An Overview of the ELAELD Framework Handout 4of4

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Accountability Leadership Institute December 2014
Pages 15-16: Expanding on the goals stated in the CA ELD standards, the values displayed in
Figure I.2 frame California’s work in educating ELs in all transitional kindergarten through grade
twelve classrooms across the disciplines. These values are derived from current research and
theory. (See for example, Anstrom, and others 2010; Genesee, and others 2006; George
Washington University Center for Equity and Excellence in Education 2009; Understanding
Language 2013.)
Figure I.2. Values for Educating ELs
Valuing Language and Culture as Assets: English learners receive instruction that values
their home cultures and primary languages as assets and builds upon them for new learning.
Ensuring Equity in Intellectual Richness: English learners benefit from the same high
expectations of learning established for all students and routinely engage in intellectually rich
tasks and texts across the disciplines.
Building Content Knowledge and Language in Tandem: English learners engage in
instruction that promotes content and language learning in tandem in all disciplines, including
ELA, mathematics, social studies, science, the fine arts, and other subjects. Further, ELs have
full access to a multi-disciplinary curriculum, including those subjects listed here.
Attending to Specific Language Learning Needs: English learners’ content and language
learning is fostered when targeted language instruction builds into and from content learning
and attends specifically to English language proficiency levels and prior educational
experiences in the primary language and English.
Integrating Domains of Communication: English learners develop full proficiency in English
in the integrated domains of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, consistent with
expectations for all students.
Providing Appropriate Scaffolding: English learners thrive in instructional environments
where teachers intentionally support them to fully engage with intellectually challenging content
using strategic scaffolding. Scaffolding is tailored to student needs with the ultimate goal of
student autonomy.
Evaluating Progress Appropriately: English learners’ progress in developing content
knowledge and academic English are best evaluated with intentional, appropriate, and valid
assessment tools that take into account English language proficiency levels, primary language
literacy, and cultural backgrounds. Formative assessment as a pedagogical practice allows
teachers to adjust instruction and provide feedback in a timely manner.
Sharing the Responsibility: English learners’ positive educational experiences and academic
success is a responsibility shared by all educators, the family, and the community.
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CHAPTER 2 – Key Considerations in ELA/Literacy and ELD Curriculum,
Instruction, and Assessment
Page 67: Figure 2.16. Framing Questions for Instructional Planning
Framing Questions for All Students
What are the big ideas and culminating
Add for English Learners
What are the English
performance tasks of the larger unit of study, and
language proficiency levels
how does this lesson build toward them?
of my students?
What are the learning targets for this lesson, and
Which CA ELD Standards
what should students be able to do at the end of
amplify the CA CCSS for
the lesson?
ELA/Literacy at students’
Which clusters of CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy does
English language
this lesson address?
proficiency levels?
What background knowledge, skills, and
What language might be
experiences do my students have related to this
new for students and/or
present challenges?
How complex are the texts and tasks I’ll use?
How will students make meaning, express
meaningful ways and learn
themselves effectively, develop language, learn
about how English works in
content? How will they apply or learn foundational
collaborative, interpretive,
and/or productive modes?
What types of scaffolding, accommodations, or
modifications* will individual students need for
effectively engaging in the lesson tasks?
How will my students and I monitor learning during
and after the lesson, and how will that inform
How will students interact in
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CHAPTER 2 – Key Considerations in ELA/Literacy and ELD Curriculum,
Instruction, and Assessment
Figure 2.14. Understanding Register
Register refers to the ways in which grammatical and lexical resources are combined
to meet the expectations of the context (i.e., the content area, topic, audience, and mode in
which the message is conveyed). In this sense, “register variation” (Schleppegrell 2012)
depends on what is happening (the content), who the communicators are and what their
relationship is (e.g., peer-to-peer, expert-to-peer), and how the message is conveyed (e.g.,
written, spoken, or other format). More informal or “spoken-like” registers might include
chatting with a friend about a movie or texting a relative. More formal or “written-like”
academic registers might include writing an essay for history class, participating in a debate
about a scientific topic, or providing a formal oral presentation about a work of literature. The
characteristics of these academic registers, which are critical for school success, include
specialized and technical vocabulary, sentences and clauses that are densely packed with
meaning and combined in purposeful ways, and whole texts that are highly structured and
cohesive in ways dependent upon the disciplinary area and social purpose (Christie and
Derewianka 2008; Halliday and Matthiessen 2004; O’Dowd 2010; Schleppegrell 2004).
Many students often find it challenging to move from more everyday or informal
registers of English to more formal academic registers. Understanding and gaining proficiency
with academic registers and the language resources that build them opens up possibilities for
expressing ideas and understanding the world. From this perspective, teachers who
understand the lexical, grammatical, and discourse features of academic English and how to
make these features explicit to their students in purposeful ways that build both linguistic and
content knowledge are in a better position to help their students fulfill their linguistic and
academic potential.
