Nathan`s discoveries and information…

Nathan’s discoveries and information…
Question from
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Useful text
Ideas written in my own original words
#1: Which country?
Wikipedia, and official
Philippines government site:
Greatest variety of physiographic
development of the Philippine islands: High,
rugged, faulted mountains; almost isolated
volcanic peaks; high rolling plateaus; and
broad, level, swampy plains are found there.
Volcanoes: A north-south range, mainly
structural in origin, contains at least three
active volcano peaks. A series of volcanic
mountains is found near Lake Lanao in a
broad arc through Lanao del Sur, northern
Cotabato and western Bukidnon provinces.
At least six of the twenty odd peaks in this
area are active and several are very
impressive as they stand in semi-isolation.
In southwestern Cotabato, still another
range of volcanic mountains is found, this
time paralleling the coast.
Mindanao: is the second largest island in the
Location: Situated in the southernmost section of the
Philippine archipelago.
Population: 21,582,540. Eighth most populous island
in the world.
Mountainous: home to Mount Apo, the highest
mountain in the country
Seas: the Sulu Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to
the east, and the Celebes Sea to the south.
#2: Plate
boundaries? Natural
Nearby cities in danger: ???
Natural hazard mostly affecting Mindanao are
earthquakes, which can cause tsunamis, volcanic
eruptions, floods, mudslides, structural damage.
Several fault zones in the region are capable
of producing major earthquakes and
destructive local tsunamis. The two major
fault zones that are most dangerous are the
Sulu Trench in the Sulu Sea and the
Cotabato Trench, a region of subduction
that crosses the Celebes Sea and the Moro
Gulf in Southern Mindanao. According to the
PHIVOLCS historical catalog of earthquakes
The Philippines sits on the Pacific "Ring of Fire" where
continental plates collide causing frequent seismic and
volcanic activity. The worst earthquake in the country
happened on August 16, 1976 after a tsunami caused
by a quake killed between 5,000 and 8,000 people in
the Moro Gulf region in southern Philippines.
for the last 100 years, this region of the
southern Philippines is characterized by
moderate to high seismicity. The most
recent earthquake along the Cotabato
Trench region of subduction being the
March 6, 2002 earthquake in Southern
The archipelago makes up part of the
"Pacific Ring of Fire" with over 200
volcanoes within its boundaries
The Philippines is in a tectonically active
region, lying between two major tectonic
The country lies west of the north western
Pacific Ocean - the world's largest spawning
ground of tropical Cyclones.
The Philippines Archipelago is said to lie
between the world's largest tectonic plates the Pacific and Eurasian Plates
The so-called earthquake "generators" cause
an average of five earthquake a day, most of
which are imperceptible
There has been 63 major earthquakes
between 1589 and 1983
To date the worst earthquake (magnitude
7.7) happened in July 16, 1990 in Northern
Why the Philippines is considered the most disasterprone country.
#3: What type of
natural hazards
before? Will it
happen again?
#4: Climate? How has
it changed?
#5: How developed is
the civilization?
What’s it like?
Other natural hazard: typhoons which can also result
in floods, mudslides, structural damage.
What is likelihood of more typhoons: ????
Climate and natural resources: Situated
outside the typhoon belt, Mindanao enjoys
a generally fair tropical climate, evenly
distributed throughout the year. Its rich soil
accounts for bountiful harvests of a variety
of farm products. It grows most of the
Philippines' major crops such as rubber
(100% of national production), pineapple
(91%), cacao (90%) as well as banana,
coffee, corn and coconut (over 50%). The
island also produces exotic fruits like
pomelo, mangosteen and durian.
Culture: The Cebuano language is spoken by
the majority of people in Mindanao.
Cebuano is generally the native language in
most regions, except for the Muslim areas
on the west coast and among the hill tribes.
Although Mindanao sits outside of the typhoon belt, it
does experience them occasionally.
