Ch4 RG Key - Moore Public Schools

WHAP Unit 2 Chapter 4 Reading Guide
IDs= 38 x2 points= 76
Key Concepts=13 X 5 points=65
Total for Reading Guide= 141
Read Chapter 4 and Identify the following:
1.Confucius/Kong Fuzi:
Scholar, advisor, founder of
philosophy practiced in China that
advocated morals and filial piety
Teachings of Confucius written
down by his disciples/students
3.Ancestor veneration:
Worship of ancestors, seeking their
spirits for advice, the idea that
those who have passed still have
an influence in your life
4.Lessons for Women:
By Ban Zhao, expresses role of
women under teachings of
Founder of Daoism, wrote
The Way and Its Power, book
7. Yin and yang:
Opposite forces in the natural
world that should balance, light
and dark, light and heavy, male
and female, etc.
The earliest religious texts of India,
a collection of ancient poems,
hymns, and rituals that were
transmitted orally before being
written down c. 600 BCE
Hindu priestly caste, led rituals,
highest in caste system, had power
and wealth
Indian mystical and philosophical
works, written between 800 and
400 BCE
In Hindu belief, liberation from
separate existence and union with
Governs samsara or reincarnation,
your actions in life affect your
15.Law of Manu:
Written early centuries CE, Defined
women as beholden to men in
every phase of life, weak semen
generated females
16.Siddhartha Gautama:
Indian prince turned ascetic (566486 BCE) found Buddhism, the
The Enlightened One
End goal in Buddhism,
enlightenment, individual identity
is extinguished
“teaching of the elders” early form
of Buddhism, Buddha is a wise
teacher not divine, emphasizes
practices instead of beliefs
“the great vehicle” popular
development in Buddhism in early
CE, gives a greater role to
supernatural beings and is more
popular than original version,
Buddha worshipped
Spiritually developed people who
postponed their own entry into
nirvana to assist those who were
still suffering
Founder of Zoroastrianism, not
sure when precisely lived
Early leader/founder of Hebrew
religion, led migration from
Mesopotamia to Canaan, made
covenant with Yahweh
God in Hebrew religion, one sole
First Greek philosopher to turn
rationalism toward questions of
human existence, convicted of
immorality/corrupting youth and
sentenced to death, taught Plato
(469-399 BCE)
Greek who believed that beneath
the chaos and complexity of the
visible world lay a simple,
unchanging mathematical order.
Pythagorean theorem
Greek who believed the body had
four “humors” that caused
ailments when out of balance,
Hippocratic Oath for doctors
Philosopher, student of Socrates,
Theory of Forms/Ideas, parable of
the Cave, wrote the Republic
written by Plato, design for a good
society in which philosopher-kings
would rule
Student of Plato and tutor to
Alexander, emphasized empirical
The world soul, ultimate reality
The individual soul, part of
Key Concept 2.1
Literature that affirms the
performance of caste duties as a
path to religious liberation
Epic poem that shows that your
actions in the world and
completely the duties of your caste
will provide liberation
24.Bhagavad Gita:
A great Hindu epic, part of the
Mahabharata, affirms the
performance of caste duties as a
path to religious liberation
Persian monotheistic religion (well
one main god) founded by
Zarathrustra. Heaven and hell,
good vs. evil, judgment
observation, wrote about logic,
reflected on ethics, virtue could be
35.Jesus of Nazareth:
The prophet/God of Christianity,
taught he was the Son of God,
crucified as the ultimate sacrifice,
had followers that created the
Christian church
36.Paul of Tarsus/St.Paul:
First popularize of Christianity,
traveled around Roman Empire,
started churches and wrote letters
of support to them, many books of
the New Testament are his letters
Someone who dies for a cause or
38.Council of Nicaea:
Meeting of Christian bishops under
the direction of Constantine to
create uniform beliefs in
Christianity including the divinity of
Jesus, 325 CE
The Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural
I. Codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among the people and
an ethical code to live by. (SUMMARIZE)
A. Judaism
Hebrew scriptures were codified. They reflected the influence of Mesopotamian
culture and legal traditions. The Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Roman empires
conquered various Jewish states at different points in time which contributed to the
growth of Jewish diasporic communities around the Mediterranean and Middle East.
