Introducing and Citing Sources in the Research Paper

Introducing and Citing Sources in the Research Paper
Many different methods can be used for introducing quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material into
your paper. You may use an indentifying tag, such as:
 In her analysis of data on eating disorders, June Sterling states, “…” (Sterling).
 David Halberstam notes that … (Halberstam).
 According to Aaron Morgan, … (Morgan).
 In “AIDS Is a Growing Epidemic,” Stanley Jensen explains that … (Jensen).
The following verbs will help you introduce source material: acknowledges, admits, affirms, argues,
asserts, believes, comments, claims, concludes, concurs, contends, critiques, degfines, describes,
discusses, explains, finds, illustrates, implies, indicates, insists, lists notes, observes, outlines, predicts,
proposes, recognizes, recounts, reports, reviews, speculates, states, suggests, summarizes, warns.
These verbs have different meanings and connotations, so use the dictionary to determine which
introductory tags best fit the material you are incorporating in your paper.
Transition Words
Use transition words when you change from one idea to another. They may be used at the beginnings
of new paragraphs and within paragraphs to signal a change in topic. The following transition words
can help you smoothly change from one idea to another:
Compare: likewise, like, also, as, while, similarly, in the same way
Contrast: but, however, still, yet, although, otherwise, on the other hand, even though\
Emphasize a point: again, to repeat, truly, in fact, especially, to emphasize, for this reason
Add information: again, another, also, as well, next, another, besides, finally, for instance, moreover,
along with, in addition, for example, additionally, other, in other words
Conclude or summarize: finally, lastly, as a result, therefore, to sum up, all in all, in conclusion,
Time: while, after, before, during, first, second, now, until, meanwhile, today, soon, later, finally,
then, next, as soon as
Location: above, across, against, along, among, around, beside, between, in back of, inside, near,
outside, throughout, to the right, over, down
Cite Your Sources
Because you are using sources from AVL, an Internet database, you will not have page numbers to put
after the quotation or paraphrase, so you will use the name of the source again.
Franklin Morgan, Medical Direction of the National Health Institute notes, “AIDS is the leading cause
of death among young people from the ages of eighteen to twenty-five” (Morgan). Your source entry
begins with the name of an author.
A survey by the National Health Institute shows that Type II diabetes has increased by 43% from 2000
to 2005 (“Type II”). Your source entry begins with the title of an article “Type II Diabetes Is on the
If you have two articles with the same beginning, write enough of the titles to distinguish them from
each other.