Teaching about the grammatical patterns found in specific disciplines has been shown
to help students with their reading comprehension and writing proficiency. The aims are to
help students become more conscious of how language is used to construct meaning in
different contexts and to provide them with a wider range of linguistic resources, enabling
them to make appropriate language choices for comprehending and constructing meaning of
oral and written texts. Accordingly, instruction should focus on the language features of the
academic texts students read and are expected to write in school (e.g., arguments,
explanations, narratives). Instruction should also support students’ developing awareness of
and proficiency in using the language features of these academic registers (e.g., how ideas
are condensed in science texts through nominalization, how arguments are constructed by
connecting clauses in particular ways, or how agency is hidden in history texts by using the
passive voice) so that they can better comprehend and create academic texts (Brisk 2012;
Gebhard, Willett, Jimenez, and Piedra 2011; Fang and Schleppegrell 2010; Gibbons 2008;
Hammond 2006; Rose and Acevedo 2006; Schleppegrell and de Oliveira 2006; Spycher
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CHAPTER 6 – Content and Pedagogy – Grades Six Through Eight
Page 10-11: Figure 6.2. Motivation and Engagement
Educators should keep issues of motivation and engagement at the forefront of their work to
assist students in achieving the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards. The
panel report Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices
(Kamil, and others 2008) makes clear the importance of addressing motivation and engagement
throughout the grades and recommends the following practices in classrooms with adolescents:
1. Establish meaningful and engaging content-learning goals around the essential ideas of a
discipline as well as the specific learning processes students use to access those ideas.
Monitor students’ progress over time as they read for comprehension and develop more
control over their thinking processes relevant to the discipline.
Provide explicit feedback to students about their progress.
Set learning goals. When students set their own goals, they are more apt to fully engage
in the activities required to achieve them.
2. Provide a positive learning environment that promotes students’ autonomy in learning.
Allow students some choice of complementary books and types of reading and writing
Empower students to make decisions about topic, forms of communication, and
selections of materials.
3. Make literacy experiences more relevant to students’ interests, everyday life, or important
current events (Guthrie, Wigfield, Metsala and Cox 1999).
Look for opportunities to bridge the activities outside and inside the classroom.
Find out what your students think is relevant and why, and then use that information to
design instruction and learning opportunities that will be more relevant to students.
Consider constructing an integrated approach to instruction that ties a rich conceptual
theme to a real-world application.
4. Build in certain instructional conditions, such as student goal setting, self-directed learning,
and collaborative learning, to increase reading engagement and conceptual learning for
students (Guthrie, and others, 1999; Guthrie, Wigfield, and VonSecker 2000).
Make connections between disciplines, such as science and language arts, taught
through conceptual themes.
Make connections among strategies for learning, such as searching, comprehending,
interpreting, composing, and teaching content knowledge.
Make connections among classroom activities that support motivation and social and
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cognitive development.
Contributing to the motivation and engagement of diverse learners, including English
learners, is the teachers’ and the broader school community’s open recognition that students’
primary languages, dialects of English used in the home, and home cultures are resources to
value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English (De Jong
and Harper 2011; Lindholm-Leary and Genesee 2010). Teachers can do the following:
Create a welcoming classroom environment that exudes respect for cultural and
linguistic diversity.
Get to know students’ cultural and linguistic backgrounds and how individual students
interact with their primary/home language and home cultures.
Use the primary language or home dialect of English, as appropriate, to acknowledge
them as valuable assets and to support all learners to fully develop academic English
and engage meaningfully with the core curriculum.
Use texts that accurately and respectfully reflect students’ cultural, linguistic, and social
backgrounds so that students see themselves in the curriculum.
Continuously expand their understandings of culture and language so as not to
oversimplify approaches to culturally and linguistically responsive pedagogy. (For
guidance on implementing culturally and linguistically responsive teaching, see Chapters
2 and 9.)
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CHAPTER 8 – Assessment
Note: Figures 8.7 and 8.8 should be read together.
Pages 43-44: Figure 8.7. Language Analysis Framework for Writing
Language Analysis Framework for Writing
Knowledge and
Is the overall
meaning clear?
Are the big ideas
there, and are they
Is the text type
(e.g., opinion,
appropriate for
conveying the
Does the register
of the writing
match the
Text Organization
and Structure
Is the purpose
(e.g., entertaining,
explaining) getting
Are the verb types
and tenses
appropriate for the
text type?
Is the overall text
appropriate for the
text type?
Are text
connectives used
effectively to
create cohesion?
Are pronouns and
other language
resources used for
referring the
reader backward
or forward?
Are noun phrases
appropriately in
order to enrich the
meaning of ideas?
