Primary Effects Tephra Pyroclastic flows Lava flows Volcanic gases When do volcanic events become a hazard? Secondary effects Lahars Flooding Tsunamis Volcanic landslides Climate change Geog 3: Impact of Volcanic Activity. Volcanic prediction methods Sheet 4 Remote sensing Key terms Seismicity Volcanic explosivity Index (VEI) Geophysical Decade volcano Hydrology Gas Ground deformation. Case Studies – need lots of detail including Date / Time/location Size & nature of hazard People /economy affected Immediate impacts Long term impacts How was the hazard managed? The future for the area.