Plants Diversity Guided Notes

Plants Diversity Guided Notes
Name___________________________ Per____
What is a plant?
 Multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of _________________
 Develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis using the
_________________ pigment of chlorophyll
Plants include:
What plants need to survive
1. Sunlight
Every plant needs sunlight to carry out _______________________
As a result, every plant has adaptations to ________________ sunlight, such as leaves
2. Water and Minerals
All cells require a _________________supply of water
Photosynthesis requires water, sun also _____________ out leaves
As a result, plants have specialized structures that limit water loss and help with
water uptake
3. ____________________
Plants require Oxygen for cellular respiration
Plants require ________________ _________________ for photosynthesis
As a result, they have adaptations to help with gas exchange with the _______________
while limiting ________________________
Movement of _________________ and nutrients
 Plants take up water and nutrients through their _______________, but make
_____________(energy and sugars) in their leaves
 As a result, there are specialized structures that ____________________things in the plant
The Plant Life Cycle
 Plants all alternate between 2 __________________in their life cycles, a __________________
stage called a s__________________ and a ___________________ stage called a
 Alternate between ______________ and _________________ to produce two types of
reproductive cells—gametes and spores
Plant evolution theory
 It is thought that the first plants evolved from an organism much like the ___________________
________________ living today, DNA research supports this theory as well
This cladogram illustrates the evolutionary relationship between the 4 major divisions of plants
1. Bryophytes
Mosses and their relatives are called
bryophytes or __________________
(Vascular tissue is specialized
tissue used to conduct water
and nutrients)
Life cycles depend on ____________
for reproduction
Produce ____________ that must
swim through water to reach the
__________ of another byrophytes
Can only draw up water by
_________________ only a few
centimeters above the ground
Typically low-growing plants that are
found in ____________, shaded
Include Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
 Mosses
Grow best in moist _________________________
They can withstand _______________ climates
Are the most ____________________ plant type in __________ regions
**Have _____________ instead of roots
Rhizoids are long thin cells that _______________ the plant and
absorb water and minerals
 Liverworts and Hornworts
Both rely on moist environments and get their name from their
Bryophytes life cycle
o Just like most plants, bryophytes have a sporophyte and gametophyte stage
o The _____________________ is dominant and carries out photosynthesis
2. Seedless Vascular Plants
________________ tissue is specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout a
plant, these specialized cells are called Tracheids
Tracheids are ______________ cells with thick cell walls that resist pressure
There are 2 types of vascular tissue made up of tracheids: ___________
and Phloem
Xylem and ____________
 Xylem is a transport subsystem that carries ________________
upward from the roots to _____________ part of the plant
 Phloem transports solutions of _________________ and
_______________________ produced by photosynthesis
Both can move fluids through the plant body, even
________________ the force of gravity
Seedless vascular plants include:
Club mosses, horsetails, and ferns
 Club Mosses (lycophyta)
 Are small plants that live in moist ________________
 Resemble _________________ pine trees and are often called
“ground pines”
 Horsetails (arthryophyta)
 Only has one living variety alive called __________________,
because it looks like a horsetail and grows about 3 feet tall
 Ferns (pterophyta)
 Most diverse group of ________________ vascular plants with
over _____________________ different species living today
 Have strong ________________, rhizomes (underground
stems), and large leave called _________________
 Do well in _________________ light and humid conditions
Life Cycle of Ferns/vascular plants
 Have a life cycle that is dominated by the __________________ sporophyte
3. Seed Plants
Have quickly become the ___________ __________________ group of species of organisms on
Are divided into 2 distinct groups
1. _________________________: bear their seeds directly on the surfaces of cones,
cone bearing plants
Include the pine, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes
2. _________________________: known as flowering plants, bear their seeds within
layers of tissue that protect the seed
Include grasses, flowering trees and shrubs, and all flowers
 Reproduction is _____________ from water
 Adaptations that allow seed plants to reproduce without water include flowers or
cones, the transfer of sperm by __________________, and the protection of
embryos in seeds
 Like all other types of plants, they have a life cycle that ____________________
between gametophyte and sporophyte stages
 Cones and flowers are the ____________________ stage
In seed plants the ______________ gametophyte is contained in a tiny structure called a
pollen grain
Pollen is carried by ____________ or ________________ to the female reproductive
_________________________ is the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive
structure to the female reproductive structure
A seed is an __________________ of a plant that is encased in a protective covering and
surrounded by a ___________________ of food
Typically there is a protective _____________ _____________ that prevents the he seed
from drying out
Are the most _______________ surviving seed plants
Gymnosperm means “________________ seed,” referring to their exposed seeds
There are 4 varieties of gymnosperms
1. __________________
Only have 70 known types, are quite unique
They have reproductive scales that are clustered into cones
2. __________________
Are palm like plants that reproduce with large cones
Today there are only 9 genera in existence
3. ___________________
Contains only one living species, Ginkgo biloba
4. ___________________
The most common gymnosperms, with 500+ species
Includes pines, spruces, firs, cedars, sequoias, ___________________, junipers, and
Some live over___________ years (bristlecone pine)
Angiosperms—the Flowering Plants
 All are members of the phylum anthophyta
 Develop unique reproductive organs knows as ________________
 Are an advantage because they attract animals that transport _____________ from flower
to flower
 Flowers contain ________________, which surround and protect the seeds
Ovaries develop into a ______________ after pollination to protect the seed
Categorizing Angiosperms
There are 3 different grouping categories we use to classify angiosperms
1. __________________________________
2. Woody vs Herbaceous
3. Annual, _________________, Perennial
Monocot VS Dicot
Monocots and dicots are named for the number of seed leaves, or _________________,
in the plant embryo
Moncots have 1 seed leaf, dicots have 2
Cotyledon is the first leaf or the first pair of _________________
produced by the embryo of a seed plant
o Single _________________
2 cotyledons
o Parallel veins in leaves
Branched veins
o Floral parts in multiples of____
Floral parts in multiples of _________
o Vascular bundles scattered
Vascular bundles arranged in a ring
throughout stem
o ________________ roots
Woody VS Herbaceous
Woody plants have cells with __________________ thick cell walls that support the plant body,
have the characteristic we call _____________
Includes all _______________, shrubs, and vines (think grape vines)
Herbaceous means that the plants do _________ produce wood as they grow
A ___________________ is a great example
Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials
Annuals are flowering plants that complete their entire life cycle in a ____________
Biennials are plants that complete their life cycle in___________ years
Perennials are plant the live _________________ ____________2 years
Think?! What are the benefits to planting perennials in a garden?