2-1-4 Notes (blank)

Name _______________________________
2-1: The Development and Codification of Religious and
Cultural Traditions (600 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.)
Persistence of Older Forms of Worship
 Older forms of worship were still popular in many areas including:
- Animism
- ________________ veneration/worship (ex: In Shang China ancestor worship was
practiced and from there it spread to much of East Asia.)
 ____________________ = The blending of practices from more than one religion (common
during the classical era – ex: Christians incorporated some pagan holidays).
Reformed Faiths and New Religions
 Judaism = First ______________________ (one-god) religion.
 Hebrews (the ones practicing Judaism) were conquered by a series of peoples (Assyrians,
Nebuchadnezzar’s Neo-Babylonian empire, Persians, Alexander the Great, and the Romans)
beginning 700s B.C.E.
 Jewish ________________ = When Jews were forced out of their homeland in the Middle East
and had to scatter throughout the world. The Romans were the harshest and destroyed the
Jewish kingdom.
 ______ (written 400s B.C.E) = Hebrew bible’s 1st of 5 books, it formalized the Jewish religion.
 Ten Commandments = Supposedly revealed by Moses and followed by the Jews.
 Strict restrictions (ex: Dietary constrictions (kosher) and couldn’t marry outside Jewish faith)
 Hebrew society patriarchal, though women respected in the home.
 Jews practiced slavery, but preached charity, social responsibility, and concern for the poor.
 ______________ = Jews believe a messiah (or “appointed one”) will return someday and free
them from oppression.
From Vedism to Hinduism
 ____________ = Religion that dominated India since 1500 B.C.E.
 ______________ = Priestly caste that followers are supposed to obey unconditionally
 ____________________ = Hundreds of essays (written 900-500 B.C.E.) questioning having to
follow Brahmins unquestionably. They also raised idea of dietary restrictions, and promoted
yoga to achieve liberation (this led to faith of Buddhism).
 ________________ (300 B.C.E) = New faith that used some aspects of Vedism (including
karma and reincarnation, and caste system, which began when Indo-European invaders made
the darker skin locals do menial work).
 __________ system = Began with 4 distinct castes: (a) Brahmins (priests); (b) kshatriyas
(warriors); (c) vaishyas (farmers and artisans); shudras (servants and serfs). Over time caste
system became more complex and included untouchables who performed degrading tasks.
 Hinduism is most polytheistic religion (thousands of gods).
 3 most popular gods: (a) Brahma = masculine personification of the world soul; (b) Vishnu =
the Preserver or savior; (c) Shiva = god of creation and destruction (depicted as a dancer).
 Law of ________ (compiled 200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E.) = Argued in favor of caste system. It was
moral duty (dharma) to obey caste system and its guidelines.
 Women: Hindu society highly patriarchal, only men could get education and own property, and
many women married in childhood).
 ________ = women of certain castes expected to throw themselves on fire of their deceased
husbands dead bodies.
 Arose in India to oppose Vedism – Buddhism agrees on reincarnation (or rebirth) but rejects
the caste system.
 Siddhartha ______________ (563-483 B.C.E.) = Founder of Buddhism. He was a noble who
appalled by suffering of common people. After much meditation, he realized moderation and
peace were way to a good life. He took the name Buddha (“the awakened one”) and began to
 ________ Noble Truths = The four main beliefs of the Buddhist religion.
 Eightfold _____ = Buddhists must follow the 8 aspects of this path in order to achieve nirvana.
 Buddhist sects - After Buddha died, Buddhism separated into two major groups
(a) __________________ Buddhism = closest to Buddha’s beliefs, stresses simplicity and
meditation (popular in South and Southeast Asia).
(b) ________________ Buddhism = Has many rituals which developed as Buddhism
combined with locals beliefs as it spread north (popular in Japan, Korea, Tibet, parts of China).
 Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) = Lived in China during Zhou dynasty. His ideas about proper
relationship between society and the individual were written on paper.
 ________________ = Writings containing Confucius’s ideas about proper relationship b/t
society and the individual (written long after his death).
