WHAP Unit 2 Chapter 4 Reading Guide Name: Date: Hour: IDs= 38 x2 points= 76 Key Concepts=13 X 5 points=65 /141 Total for Reading Guide= 141 Read Chapter 4 and Identify the following: 1.Confucius/Kong Fuzi: Scholar, advisor, founder of philosophy practiced in China that advocated morals and filial piety 2.Analects: Teachings of Confucius written down by his disciples/students 3.Ancestor veneration: Worship of ancestors, seeking their spirits for advice, the idea that those who have passed still have an influence in your life 4.Lessons for Women: By Ban Zhao, expresses role of women under teachings of Confucius 5.Laozi: Founder of Daoism, wrote Daodejing 6.Daodejing: The Way and Its Power, book 7. Yin and yang: Opposite forces in the natural world that should balance, light and dark, light and heavy, male and female, etc. 8.Vedas: The earliest religious texts of India, a collection of ancient poems, hymns, and rituals that were transmitted orally before being written down c. 600 BCE 9.Brahmins: Hindu priestly caste, led rituals, highest in caste system, had power and wealth 10.Upanishads: Indian mystical and philosophical works, written between 800 and 400 BCE 13.Moksha: In Hindu belief, liberation from separate existence and union with Brahman 14.Karma: Governs samsara or reincarnation, your actions in life affect your reincarnation 15.Law of Manu: Written early centuries CE, Defined women as beholden to men in every phase of life, weak semen generated females 16.Siddhartha Gautama: Indian prince turned ascetic (566486 BCE) found Buddhism, the Buddha 17.Buddha: The Enlightened One 18.Nirvana: End goal in Buddhism, enlightenment, individual identity is extinguished 19.Theravada: “teaching of the elders” early form of Buddhism, Buddha is a wise teacher not divine, emphasizes practices instead of beliefs 20.Mahayana: “the great vehicle” popular development in Buddhism in early CE, gives a greater role to supernatural beings and is more popular than original version, Buddha worshipped 21.Bodhisattvas: Spiritually developed people who postponed their own entry into nirvana to assist those who were still suffering 26.Zarathustra: Founder of Zoroastrianism, not sure when precisely lived 27.Abraham: Early leader/founder of Hebrew religion, led migration from Mesopotamia to Canaan, made covenant with Yahweh 28.Yahweh: God in Hebrew religion, one sole God 29.Socrates: First Greek philosopher to turn rationalism toward questions of human existence, convicted of immorality/corrupting youth and sentenced to death, taught Plato (469-399 BCE) 30.Pythagoras: Greek who believed that beneath the chaos and complexity of the visible world lay a simple, unchanging mathematical order. Pythagorean theorem 31.Hippocrates: Greek who believed the body had four “humors” that caused ailments when out of balance, Hippocratic Oath for doctors 32.Plato: Philosopher, student of Socrates, Theory of Forms/Ideas, parable of the Cave, wrote the Republic 33.Republic: written by Plato, design for a good society in which philosopher-kings would rule 34.Aristotle: Student of Plato and tutor to Alexander, emphasized empirical 11.Brahman: The world soul, ultimate reality 12.Atman: The individual soul, part of Brahman Key Concept 2.1 22.Mahabharata Literature that affirms the performance of caste duties as a path to religious liberation 23.Ramayana: Epic poem that shows that your actions in the world and completely the duties of your caste will provide liberation 24.Bhagavad Gita: A great Hindu epic, part of the Mahabharata, affirms the performance of caste duties as a path to religious liberation 25.Zoroastrianism: Persian monotheistic religion (well one main god) founded by Zarathrustra. Heaven and hell, good vs. evil, judgment observation, wrote about logic, reflected on ethics, virtue could be learned 35.Jesus of Nazareth: The prophet/God of Christianity, taught he was the Son of God, crucified as the ultimate sacrifice, had followers that created the Christian church 36.Paul of Tarsus/St.Paul: First popularize of Christianity, traveled around Roman Empire, started churches and wrote letters of support to them, many books of the New Testament are his letters 37.Martyr: Someone who dies for a cause or belief 38.Council of Nicaea: Meeting of Christian bishops under the direction of Constantine to create uniform beliefs in Christianity including the divinity of Jesus, 325 CE The Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions I. Codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by. (SUMMARIZE) A. Judaism Hebrew scriptures were codified. They reflected the influence of Mesopotamian culture and legal traditions. The Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Roman