courage
high production in order to meet the huge demands of the customers. The capital
needed for the effectiveness of companies under the holdings is much, and there is
need for governments to lend a helping hand.4
Also lack of enough raw materials also hindered the growth of industries
under Adesoye Holdings. Though some raw materials are locally available, but some
imported ones such as chemicals, are not easily available. This is because it takes a
very long process before the company could import them. This eventually hindered
and delayed production ability, and products from the quick reach of their
consumers. More importantly, was the problem of mismanagement on the part of
xxxvii
the companies under the holdings. The Chairman of the Adesoye Holdings close
down production activities in Okin Biscuit limited as a result of mismanagement in
2009, after sorting out the major problems, the company began operation in 2010.
It is equally important to note that several companies under this holdings like
Noble Brewery Industry, Okin Foam, Labande Cereals, Okin Malts and Okin
Transport, were at the receiving end of these problems, which made them to stop
operation till now.5
Conclusively however, the surviving industries under the holdings like Okin
Biscuit limited, Adesoye College etc. had no doubt live up to expectation. Owing to
the socio-economic contribution or importance of the industries under this holding,
it will be advantageous if the Federal Government encourages this sector, hence they
foster the total economic upliftment of the nation in general.
xxxviii
REFERENCES
1. J.O. Oyebanji, “The industrial landscape of Kwara state”, The Nigerian journal
of Economic and Social Studies, 1980, Vol. 22 No. 1, P. 53
2. OjetundeAboyade, Integrated Economic: A study of developing economics
(Califonia: Addison-Wesley Publishers Ltd. March 1993), P. 404
3. The Brewing industry: A major contributor to Nigeria’s development – (MAN
Publication), Nigeria academy Press limited Lagos), P. 2
4. The Archiever:Kwara state Magazine, No. 1, Vol. 1, March 1993, P. 32
5. The Archiever, Opcit, March 1995.
xxxix
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. PRIMARY SOURCES
ORAL INTERVIEW
SERIAL
NAME OF
NUMBER
INFORMANTS
SEX
OCCUPATION
AGE
DATE
1.
TIAMIYU ADBAYO
M
BLACKSMITHER
50
18/03/2011
2.
OLUSHOLA HASSAN
M
WEAVER
45
14/03/2011
3.
GBENGA ADESOYE
M
ENGINEER
51
29/03/2011
4.
BRADLEY SAILES
M
EDUCATIONIST
47
21/03/2011
B.
MAGAZINES
1.
The Achiever (Kwara State Magazine) No. 1, vol. 1, March 1993.
2.
The Achiever (Kwara State Magazine) “Okin Biscuit Limited Offa” No. 1, vol. 3,
March 1995.
3.
E. Mogaji, “Industrial growth in Offa”, Ijakadi (March, 2009)
4.
K. Ojokure, “Industrial Crisis in Offa”, Offa M’ojo (October,2008)
2.
SECONDARY SOURCES
xl
1.
B.T. Oyetunde, The Brewing Industry: A major contributor to Nigeria
Development, Nigeria, M.A.N. Publications, 1997.
2.
J.B. Olafimihan, Itan Ofa, Ibadan: Abriprina press Ltd 1967
3.
J.F.A. Ajayi, S.A. Akinloye, Yoruba in the Nineteenth Century, in Obaro Ikimi;
Groundwork of Nigerian History, Heinemann Educational Books Nig. Limited.
4.
J.O. Oyebanji, The Industrial Land Scope of Kwara State, The Nigerian Journal
of Economic and Social Studies, 1980.
5.
K.B.C. Onuubiko, History of West Africa, Nigeria: Africana-Fep Publishers
Limited, 1975. B.T. Oyetunde.
6.
Lamb Venice, West African Weaving, London, Gerald Duck worth and co. Ltd.
1961.
7.
O. Aboyade, Industrial Location and Development Policy, Nigerian Journal of
Economic and Social Studies, 1968.
8.
Ojetunde Aboyade, Integrated Economic: A case study of developing
Economics, California: Adisson-Wesley Publishers Limited, 1983.
9.
O.E. Babatunde, Growth of Industries in the Western Nigeria, Ibadan: Ojebode
press limited, 1982.
10. Okeshola Toyin A., The growth of industry in Offa/Oyun Local Government,
1960 – 1990, Ibadan: Oluade press, 1995.
11. P. Amauri Talbort, The people of Southern Nigeria, London: Humphrey Milford,
1926.
12. Prince Christine, Made in West Africa, London: Studies Vista, 1971.
xli
13. Samuel Johnson, The History of the Yoruba, London, Lowe & Porydone,
London, 1921.
14. www.international-schoolfriends.com/Adesoyecollege-offa-Nigeria-11947show.html.
3.
TERTIARY SOURCES
1. Macmillan, Nation Atlas, Ibadan: Macmillan educational press limited, 1978.
xlii
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