Bio122: Ecology – Fall 2015 Lecture 4 Outline & Study Questions Reminder: Project topics due next wk! Lecture 4 Outline: I. Evolution & Ecology (Ch 6 to p 148) A. Evolution basics 1. Evolution 2. DNA 3. Chromosome 4. Gene 5. Alleles 6. Recombination 7. Genotype 8. Gene Pool 9. Phenotype B. Mechanisms of evolution 1. Mutation 2. Genetic drift 3. Gene flow 4. Selection C. Natural Selection - patterns 1. Directional selection 2. Stabilizing selection 3. Disruptive selection D. Key points about evolution E. Adaptive Evolution 1. Adaptation – key points 2. Constraints 3. Ecology & Evolution influence each other II. Life history (Ch 7) A. Definition & Application B. Causes of variation C. Fitness D. Methods of reproduction: Benefits & Disadvantages 1. Asexual 2. Sexual Lecture 4 Study Questions: Evolution & Ecology: 1. Define: Evolution DNA Chromosome Gene Allele genetic recombination Genotype Gene Pool Phenotype Fixation Darwinian Fitness Adaptive Evolution 2. List 4 mechanisms that cause evolution and briefly explain each. 3. Which evolutionary mechanism is critical, but very slow? Which appears to occur the fastest? 4. Which evolutionary mechanism can create problems for populations that are small in number? 5. What are 2 important effects of gene flow for isolated populations? 6. List the 3 conditions that must be present for natural selection to occur? 7. List & explain each of the 3 patterns of selection that can occur (it might help to draw a graph to illustrate what is happening in each). 8. Explain why adaptations are not always necessary for an organism’s survival – provide an example to illustrate this. 9. Explain what it means that all traits are not adaptations. 10. List and briefly describe 3 constraints to adaptive evolution. Life History 1. Define: life history Fitness 2. List 2 causes of variation in life history patterns within & among species. 3. Compare the benefits & disadvantages of asexual vs. sexual reproduction.