empires conquered various Jewish states at different points in time which contributed to the growth of Jewish diasporic communities around the Mediterranean and Middle East. Monotheistic, Yahweh, the Torah, prophets such as Isaiah Sole personal God=Yahweh B. Vedic religions/ Hinduism The core beliefs outlined in the Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the Vedic religions---later known as Hinduism---which contributed to the development of the social and political roles of a caste system and in the importance of multiple manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings about reincarnation/karma. Mahabharata, Ramayana, Bhagavad Gita Did not strive for material gain II. New belief systems and cultural traditions (SUMMARIZE) A. Buddhism 528 B.C.E. 4 Noble Truths of suffering, desire and the search for enlightenment through 8 fold Path taught by the Buddha were recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures. It was in part a reaction to Vedic beliefs in South Asia. It spread first through support of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka and then by missionaries and merchants. Educational institutions were created. Siddartha Gautama “enlightened one”, Nirvana Mahayana Buddhism=Buddha seen as a god B. Confucianism Kong Fuzi’s teachings and lessons written down by his disciples (Analects)---sought to promote social harmony/restore order by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people; in China, Han empire has university and civil service exam; ren, li, xiao (filial piety) Chinese philosophy advocating the moral example of superiors as the key element of social order C. Daoism Belief of balance between humans and nature, Laozi, the way of the cosmos/universe, wuwei (disengage) Go with the flow! influenced medical theories/practices, poetry, metallurgy, architecture Chinese philosophy that advocates simplicity and understanding of the world of nature D. Christianity Based on core beliefs about the teachings and divinity of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded by his disciples, drew from Judaism, and initially rejected Roman and Hellenistic influences. Christianity spread through efforts of missionaries (Paul and Peter) and merchants and gained imperial support (Constantine=legal, Edict of Milan, Theodosius=official) New Testament E. Greco-Roman philosophy and science Logic, empirical observation, the nature of political power and hierarchy Socrates, Plato, Aristotle; Skepticism, Stoicism, Epicureanism Physics, astronomy, biology, rational humanism A secularizing system of scientific and philosophic thought that developed in classical Greece in the period 600-300 BCE; it emphasized the power of education and human reason to understand the world in nonreligious terms III. Belief systems affected How or in what way did belief systems affect social roles or social structure? social roles and structure. Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized filial piety. Most set patriarchal social structure. Priestesses. Buddhism=wealthy who gave better offerings had better life. Hinduism and caste system IV. Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified, written belief systems in core civilizations. B. Ancestor veneration Continued in many regions like East Asia, Africa, Mediterranean, Andean area Ancestor prayers/worship V. Artistic expressions show distinctive cultural developments (Examples in relation to religions?) A. Literature and drama Indian epics/poetry (Mahabharata, Ramayana, Bhagavad Gita) Stories of Greek gods/goddesses in plays, also Homer’s work Holy texts of any of the religions The Analects, the Daodejing, Plato’s The Republic B. Architectural styles Temples Greek columns on temples such as Parthenon, Temple for Athena Doric, Ionic, Corinthian styles= increasingly more elaborate C. Sculpture Of Greek and Roman Gods and goddesses, Buddha statues, of pantheon of Hindu gods Some examples are actually “reliefs” in stone on temples/buildings instead of full statutes Key Concept 2.3 Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange III. More than just goods was exchanged on these networks C. Religious and cultural (spread of religions over trade routes/networks---who, where, how?) traditions were transformed. Belief systems and traditions were changed/altered as they spread from one region to another, blending Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism Christianity spread throughout Roman Empire and blended with already practiced religions in empire. Paul of Tarsus Buddhism spread from India into China over Silk Roads. Overtime Buddha will be worshipped as a god.