Monotheistic, Yahweh, the Torah, prophets such as Isaiah
Sole personal God=Yahweh
B. Vedic religions/ Hinduism
The core beliefs outlined in the Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the Vedic
religions---later known as Hinduism---which contributed to the development of the
social and political roles of a caste system and in the importance of multiple
manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings about reincarnation/karma.
Mahabharata, Ramayana, Bhagavad Gita
Did not strive for material gain
II. New belief systems and cultural traditions (SUMMARIZE)
A. Buddhism
528 B.C.E. 4 Noble Truths of suffering, desire and the search for enlightenment through
8 fold Path taught by the Buddha were recorded by his followers into sutras and other
scriptures. It was in part a reaction to Vedic beliefs in South Asia. It spread first
through support of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka and then by missionaries and merchants.
Educational institutions were created.
Siddartha Gautama “enlightened one”, Nirvana
Mahayana Buddhism=Buddha seen as a god
B. Confucianism
Kong Fuzi’s teachings and lessons written down by his disciples (Analects)---sought to
promote social harmony/restore order by outlining proper rituals and social
relationships for all people; in China, Han empire has university and civil service exam;
ren, li, xiao (filial piety)
Chinese philosophy advocating the moral example of superiors as the key element of
social order
C. Daoism
Belief of balance between humans and nature, Laozi, the way of the cosmos/universe,
wuwei (disengage) Go with the flow!
influenced medical theories/practices, poetry, metallurgy, architecture
Chinese philosophy that advocates simplicity and understanding of the world of nature
D. Christianity
Based on core beliefs about the teachings and divinity of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded
by his disciples, drew from Judaism, and initially rejected Roman and Hellenistic
influences. Christianity spread through efforts of missionaries (Paul and Peter) and
merchants and gained imperial support (Constantine=legal, Edict of Milan,
New Testament
E. Greco-Roman philosophy
and science
Logic, empirical observation, the nature of political power and hierarchy
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle; Skepticism, Stoicism, Epicureanism
Physics, astronomy, biology, rational humanism
A secularizing system of scientific and philosophic thought that developed in classical
Greece in the period 600-300 BCE; it emphasized the power of education and human
reason to understand the world in nonreligious terms
III. Belief systems affected
How or in what way did belief systems affect social roles or social structure?
social roles and structure.
Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized
filial piety. Most set patriarchal social structure. Priestesses. Buddhism=wealthy who
gave better offerings had better life. Hinduism and caste system
IV. Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified, written belief systems in core
B. Ancestor veneration
Continued in many regions like East Asia, Africa, Mediterranean, Andean area
Ancestor prayers/worship
V. Artistic expressions show distinctive cultural developments (Examples in relation to religions?)
A. Literature and drama
Indian epics/poetry (Mahabharata, Ramayana, Bhagavad Gita)
Stories of Greek gods/goddesses in plays, also Homer’s work
Holy texts of any of the religions
The Analects, the Daodejing, Plato’s The Republic
B. Architectural styles
Greek columns on temples such as Parthenon, Temple for Athena
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian styles= increasingly more elaborate
C. Sculpture
Of Greek and Roman Gods and goddesses, Buddha statues, of pantheon of Hindu gods
Some examples are actually “reliefs” in stone on temples/buildings instead of full
Key Concept 2.3
Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and
III. More than just goods was exchanged on these networks
C. Religious and cultural
(spread of religions over trade routes/networks---who, where, how?)
traditions were transformed.
Belief systems and traditions were changed/altered as they spread from one region to
another, blending
Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism
Christianity spread throughout Roman Empire and blended with already practiced
religions in empire. Paul of Tarsus
Buddhism spread from India into China over Silk Roads. Overtime Buddha will be
worshipped as a god.