Chapter 13: Tropical Africa and Asia, 1200-1500 Learning Objectives: Discuss how the peoples of the tropics adapted to their environments, what specific techniques or innovations helped them survive, and how certain features of Africa and South Asia united the two regions. Describe the process by which trade was carried out on the Indian Ocean, who participated, what kinds of vessels were used, what goods were exchanged, and who benefited from the system. Explain how Islam affected different societies in regard to economics, education, status of women and architecture. Explain how the similarities and differences among the regions of Africa, the Middle East, India, and Southeast Asia affected their political, economic, and social systems, and how the adoption of Islam influenced them differently depending on their circumstances. Identifications: Define each term and explain why it is significant, including any important dates. tropics Ibn Battuta monsoon Delhi Sultanate farming gold Mali Delhi Mansa Musa Gujarat Raziya dhow junks Swahili Coast Great Zimbabwe Aden Malacca Urdu Timbuktu Slaves Change Over Time: 1. How did the peoples of the tropics adapt to their environments? What specific techniques or innovations helped them survive? 2. Describe the systems of extensive and intensive agriculture. What environmental, technological, and social factors influenced people to choose one system over the other. What advantages and disadvantages did each have? 3. Describe the process by which trade was conducted on the Indian Ocean. Who participated, what kinds of vessels were used, what goods were exchanged, and who benefited from the system? 4. Discuss how Islam affected economics, education, the status of women, and architecture in the different societies it encountered. 5. How did Islam change as it spread throughout the Indian Ocean basin and into subSaharan Africa? Map Exercises: On Outline Map 13.1, mark the wind direction of the two monsoon seasons. On Outline Map 13.2, mark the following: Swahili Coast Great Zimbabwe Mali Aden Timbuktu Zeila Then trace the Portuguese routes of exploration and the Muslim trade routes. On Outline 13.3, shade in the extent of the Delhi Sultanate in 1236, the Delhi Sultanate in 1335, and the Delhi Sultanate lands lost in 1335. On Outline Map 13.4, trace Ibn Battuta’s routes. Then mark the extent of these areas: Majapahit Empire The Islamic world in 850 Lands reconquered by Christian kingdoms by 1000 The Islamic world in 1500 Also plot the following: Malacca Java Delhi Gujarat Focus Questions: 1. What geographic and ecological characteristics of the Indian Ocean Basin facilitated a trade network before 1500 C.E.? What human developments encouraged the growth of this trade network as well? 2. To what degree did the Indian Ocean continue the trade network previously developed by the Mongols, and to what degree did the trade network change or deviate from the Mongol era? 3. What role did the cities along the Indian Ocean rim play during the period? How does this role compare to the cities in the American (Chapter 11) or East Asia (Chapter 12)?