Women’s Suffrage Movement 1890 – 1920 Mia Phillips Fall 2013 Issues and Goals Main Goal: Full suffrage for women Main Issue: Women’s full citizenship Strategies State-by-state referendums… doesn’t work Federal amendment Key Organizations National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA) (1890) National Association of Colored Women (1896) Equality League of Self-Supporting Women (Women’s Political Union) (1906) Congressional Union (National Women’s Party) (1913) IMPORTANT ORGANIZATIONS NAWSA The merger of the National Women Suffrage Association and the American Women Suffrage Association Main organization during this time Elizabeth Cady Stanton elected first president o Susan B. Anthony is elected the vice president and acts as president in Stanton’s absence Very conservative organization in regards to tactics and allocation of resources National Association of Colored Women Founded by Margaret Murray Washington and Mary Church Terrell Mary Church Terrell serves as president Did not endorse suffrage but had other goals such as caring for the children of absentee mothers Mainly composed of black women’s clubs Equality League of Self-Supporting Women Founded by Harriet Stanton Blatch Formed to target working class women Congressional Union Founded by Alice Paul Very different strategies than NAWSA Second major organization in the movement IMPORTANT PEOPLE Rev. Anna Howard Shaw NAWSA president 1904 – 1915 Medical doctor, Methodist minister and veteran suffragist Lacked necessary vision and organizational skills to lead NAWSA Carrie Chapman Catt NAWSA president 1900-1904, 1915-1920 Very organized and effective speaker Susan B. Anthony’s protégé Most influential leader for NAWSA Alice Paul Founder of Congressional Union Active in British suffrage movement o Uses the same tactics used in Britain for CU Led the protests in front of the White House Jailed => hunger strikes TIMELINE OF EVENTS 1890 – Founding of NAWSA 1892 – Founding of Federal Suffrage Association 1895 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton writes Women’s Bible o Public criticism of Christianity 1896 – NAWSA formally condemns Women’s Bible o Susan B. Anthony convinces NAWSA not to condemn Stanton along with her book 1896 – Founding of National Association of Colored Women 1906 – Equality League of Self-Supporting Women founded 1909 – Strike of more than 20,000 women in NY garment district o Seen as a unification of women for a specific cause o Great example of how solidarity works 1910 – Equality League changes name to Women’s Political Union 1910 – WPU organize first large-scale suffrage parade, held in NYC 1913 – Founding of Congressional Union 1913 – Alice Paul organizes 8,000 women for parade in Washington 1916 – CU transforms itself into National Women’s Party 1917 – US enters WWI 1917 – Protestors arrested outside White House, including Lucy Burns and Alice Paul August 26, 1920 – 2/3 of states ratify 19th Amendment ~ WOMEN CAN VOTE Bibliography "Suffrage in the 20th Century: Primary Sources." In Feminism in Literature: A Gale Critical Companion, edited by Bomarito, Jessica and Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 4, 129-136. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Woman Suffrage Movement, 1848 - 1920, edited by Ness, Immanuel. Vol. 1. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2004. BASCH, NORMA. "Woman Suffrage." In Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, edited by Levy, Leonard W. and Kenneth L. Karst. 2nd ed. ed. Vol. 6, 2917-2918. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT,President National American Woman Suffrage Association. "Mrs. Catt Explains Woman Suffrage Defeats." New York Times (1857-1922), Jan 14, 1917, 1917. Finnegan, Margaret. Selling Suffrage: Consumer Culture & Votes for Women. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Weatherford, Doris. A History of the American Suffragist Movement. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1998.