CLIMATE CHANGE Global Warming”  a long-term phenomenon ATMOSPHERE warms, which in turn affects OCEAN temps/currents, which in turn affects WEATHER  a short-term phenomenon  El Niño climate patterns (ENSOs) o Dry: desertification o Wet: flooding  Affects on:  Hurricane intensity, frequency Vegetation (biomes)    Crops Animal life Humans (water, disease, habitable area)  Coastlines “Greenhouse Effect” Causes:  Water vapor  CO 2    N 2 O Methane CFCs Burning fossil fuels Deforestation Fertilizer use Livestock emissions Sewage Landfill decomp Wetlands (rice paddies, swamps) 2005 Kyoto Protocol OZONE DESTRUCTION “holes” over poles, thinning  stratospheric ozone=GOOD (protects)  tropospheric ozone=BAD (smog, asthma, unhealthy to breathe) UV protection Effects:  Skin cancer. Cataracts  Mutation rates  Plant destruction  Plankton decrease Causes:  Aerosol propellants (prior to 1980’s)  CFCs (Freon) refrigerants  BFCs (Halon) fire extinguishants 1987 Montreal Protocol (43 nations) POLLUTION Eutrophication NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS runoff into Lakes, ponds, etc Causes: excessive algal growth When algae dies, it sinks to bottom and is DECOMPOSED by bacteria, microbes Lots of dead thing to decompose means the bacteria reproduce and increase greatly in number. Many of these microbes are AEROBIC, and use up much of the oxygen in the pond, thus depriving the larger organisms, like FISH. This often results in massive fish die off. Sources:  Nitrogen: fertilizer runoff  Phosphorus: detergents, soaps  Both N and P are often found in sewage, animal waste. When this leaks into nearby bodies of water, problems ensue. Another pollution problem: BIOMAGNIFICATION of toxins (mercury, PCBs, dioxin, lead, etc) in organisms in the food chain.