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Муталиева Д.А.
Оңтүстік Қазақстан мемлекеттік педагогикалық институты, Шымкент, Қазақстан
In many countries, the role and functioning of schools are changing and so is what is
expected of teachers and teaching methods. Teachers are asked to teach in increasingly
multicultural classrooms; to place greater emphasis on integrating students with special
learning needs in their classrooms; to make more effective use of information and
communication technologies for teaching; to engage more in planning within evaluative and
accountability frameworks; and to do more to involve parents in schools.
Education systems therefore seek to provide teachers with opportunities for conducting
lessons with a high standard of teaching and to retain students’ motivation and enthusiasm. In
this context, reflection activities are considered as activities that develop students’ skills,
knowledge, expertise and other academic characteristics. Necessary condition for creating
developing environment in the classroom is a stage of reflection.
The word comes from the Latin reflection “reflexio” - facing back. Dictionary of
Foreign Words defines reflection as a reflection of its internal state, self-knowledge.
Dictionary of Russian language treats reflection as introspection, self-analysis. In modern
pedagogy the reflection is understood as introspection activities and its results.
Here are the samples of the reflection activities:
Choose the picture (color, black and white, sad, causing joy). Suggest students to
choose pictures from magazines and newspapers in order to display their mood.
Ask students to arrange the flowers in a vase (red - there is a problem, need help; yellow
- not everything is clear, green - all good).
Prepare leaves from paper (choose color - red, yellow, green) and offer students these
leaves to fix it on the tree picture to show their mood or understanding of the lesson.
The same activity, but with colored apples pictures, which students should hang on the
red - enthusiastic;
orange - joyful, warm;
yellow - bright, pleasant;
green - calm;
blue - unsatisfied, sad;
purple - anxiety, tension;
black - decline, depression.
It is an interactive technique, created by a law professor David Mason, from South
Africa. In English it is written as follows: PRES-formula (Position-Reason-Explanation or
Example-Summary). This method was translated into Russian by A.Gutnikov, vice-president
of the association "For Civic Education", the first vice-rector of the St. Petersburg Institute of
Law as POPS-formula. The answer given to POPS-formula is a concise and succinct answer
to the laws of rhetoric.
The value of this process of reception is to allow students to briefly and
comprehensively express their own position on the subject studied. Students are asked to
write four sentences to reflect on the following four points PRES/POPS - formula:
P - position
R- reason, explanation (or justification)
E- example
S - solution, consequence (or judgment)
But this technique would not be technologically advanced if we did not offer the
beginning of sentences. The first proposal (position) should begin with the words: “I believe
that ...”. The second proposal (explanation, justification of their position), begins with the
words: "Because ...". The third proposal (focused on the ability to prove the correctness of his
position in practice) begins with the words, “I can prove it by the example of ...” Finally, the
fourth sentence (a consequence, judgment, conclusions) begins with the words: "Accordingly,
I conclude that ....".
Thus, we have a unique opportunity to get in a few minutes concise information about
the degree of student "immersion" in the material, degree of understanding of the processes,
its moral evaluation of a particular event, events, and facts. Consequently, we offer students to
express their own opinion, their own position.
In conclusion, I want to say that the organization of reflection in the classroom every
day is required and acknowledged by a great number of the positive outcomes. This strategy
contributes to the increase of the learners’ motivation and academic incentive. A learning
motivation is the key to improving the quality of education. The ability to reflect is helpful to
learners in the educational activity as well as throughout their life. The reflective skills serve
basis to express thoughts, to make decisions, to realize academic potential, to implement
critical thinking.
We all know that everyone successfully do what he is good at. But any activity begins
with overcoming difficulties. In our profession, there is no limit to perfection. Teachers
should develop themselves in accordance with the changes occurred in the educational
technology and methodology. New ideas and a desire to change something is a must for every
teacher striving for professional development. To solve this situation reflection work and
constant search for better development activities practice is necessary.
Reflection process requires from the student to be an active participant in the
intervention, with responsibility for measuring and evaluating his or her skills and behaviors.
Also, in order to accurately self-evaluate themselves, the student must first learn the teacher's
expectations. That ability of a child or youth to understand and internalize the expectations of
others is a milestone in the development of academic and social skills. Finally, student
reflection data is typically economical to collect, even in a busy classroom, and can often be
used to document the success or achievement.
The conclusion recognizes that reflection can be provided in many ways, ranging from
the formal to the informal. Student reflection is considered to be an effective tool for
academic and behavioral development. In classroom settings, reflection offers several
James, P. Teachers in action: Tasks for in-service language teacher education and
development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. – 193 p.
Armstrong, S., & Frith, G. Practical self-monitoring for classroom use. Springfield, IL:
Charles Thomas, 2001. - 236 с.
Richards, J.C. & Lockhart, c. “Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms”.
Cambridge University Press, 2008. – 220 p.
Соловова Е.Н. Методика обучения иностранным языкам: Базовый курс лекций: Пособие
для студентов педвузов и учителей. – М.: Просвещение, 2002.- 120 с.