 Confucianism focuses on ethical conduct. Rulers should be benevolent and citizens should
have good behavior. Confucius believed humans were good and would remain good if treated
 Order and hierarchy are very important (including importance of elders and ancestor worship),
and well-being of group more important than the individual.
 VERY patriarchal = Men ruled, got education, fought wars, could have multiple wives, and
could divorce a woman who failed to produce an heir. Women were homemakers and mothers
and were allowed only a limited education.
 __________________ = A competing belief system in China which viewed people as immoral
and wanted harsh punishments to keep people in line.
 Laozi = Founder of Daoism (500 B.C.E.), later viewed as a god in Daoism.
 Tao-te Ching =- Main text of Daoism.
 Daoists believe the universe is governed by the ________ (or the “way”). It preached seeing
the world in non-logical ways and stresses compassion, moderation and humility.
 Daoists seek harmony with universe and not concerned about politics and material possessions.
 Blended easily with Chinese beliefs: Stressed ancestor veneration and fortune-telling (I-Ching
= Daoist used to read the future).
 _______________ = Most famous symbol of Daoism, shows nothing is absolute and opposites
flow into each other.
 Jesus of ________________ = A wandering teacher from a Jewish family who became
founder of Christianity (called himself the “Son of God”).
 Jesus questioned Jewish traditions, angering conservative Jews.
 The Romans, who controlled the Jews at the time, viewed Jesus as a threat and arrested and
crucified him in Jerusalem.
 Despite Romans making Christianity illegal, it grew over next 300 years (1st in Middle East,
then in Roman Empire) b/c it was very appealing to the poor (gave them hope for a happy
 Women: Early on Christianity appealing b/c it gave women more influence, but over time
women lost those powers (ex: could not have positions of leadership in the church.)
 ___________________________ = Roman emperor who legalized Christianity through the
Edict of Milan (313 C.E.), and in 380 C.E. Christianity became the empire’s official religion.
 A formalized hierarchy began (pope – priests – bishops) and a dogma (official list of beliefs)
was formed.
 __________ = Church fathers met to write this book which consisted of the Old Testament
(parts of the Hebrew Bible) and the New Testament.
 After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 400s C.E., the Christian church drifted apart.
Thought and Culture
 _______________ learning = Learning through observation (popular during this time period).
 Most attributed the workings of the world to the will of the gods.
 Greeks (600-200 B.C.E.) began studying the principles of science and math (Pythagoras,
Euclid, Archimedes).
 ______________ Method = Created by Greeks, it combined observation with experimentation.
 Philosophy = Systematic mode of rational thought, pioneered by Greeks and followed by
Romans. (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle).
 _______________________ = Written by Plato, it pondered the best way to govern society.
 IN INDIA: Mahabharata = Indian epic with section called Bhagavad-Gita, a poetic dialogue
discussing concept of dharma.
 IN CHINA: Not much fiction, but instead Confucian and Daoist classics (as mentioned earlier,
the Analects, the Tao-te Ching, and the I-Ching). Also, The Art of ______ by Sun Tzu, is one
of oldest works on diplomacy and strategy.
 IN GREECE: Greeks had strong literary tradition (ex: Iliad, Odyssey). Greek dramas became
popular (ex: Aeschylus’s Oresteia trilogy).
 IN ROME: Aeneid = Epic poem by Virgil serves as foundation myth for Rome.
 Mostly for religious or political purposes, though military defense important also.
 IN MIDDLE EAST: Large building projects continued (ex: Great Library of Alexandria
(Egypt), ____________________________________________ (created by Nebuchadnezzar).
 IN EUROPE: Greco-Roman architecture = Used distinctive columns, and Romans used
archways and domes (ex: __________________ in Athens, and the Pantheon and the
Colosseum in Rome).
 IN MESOAMERICA: Continued building pyramids (used for sacrifices, not as tombs).
 IN INDIA: Cave ____________ (to honor Buddhist and Hindu deities), and Pillars of Ashoka
(inscribed with Buddhist teachings)
 IN ASIA: Greco-Buddhist architecture and sculpture = Result of Alexander the Great’s
conquests into Central Asia, combined Greco-Roman and Buddhist architecture, giving first
statue of Buddha in human form.