Are sentences
expanded with
adverbials (e.g.,
phrases) in order
to provide details
(e.g., time,
manner, place,
Are general
academic and
words used, and
are they used
Spelling and
Are words spelled
Is punctuation
Are a variety of
words used (e.g.,
a range of words
for “small”: little,
tiny, miniscule,
Are clauses
combined and
appropriately to
join ideas, show
between ideas,
and create
conciseness and
From Spycher and Linn-Nieves (2014); adapted from Derewianka (2011); Gibbons (2009); and Spycher
The following annotated writing sample (Figure 8.8) illustrates how a teacher used a
language analysis framework to analyze student writing in order to determine next steps
for instruction.
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Page 45: Figure 8.8. Student Annotated Writing Sample Using the CA ELD Standards
Susana’s Text
Content and register:
big ideas and lots of informative
details provided, mostly
accurate information
some information needs more
clarity (bats aren’t in danger just
because people are scared of
you, we, us is used (less formal
Text structure and organization:
organized logically into three
chunks (why bats are important,
species of bats, why bats are in
some information doesn’t seem
to fit in the chunks (bats
damaging plants)
missing an introduction and
conclusion, order may not be
pronoun reference: because of
that used accurately to
condense and link to previous
sentence (cohesion)
could use more text connectives
Summary Notes and Next Steps:
Discuss with Susana:
 Ordering of the three chunks, need for introduction that foregrounds
the chunks, conclusion that sums them up
 Review whether information in each chunk fits there and if ideas in
each chunk could be expanded more
 Show where clauses are combined to show relationships between
them (e.g., using because), and ask her to see where she could do the
same to combine other clauses
Discuss with the class (based on patterns in other students’ writing):
 how register shifts when you, we, us are used
 how connecting and condensing ideas (clause combining or other
ways) creates relationships between ideas and reduces repetition
(maybe a mini-lesson with examples from student writing we revise
 how to use text connectives (maybe revise a piece of writing together
and add in text connectives where
Grammatical Structures
some appropriate clause
combining to link ideas and
show relationships
some clause combining needs
work (They are scared … that
they burn …) and more could
be used
phrases could be expanded to
include more details about
where, when, etc.
domain-specific (mammals,
species, pollen) and general
academic (spread, damage)
vocabulary used accurately
Spelling and punctuation:
mostly accurate, with some
approximations (mamles,
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CHAPTER 9 – Access and Equity
Culturally and linguistically responsive teaching and equity-focused approaches
emphasize validating and valuing students’ cultural and linguistic heritage while also
ensuring their full development of standard English (SE), and more precisely, academic
English, as emphasized in Figure 9.11.
Page 52: Figure 9.11. Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Teaching
Culturally and linguistically responsive teaching can be defined as using the cultural knowledge,
prior experiences, frames of reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to
make learning encounters more relevant to and effective for them. It teaches to and through the
strengths of these students. It is culturally validating and affirming. Along with improving
academic achievement, these approaches to teaching are committed to helping students of
color maintain identity and connections with their ethnic groups and communities. It helps
develop a sense of personal efficacy, building positive relationships and shared responsibility
while they acquire an ethic of success that is compatible with cultural pride. Infusing the history
and culture of the students into the curriculum is important for students to maintain personal
perceptions of competence and positive school socialization. (LAUSD EL Master Plan 2012).
Page 54-55: Figure 9.12. New Ways of Talking About Language
Instead of
Thinking in terms of
 proper or improper
 good or bad
Talking about grammar as
 right or wrong
 correct or incorrect
Thinking that students
 make mistakes or errors
 have problems with plurals, possessives,
tense, etc.
 “left off” an –s, -‘s, -ed
Saying to students
 “should be,” “are supposed to,” “need to
Red notes in the margin
 correcting students’ language
Adapted from Wheeler and Swords 2010, 17.
Try this
See language as
 appropriate or inappropriate
 effective or ineffective in a specific
Talk about grammar as
 patterns
 how language varies by setting and
See students as
 following the language patterns of their
home language or home varieties of
 using grammatical patterns or vocabulary
that is different from Standard English
Invite students
 to code-switch (choose the type of
language appropriate for the setting and
Lead students to
 compare and contrast language
 build on existing knowledge and add new
language (Standard English)
 understand how to code switch
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Accountability Leadership Institute December 2014
Chapter 11 – Implementing High-Quality ELA/Literacy and ELD Instruction:
Professional Learning, Leadership, and Program Supports
Pages 30-33: Figure 11.7. Sample Districtwide Plan for Monitoring ELD Progress
Millefleur District’s ELD Progress Monitoring Plan 1
District Leadership Responsibilities
1. Establish a clearly articulated and publicly available plan for monitoring ELD progress:
 Identify all EL and former EL students in the district and provide information to schools and
teachers (before the start of the school year) that includes detailed demographic information,
including how long students have been in the U.S., their primary language, their schooling
background and level of literacy in their primary language, academic and linguistic progress on
state summative assessments district interim assessments, etc.
