PSYC B6 L. Larkin Chapter 2: Conducting Psychological Research A. BRIEF CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Initial Observations and Questions A. B. C. D. II. Gathering Background Information A. B. C. D. III. Personal Experience and Daily Events Prior Research and Theory Real-World Problems Serendipity Searching Scientific Databases Obtaining Articles Reading Research Articles Reading Review Articles Forming a Hypothesis A. Forming Hypotheses Inductively B. Forming Hypotheses Deductively C. Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis IV. Designing and Conducting a Study A. Approaches to Conducting Research B. Planning and Performing the Study C. The Role of Sampling V. Analyzing Data and Drawing Conclusions A. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis B. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics C. Drawing Conclusions VI. VII. Reporting the Findings Building Knowledge and Theories A. Characteristics of a Good Theory B. Proof and Disproof 17 18 CHAPTER 2: Conducting Psychological Research B. LEARNING OUTCOMES. After studying this chapter students should be able to: Discuss sources for getting ideas about a research topic. Identify major online psychological databases. Describe ways to broaden and narrow a literature search. Describe the main sections of a research article and different types of review articles. Explain how hypotheses are formed, both inductively and deductively. Describe characteristics of a good hypothesis. Describe general types of approaches to conducting research. Discuss the concepts of internal and external validity in relation to laboratory and field research settings. Identify some key issues in preparing to conduct a study. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Describe the general uses of descriptive and inferential statistics, and identify measures of central tendency and dispersion. Explain the concept of “statistical significance” and provide two general types of errors that can occur when researchers make inferences from data. Describe diverse ways in which researchers communicate their findings to the scientific community. Describe some benefits of building theories, and give the characteristics of a good theory. Discuss whether the results of a study should be viewed as proving or disproving a theory.