Find types of houses, buildings: ??? Are they building
more earthquake-proof buildings???
Many poor people, therefore homes easily destroyed.
Christians form the majority, with 63% of
the population; Muslims are 32% of the
population (mostly on the southern part of
the island); 5% are affiliated with other
The native Maguindanaon and other native
Muslim/non-Muslim groups of Mindanao
have a culture that is different from the
main cultures of the Southern Philippines
#6: PPP?
(Predict, Prepare,
Current hazard relief and PREPAREDNESS
NDCC in Philippines
The National Disaster Coordinating Council
or NDCC, is the policy-making and
coordinating body for disasters management
at the national level. It directs all disaster
preparedness planning, as well as disaster
response operations and rehabilitation, both
in the public as well as private sectors. It
advises the President on matters related to
natural calamities and disasters, including
recommendations for the declaration of a
state of calamity in disaster-affected areas. It
is composed of the heads of fourteen
national ministries, the Chief of Staff of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines, the
Secretary-General of the Philippine National
Red Cross, and the Administrator of the
Office of Civil Defense. The Defense
Minister, or Secretary of National Defense,
serves as the Chairman of the NDCC, with
the Civil Defense Administrator as Executive
PEER coordinates with the National Disaster
Coordinating Council. All council members
with search and rescue and medical first
response mandates are de facto partner
agencies of PEER.
PEER in Philippines
Philippines was one of the member from the
beginning of OFDA-funded Program for
Enhancement of Emergency Response
(PEER) phase I (1998-2003) and an active
member in the current PEER phase II (20032008). There are six countries Bangladesh,
India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan and the
Philippines who have a high risk of seismic
PEER implements activities in Philippines
under the coordinating authority of the
National Disaster Coordinating Council, with
which the program has a Memorandum of
Understanding. The designated training
institution for Medical First Responder (MFR)
and Collapsed Structure Search and Rescue
(CSSR) training is the NDCC. The
designated training institution for Hospital
Preparedness for Emergencies (HOPE) is
the Philippines General Hospital, which falls
under the authority of the University of the
7. Example of one
Preparedness Plan in
Pacific Tsunami Warning
Government assistance:
Facility Evacuation
“I cannot overemphasize the importance of
periodic evacuation drills,” he said. Because
all the employees were cognizant of the
nearest exits, the spontaneous evacuation
was successful; while all employees escaped
serious injury, many others trapped in
buildings in Baguio were crushed.
Facility Power
Electricity, power, water, etc. should be well
planned and duty personnel should be well
trained on emergency shut-down
procedures, Locke says. “If we have a case
where perimeter mains of a significant size
are totally collapsed, I can well assure you
that reservoirs can be drained in a relatively
short period of time unless the pumps are
manually turned off,” he said.
In an event such as a large-scale
earthquake, communications are almost
certain to be either hindered or temporarily
destroyed. Thus, backup communications
are vital. “The Motorola cellular phone that I
carried to Baguio was key to our limited
communication,” said Locke. Ham radio and
VHF radios could also be used.
Site Plans and Drawings
It is important to know the precise layout and
location of routing for water mains, sewer
mains, gas lines, and underground power
lines, to name a few, Locke stresses. “When
initiating repairs, it could be of vital
importance from an expediency viewpoint to
have detailed drawings of the total factory
structure available at each site.”
Insurance Claims
Only a limited number of employees were
involved in incidents that involve a
substantial claim. However, Locke observed
that it would be prudent to consider a
detailed check-off list and maybe a video
tape that could be made available to each
factory site for quick reference and training.
8. Recent earthquake
Cool Site !
To see seismic activity on a
Most recent seismic activity:
Last week, Nov. 11.
Another one just happened, Nov 17, 5.2 on Richter
Scale, just after midnight.
Will do video for Utube?
Need resources from: books, newspaper, magazine.
Visit Philippine Embassy for pamphlets to pass around?
Make food to create mood in class? Candies? Small and practical dish?