 Provide guidance to schools for accelerated and intensive support to identified Long Term
English Learners and former ELs experiencing difficulty.
 Monitor EL student progress longitudinally, determine appropriate timelines for language
development (using state summative and local progress monitoring data), and act swiftly when
ELs and former ELs appear to be stalling in their linguistic and/or academic progress.
 Document where ELs have been placed, and ensure they are appropriately placed with the
most highly qualified teachers and in the courses that will meet their specific instructional needs.
For high schools, ensure ELs have full access to a-g coursework.
 Identify EL students who are potentially ready to reclassify as English proficient.
 Communicate ELs’ progress to parents and families in a manner and setting that invites open
discussion and collaboration.
2. Engage in internal accountability practices and provide continuous support to all schools to ensure
ELD progress:
Monitor schools frequently, including classroom observations and debriefing meetings that
promote dialogue and provide formative feedback to site administrators, counselors, specialists,
teacher leaders, and teachers.
Work with schools to develop a clear plan for comprehensive ELD that includes both
integrated and designated ELD. Ensure schools are supported to continuously refine their
comprehensive ELD program, based on student needs and a variety of data, including student
perception surveys and parent feedback.
Promote a culture of learning and continuous improvement by providing sufficient time for
professional learning and ongoing mentoring for all administrators, instructional coaches,
teachers, specialists, counselors, and paraprofessionals.
- In particular, ensure that all district educators understand the principles and practices in the
CA ELA/ELD Framework, including formative assessment practices and interim assessments
that are based on the CA ELD Standards, as well as how to use assessment results
Determine the adequacy of curricular materials for meeting the needs of ELs, and make
adjustments when needed.
Ensure teachers have access to high-quality professional learning that includes a variety of
formative assessment practices for monitoring ELD progress and responding to identified learning
This sample plan is ideally integrated within a district’s English Learner Master Plan, which
addresses EL programs and services; family and community involvement; EL identification, placement,
and reclassification; and policies regarding monitoring, evaluation, and accountability of EL instructional
services related to the continued success of ELs and former ELs.
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Accountability Leadership Institute December 2014
needs throughout the year.
Refine the monitoring plan as needed, based on evidence gathered from schools, teachers,
parents, students, and community members.
School Leadership Responsibilities 2 :
1. Ensure that all teachers understand the district’s plan for monitoring ELD progress:
 Study and discuss as a staff the district ELD Progress Monitoring plan (before the school
year begins), and provide an open forum for continuous discussion.
 Encourage teachers to try out new instructional and assessment practices and reflect on
successes and challenges.
 Monitor successes and challenges, and use this data to inform the district’s refinement of the
 Engage teachers in purposeful data analysis for reflection on practice and programs (e.g.,
examining longitudinal ELA and ELD summative assessment scores to ensure ELs are
progressing sufficiently, interim ELA and ELD assessment data, as well as student writing,
observation data, and other sources of evidence of student learning). In addition, analyze data to
identify students who appear to be ready to reclassify as English proficient and initiate districtapproved process for considering reclassification.
2. Promote a culture of learning for all teachers:
 Ensure all teachers receive substantive professional learning, including on-going coaching
support, on the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and other content standards, the CA ELD Standards,
and the CA ELA/ELD Framework.
 Ensure all teachers have time to meet in grade level/department teams to plan instruction,
discuss student work, reflect on successes and challenges, and learn from one another.
 Model being a leader and a learner simultaneously.
3. Monitor the instructional services ELs receive:
 Ensure all ELs receive quality learning opportunities across the disciplines (ELA,
mathematics, science, history/social studies, technical subjects)
 Ensure all ELs receive both integrated and designated ELD, provided in a way that best
meets their instructional needs.
 Engage in continuous conversations about instructional practice with teachers and
instructional coaches, based on classroom observations.
Teacher Responsibilities:
1. Promote a culture of learning for ELs:
 Use content standards, the CA ELD Standards, the ELA/ELD Framework (as well as other
high quality resources) to inform instructional planning.
 Work collaboratively with colleagues to develop and refine lessons and units, evaluate student
work, and reflect on instructional practice.
2. Continuously monitor ELs’ progress:
 Use the district’s ELD Progress Monitoring plan, and provide useful feedback on refinements.
 Use primarily short-cycle formative assessment to inform instructional practice.
 Use the CA ELD Standards to inform assessment practices (see below for an example).
 Use interim/benchmark and summative assessment results (both content and ELD
assessments) judiciously, appropriately, and strategically to complement (and not replace)
formative assessment.
P2 F
This includes site administrators, instructional coaches, education specialists, and teacher