exam 4 practice question answers

Exam 4 SI Review
Name _______________
1. The order of evolution of plants on land occurred in the following sequence:
a. Vascular plants, seed plants, flowering plants
b. Seed plants, vascular plants, flowering plants
c. Seed plants, flowering plants, vascular plants
d. Vascular plants, flowering plants, seed plants
2. Plants are most closely related to ________ based on DNA sequence evidence and the formation of a
______ during cytokinesis.
a. Green algae; photosynthesis
b. Fungi; phragmoplast
c. Green algae; phragmoplast (the precursor of a new cell wall)
d. Fungi; photosynthesis
3. All plants:
a. Heteromorphic alternation of generations- multicellular gametophyte stage and multicellular
sporophyte stage look morphologically different
b. Are oogamous- large non-motile egg, small motile sperm
c. Have a dominant stage of their life cycle- the dominant stage usually provides the nutrients
for the other, is larger is appearance, and what we usually observe in nature
4. Spores are _________ while seeds are _____________:
a. Multicellular, unicellular
b. Unicellular, multicellular
c. Diploid, haploid
d. Haploid, diploid
e. A & C
f. B & D
5. Spores directly develop into ____________, seeds directly develop into ___________:
a. Seeds; sporophytes
b. Gametophytes; sporophytes
c. Sporophytes; gametophytes
d. Gametophytes; gametophytes
6. Gametes (egg and sperm) are created by MITOSIS/ MEIOSIS in plants, spores are created by
7. Non-vascular plants, “Bryophytes”, DO NOT include:
a. Bryophyta
b. Pteridophyta
c. Anthocerophyta
d. Hepaticophyta
8. ___________ were the first plants to evolve onto land:
a. Hepaticophta
b. Bryophyta
c. Lychophyta
d. Psilophyta
9. Which of the following are chemical adaptations to life on land?
a. Sporopollenin
b. Flavonoids
c. Stomata
d. All of the above
10. Liverworts, both leafy and thalloid types, utilize gemmae cups for SEXAUL/ ASEXUAL reproduction.
Thalloid liverworts have gemmae cups on THE TOP OF THEIR LEAVES/ TIPS OF THEIR
LEAVES, while leafy liverworts have gemmae cups on the THE TOP OF THEIR LEAVES/ TIPS OF
11. Non-vascular plants have a dominant ____________ stage of their life cycle where photosynthesis can
be carried out:
a. Gametophyte (n)
b. Gametophyte (2n)
c. Sporophyte (n)
d. Sporophyte (2n)
12. All bryophytes have stomata.
a. True
b. False (liverworts have pores)
13. In non-vascular sexual reproduction, the “seta” acts as a:
a. hard outer shell for seed dispersal
b. outer covering protecting from UV radiation
c. source of nutrients for the embryo
d. way for allowing water in and out of the developing embryo
14. Seedless vascular plants EXCLUDE the following:
a. Psilophyta
b. Pteridophyta
c. Equisetophyta
d. Cycadophyta (cycads)
15. The __________ is the dominant stage in all seedless vascular plants. This is __________ to the
a. Gametophyte; identical
b. Gametophyte; opposite
c. Sporophyte; identical
d. Sporophyte; opposite
16. Vascular plants have true vascular tissues:
a. Phloem- transport nutrients, organic material and sugars. The cells that make up the tissue
have thin walls.
b. Xylem- transport water and inorganic materials. The cells that make up the tissue have
tick, lignin-lined, cell walls
17. Ferns are heterosporous.
a. True
b. False (homosporous- 1 size of spore produced, hermaphroditic)
18. Pines and club mosses have a gametophyte stage that is completely DEPENDENT/ INDEPENDENT
on its sporophyte stage. (It is not capable of being nutritionally independent)
19. Organisms in phylum Lycopoda have a gametophyte stage that may be dependent on a __________
relationship with surrounding fungi.
a. Heterosporous
b. Homosporous
c. Mycorrhizal
d. Nutritionally independent
20. Pollen and ovulate cones are considered the _________ of the angiosperm reproductive system.
a. Sporophyte stage
b. Gametophyte stage (because the pollen and ovulate cones are used to produce the gametes)
c. Pollination stage
d. Fertilization stage
21. A mature male Angiosperm gametophyte consists of __3__ total cells, while a mature female has
___7___ total cells with __8__ nuclei.
22. Fertilization occurs only after pollination in Angiosperms.
a. True
b. false
24. Ovaries are MATURE/ IMMATURE fruits. Fruits are MATURE/ IMMATURE ovaries.
25. Ovules (inside the ovaries) are MATURE/ IMMATURE seeds. Seeds are MATURE/ IMMATURE
26. While one of the two sperm in a mature gametophyte fertilizes the egg, the other fuses with the
________ to form a triploid cell. This cell within the ovary develops into the _______ for the embryo.
a. Egg; endosperm
b. Egg; fruit
c. Polar nuclei; endosperm
d. Polar nuclei; fruit
27. The endosperm derives its nutrients from the parent _________ and stores it as food for the embryo.
e. Gametophyte
f. Sporophyte
g. Egg cells
h. Sporangium
28. Why do plants undergo an alternation of generations?
Plants cannot move around, so it is advantageous for them to have mobile gametophytes, or at the
least, mobile male gametophytes, so they can outcross with genetically distant members of their
species. This is one means by which genetic diversity in plants arises.
29. Fill out the following chart:
# of Petals
veins (like the
leaves outside)
of 4 or 5
of 3
Arranged in a
central ring
Scattered, not
30. Define the following:
i. Monoecious: separate male and female flowers can be found on the same plant
j. Dioecious: separate plants either produce just male flowers or just female flowers
k. Perfect flowers: have both stamen and carpels present within their flowers
l. Imperfect flowers: have just a stamen or carpel present within their flowers
31. Viruses are primarily composed of:
m. Cells, nucleic acid, and proteins
n. Nucleic acid, proteins, and dsDNA
o. Lipids, nucleic acid, and dsDNA
p. Nucleic acid, proteins, and lipids
32. Which of the following are immune to being infected by a virus?
q. Plants
r. Bacteria
s. Fungi
t. NONE of the above
33. Viruses can only reproduce inside of a living cell.
u. True
v. False
34. Viruses can have which of the following possible forms of genomic material?
w. dsRNA
x. ssRNA
y. ssDNA
z. All of the above are possible
35. Cellular organisms typically use which of the following forms of genetic material to store their genes in?
aa. dsDNA
bb. dsRNA
cc. ssDNA
dd. ssRNA