Topic 7-8 Viewing Guide Key

Name: _____________________________________
TOPIC 7: Genetics
Please use the Council Rock Video Podcast to guide you
1. Match the vocab terms to their definitions.
_J____ Dominant allele
_I____ F1 generation
_K____ F2 generation
_B____ Genotype
_H____ Gregor Mendel
_A____ Heterozygous
_E____ Homozygous
_C____ P generation
_D____ Phenotype
_F____ Punnett Square
_G____ Recessive allele
Organism with two different alleles for the same trait
Genetic makeup
Parental generation
Physical characteristics
Organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Tool that can predict and compare genetic variation
Allele that can be masked
Priest who worked with garden peas
First offspring generation
Allele that can mask other alleles
Second offspring generation
2. A monohybrid cross looks at __1____ trait, while a dihybrid cross looks at __2__ traits at the same time.
3. What is Mendel’s idea of
a. Dominance? One allele will mask another. i.e. = purple flower masks white when both inherited.
b. Segregation? Alleles separate during gamete formation and can recombine to create unique
c. Independent Assortment? Alleles line up randomly at metaphase plate during Meiosis, basically
traits are not inherited together (as a “buddy” package).
4. When the dominant allele does not completely mask the recessive allele, it is called
___incomplete________________ dominance.
a. What are two examples? Hair texture in human, 4 o’clock flowers
5. When both alleles show up together (one is not really dominant over the other), it is
a. What are two examples? Cattle coat color, A and B in human blood types
6. Sex-linked traits are those found on the __X____________ chromosome, and show up more in (circle one)
males / females
7. What is genetic engineering?
a. Pros? Can make crops that yield more for human consumption, and can weed out disease in
Cons? Dangerous with humans, strive to perfection and can act against natural selection.
Biology Keystone Review—2012-2013
Name: _____________________________________
TOPIC 8: Evolution
Please use the Council Rock Video Podcast to guide you
1. A process in which new species develop from pre-existing species is known as _speciation____________.
2. TRUE or FALSE: There are always enough resources to support all organisms: __False_________________
3. What happens to the species that have the advantageous traits?
a. Live to reproductive age
b. Pass on their genes
4. What happens to the species that do NOT have advantageous traits?
They die out
5. Explain why the INCORRECT section on the right IS
incorrect. Speciation or change in organisms does not
arise from one generation to the next. Speciation is a
gradual process where certain trains are selected over
many generations until a marked change occurs.
6. What are the three different types of isolating
a. geographic
b. temporal
c. reproductive
7. A decrease in genetic variation caused by the formation of a new population by a small number of
individuals from a larger population is known as _founders effect_________________________________.
8. Describe the following pieces of evidence for evolution
a. Fossils: Darwin found preserved specimens of organism that were not similar to living organisms at
that time. This solidified that species existed in prior years and went extinct.
b. Homologous structures: Same embryonic tissues, different mature forms and functions.
c. Analogous structures: Different embryonic tissues, but similar mature forms and function (i.e. a
penguin, shark, dolphin – very diff. embryology but similar characteristics because they all adapt to
the living in the ocean and needed to swim fast!),
d. Embryology: If you look at the embryos of several species, the early stages are VERY similar.
e. Biochemistry: DNA!
9. What happens during gradualism? ____Darwin originally thought that evolution happened slowly over
time, which was incorrect. Punctuated equilibrium is correct – see below.
Biology Keystone Review—2012-2013
10. What happens during punctuated equilibrium? _Change in species over time happens slowly interrupted
with brief periods of rapid change. Due to major environmental changes. Evidence for this is seen in the
fossil record._______________________________________________
11. Give an example of
a. Selective breeding: _Farmers/breeders choose to mate organisms that have beneficial traits. i.e.- a
dairy farmer breeds a cow that happens makes a lot of milk.
b. Inbreeding: __breeding within
c. Hybridization: __combination of genotypes may not be advantageous to resulting
Biology Keystone Review—2012-2013