Terms to Know Alliteration—repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words Ex) “laugh, leaning back in my arms/for life’s not a paragraph” Allegory—a story where everything is a symbol for something else Ex) Animal Farm Allusion—An indirect reference to another literary work or a famous person, place or event. A very specific symbol that the reader must have prior knowledge of to understand. Antagonist—The “bad guy”…the source working against the protagonist/main character…does not have to necessarily be a person but can be nature or another source. Antithesis—opposition or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction. Ex) “Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more” Ex) “They promised freedom and provided slavery” Autobiography—Story of one’s life written by that person. Biography—story of a person’s life written by another person. Based on fact. Cacophony—Harsh, discordant sounds Caesura—a pause in a line of poetry not necessarily by meter but by natural speaking rhythm Conflict--is the struggle found in fiction. Conflict/Plot may be internal or external and is best seen in: man v. man, man v. self, man v. nature Connotation—The feeling the word creates for the reader. Climax—The turning point in the story…may point to the resolution of the story Denotation—The dictionary definition of a word…Its literal meaning Diction—a writer or speaker’s choice of words and way of arranging the words. Describe the diction with an adjective (heavenly, religious, formal, informal, macabre, etc.) Discourse—The language in which a subject or area of knowledge is discussed. We will deal with four modes of discourse Persuasion—the essay is persuading the reader to agree with the viewpoint of the author Exposition—essay is designed to simply convey information Description—Essay fully describes a topic Narrative—essay tells a story or of an event, may be fictional or true, may be prose or verse/poetry Epithet—a brief descriptive phrase that points out traits of a particular person or thing (“the evil mastermind” …”The master strategist”) Euphony—soothing pleasant sounds Falling Action—the resolution, happens at the end of story, when the conflict is resolved. Fiction—prose that is imaginary. Not true. May be based on actual events but mostly imaginative. Figurative Language—communicates idea beyond the ordinary literal meaning…figures of speech. First person point of view—told by a character in the story. Uses I, me, etc. Flashback---Conversation, episode or event that happens before a story Foreshadowing—Use of hints or clues to indicate events and situations that will occur later on in the story. Free Verse—Poetry that does not rhyme. Hyperbole—Figure of speech where truth is exaggerated for effect. Imagery—Descriptive words and phrases that recreate sensory experiences. Words that create mental images. Irony—Contrast between appearance and reality usually when reality is the opposite from what it seems. Limited—point of view where only one person’s thoughts; the narrator does not see all angles of the story, the reader only sees details through the narrator’s eyes Memoir—a narrative based on personal experience Metaphor—A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things without using like or as. Uses is/are or a form of to be. Ex) Happiness is a summer day, warm but gone too soon. Meter—The more or less regular pattern of accented and unaccented syllables in poetry Metonymy—figure of speech in which one thing is represented by another that is commonly and often physically associated with it. Ex) calling a monarch “the crown” Ex) calling someone’s handwriting his/her “hand” Mood—The feeling the reader takes away from the work. Feeling or atmosphere the work creates. Motif—a reoccurring theme or idea throughout a work. Non-fiction-Prose that is true. Actual events. Novel—a lengthy fictional prose narrative Novella—a fictional prose narrative ranging from fifty to one hundred pages. Longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. Ex) Animal Farm, Anthem Omniscient—literally means “all knowing.” The narrator knows all and sees all, like God. Onomatopoeia—use of words like pow, buzz, crunch. The pronunciation sounds like the meaning. A sound word. Oxymoron—putting two contradictory words together Ex) Jumbo Shrimp Ex) pretty ugly Paradox—statement that seems to contradict itself but is nonetheless true Ex) To make peace, you must prepare for war…Standing is more tiring than walking. Ex) Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage Personification—giving human characteristics to a non-human thing. Ex) The trees danced in the wind. Point of View—the viewpoint from which a narrative is told. May be 1st, 2nd or 3rd person. 3rd person may be omniscient or limited. Plot—Series of events in a story. Protagonist—The central character or hero in a story. The “good guy” Repetition—Repeated use of words or phrases for effect or emphasis. Rising Action---The events in a story that move the plot along. May build suspense up to the turning point. Satire—a literary tone used to ridicule or make fun of human vice or weakness, often with the intent of correcting, or changing, the subject of the satiric attack. Setting-where a narrative takes place. Consider not only the geographic location but time period, cultural context, props, technology, etc. and the effect setting has on characterization, theme and other elements of fiction. Simile—A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things using like or as. Ex)Dressed like a Spanish waiter…Smiled as if she was the cat who swallowed the canary Stanza—grouping of two or more lines in a pattern repeated throughout a poem. Kind of like a paragraph in prose. Symbolism—When a person, place, activity or object stands for something beyond itself. Ex)Dove is a symbol of peace Synecdoche—using a part to represent the whole Ex) lend me your ears Syntax—Order/Way a writer arranges the words or sentence structure. Third Person Point of View—When a story is told by an outside narrator. Theme—The message or insight about life or human nature presented to the reader. Tone—The attitude a writer or speaker takes towards a subject.