# 2nd Sem Rvw

```CHEMISTRY I
2 Semester Review
ND
Chapter 8 = Compounds &amp; Molecules
8.3 Intermolecular Forces
- intermolecular forces =
- van der Waals attractions =
 Dipole-dipole attractions
- dipole-dipole attractions =
- hydrogen bonding =
-surface tension (p. 247 &amp; 264)=
 Water - special properties
 London dispersion attraction: factors that affect London dispersion attraction
- London dispersion attraction =
8.4 Formula Masses
 calculation molar mass
 Percent Composition: formula
 Calculating Empirical Formulas
 Calculating Molecular Formulas
Review Problems - #s 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 37, 38, 39, 42, 45, 46, 47, 48, 51
Chapter 3: Temperature, Energy and Heat
3.1 Temperature
 Brownian motion =
 temp def =
 temp scales
 Absolute zero =
3.2 Heat and Thermal Energy
 definitions heat =
thermal energy =
 units – joule, calorie, BTU
 Thermodynamics
o 2nd Law
o system – open, closed, isolated
 1st Law
 thermal equilibrium =
 specific heat – equation
 Heat transfer – conductor vs. insulator
3.3 Phase Changes
 def =
 melting point, boiling point
 heat of fusion, heat of vaporization
 solving probs
 evaporation and condensation
Chapter 9 = Water &amp; Solutions
9.1 Solutes, Solvents &amp; Water
- solution =
- solvent =
- solute =
- dissolved =
- polar =
- hydrogen bond =
 Water: properties, importance of hydrogen bonding
 Universal solvent: why?
- hydration =
 state of matter symbols: (s), (l), (g), (aq)
- aqueous =
 Why are aqueous solutions important?
 Other solvents: nonpolar
9.2 Concentration &amp; Solubility
- concentration =
- dilute =
- concentrated =
- solubility =
 Ways to measure concentration: grams per liter , percent mass, molarity
 Molarity: why is it useful?
- molarity =
 Equilibrium
- saturated =
- aqueous equilibrium =
 Solubility &amp; Temperature: effect of temperature on solubility
 Dissolving Rate: effect of changing particle size on dissolving rate, effect of temperature
on dissolving rate
 Solubility of Gases: effect of temperature on gas solubility, effect of pressure on gas
solubility
9.3 Properties of Solutions
 reaction rate: effect of concentration &amp; temperature
 Energy &amp; solutions: exothermic, endothermic
- heat of solution =
- enthalpy =
- calorimetry =
 Solution calorimetry: heat lost must equal heat gained: net change is zero.

Density, freezing &amp; boiling: effect of solute on these properties of the solution vs. pure
solvent
 Colligative Properties: freezing point depression formula
- colligative property =
- entropy =
- molality =
-electrolyte =
Review Problems - #s 30, 32, 40, 41, 48, 54, 57, 60, 66, 71, 74
Chapter 10 = Chemical Reactions
10.1 Chemical Equations &amp; 10.2 Methods for Balancing Chemical Equations
 Language of chemistry
- chemical reaction =
- chemical equation =
- reactants =
- products =
 Conservation of Mass
- law of conservation of mass =
- balanced chemical equation =
- coefficients vs. subscripts
10.3 Types of Chemical Reactions
 Synthesis: general formula, definition
 Decomposition: general formula, definition
 Single displacement: general formula, definition
 Double displacement: general formula, definition, precipitate reactions
 Precipitates &amp; Solubility: solubility rules
 Polymerization reactions
10.4 Chemical Reactions &amp; Energy
 exothermic (ΔH&lt;0) vs. endothermic (ΔH&gt;0)
 Thermochemical equations
- enthalpy of formation =
 exothermic &amp; endothermic = reverse reactions
 Calculating enthalpy change: role of coefficients
 Energy profile: total bond energy vs. reaction progress
 Energy barrier
- energy barrier =
- spontaneous =
 Hess's Law
- Hess's Law =
 enthalpy = state function = depends only on final &amp; initial states
Review Problems - #s 30, 32, 38, 39, 41, 43, 46
Chapter 11 = Stoichiometry
11.1 Analyzing a Chemical Reaction
- stoichiometry =
 Interpreting the chemical equation - coefficients
 Determining mole-to-mole relationships
- stoichiometric equivalent
 Using the Mole Ratio
- mole ratio =
 Practicing with mole ratios: mole to mole conversions
 Gram to gram conversions
11.2 Percent Yield &amp; Concentration:
- percent yield =
- actual yield =
- theoretical yield =
 Percent yield: formula
 Calculating percent yield: calculate theoretical yield, measure actual yield
 Stoichiometry with solutions: use molarity or percent mass to calculate moles
11.3 Limiting Reactants
- limiting reactant =
- excess reactant =
 Determining the limiting reactant: never compare reactant masses in grams, always
convert to moles of each reactant
 Using the limiting reactant: limiting reactant determines how much product can form
11.4 Solving Stoichiometric Problems
 Key ideas – p. 353
Review Problems - #s 11, 17, 24, 32, 33
Chapter 13 = Acids &amp; Bases
13.1 The Chemical Nature of Acids &amp; Bases
- neutral =
- acid =
- base =
 The importance of the H+ ion
- Arrhenius theory =
- hydronium ion =
 Br&oslash;nsted-Lowry definition
- acid =
- base =
-amphoteric =
 Br&oslash;nsted-Lowry: acid-base pairs
 Identifying acids/bases: acids have leading &quot;H&quot;, strong bases have &quot;OH&quot;
- strong =
- weak =
13.2 The pH Scale: acids-pH&lt;7, neutral-pH = 7, bases-pH&gt;7
-logarithm =
 Definition of pH
 Calculating pH for acids
 Calculating pH for bases
 pH indicators
- indicator =
13.4 Acid-Base Reactions: neutralization, corrosion &amp; etching
 Neutralization
- neutralization =
 Titration
- titration =
- equivalence point =
 Salts
- salt =
 Salts of weak acids-raise pH; salts of strong bases do not affect pH
 Buffers
- common ion =
- buffer =
- buffer capacity =
Review Problems - #s 21, 23, 24, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 40, 44, 52, 58,60
Chapter 14 = Gases
14.1 Pressure &amp; Kinetic Theory
-kinetic molecular theory =
-Brownian motion =
- pressure =
- standard pressure =
 measuring pressure
 Kinetic theory of pressure: molecular impacts; effect of temperature, effect of density
14.2 The Gas Laws
 Boyle's Law – volume vs. pressure: P1V1 = P2V2
 Charles's Law – volume vs. temperature: V1 = V2
T1 T2
 Kelvin temperature scale
 The Combined Gas Law: P1V1 = P2V2
T1
T2
 The Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
 Universal gas constant – choosing the correct value for &quot;R&quot;
 Molar volume = 22.4 L
14.3 Stoichiometry &amp; Gases
 Gas – solid calculations
 Gas – solution calculations
 Gas – gas calculations
Review Problems - #s 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 28
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