Adverbs: Lesson 1: Adverbs that tell “How?” Adverbs: words that describe action verbs Action verbs: verbs that show either mental or physical action Most adverbs describe action verbs, and one of the questions they answer is “How?” Example: She lives simply. (“Simply” is describing the verb “lives”. It tells “how” she lives.) Adverbs that tell how often end in “ly”. Examples: crazily, happily, cheerfully Adverbs: Lesson 2: Adverb or Adjective? Adjective: Adverb: a word that describes a noun a word that describes an action verb Adverbs and adjectives are often confused: That man is crazy. (“crazy” is an adjective describing the noun “man”) That man drives crazily. (“crazily” is an adverb that describes the verb “drives”) Adjectives: Adverbs: beautiful beautifully slow slowly quick quickly Adverbs: Lesson 3: Good or Well “Good” is an adjective! -Use good to describe nouns: Example: He is a good person. (“good” describes the noun “person”) “Well” is an adverb! -Use “well” to describe action verbs. “Well” tells how something was done. Example: He sings well. (“Well” tells how he sings) How are you feeling? -The answer should be “good” because “feeling” is not an action; it is a linking verb. Example: The child feels good. (“good” is describing the noun “child”) Adverbs: Lesson 4: Adverbs that tell “Where?” Adverb: a word that describes an action verb Besides telling “how”, adverbs can also tell where. Example: He looked up. (“up” is an adverb telling where he looked) Adverbs that tell where are never in prepositional phrases: Example: He looked up the tree. (“up the tree” is a prepositional phrase, so “up” is a preposition) Common Adverbs that tell “Where?” here there downtown everywhere anywhere somewhere where uptown downstairs upstairs downstream upstream If NOT Part of a Prepositional Phrase, these are Adverbs Too: in inside out outside up around down near Adverbs: Lesson 5: Adverbs that tell “When?” Adverb: a word that describes an action verb Besides telling “how” and “where”, adverbs can also tell “when”. Example: He drove today. (“today” is an adverb telling when he drove) Common Adverbs that tell “When?” tonight tomorrow today daily yearly weekly monthly nightly hourly annually early soon late now then never Adverbs that tell when are never in prepositional phrases: Example: He has driven since. (“since” is an adverb describing when he has driven) He has driven since the party. (“since” is a preposition because it is part of the prepositional phrase “since the party”) If NOT in a Prepositional Phrase, these Are Adverbs Too: before after since Adverbs: Lesson 6: Adverbs that tell “To What Extent?” Adverbs can also describe adjectives and other adverbs; these tell “to what extent”. -Example: The rug is very dirty. (“very” describes the adjective “dirty”. It tells to what extent it was dirty) He ran so fast. (“so” describes the adverb “fast”. It tells to what extent it was fast) Common Adverbs that Tell “To What Extent?” quite very somewhat so rather extremely too really absolutely not Adverbs: Lesson 7: Adverb or Preposition? These words can be adverbs or prepositions depending how they are used in a sentence: in above across after around before down up out inside outside over Prepositions are only prepositions if they are part of a prepositional phrase: Example: Dad fell down the stairs. (“Down” is a preposition because it is part of a prepositional phrase “down the stairs”) Dad fell down. (Now “down” is an adverb telling where.) If there are two words that you recognize as prepositions next to each other in a sentence, the first word is an adverb, and the second word is a preposition. Example: The guard entered in through the security door. (“ through the security door” is a prepositional phrase. “in” is an adverb telling where the guard entered.) Adverbs: Lesson 8: Degrees of Adverbs Degrees of Adverbs: adverbs that make comparisons There are 2 degrees of adverbs: 1. Comparative 2. Superlative Comparative Adverbs: Compare how two people or things do something: Are formed by adding “er” to the adverb if it is no more than 2 syllables. Example: fast = faster If the adverb has more than 2 syllables, place “more” or “less” before the adjective. Examples: She runs more quickly than her sister. She drives less carefully than her cousin. The words “good” and “bad” have special forms in the comparative Examples: good = better bad = worse Examples: She drives better than her sister. She drives worse than her sister. Superlative Adverbs: Compare how 3 or more people or things do something: Are formed by adding “est” to the adverb if it is no more than 2 syllables Example: fast = fastest If the word has more than 2 syllables, place “most” or “least” before the adverb Examples: She dances the most beautifully of all the girls at school, but she runs the least quickly of all the girls at school. the words “good” and “bad” have special forms in the superlative: Examples: good = best bad = worst Example: Of the triplets, she dances best, but she sings the worst. Adverbs: Lesson 9: Double Negatives Negative Words: no not never none no one nothing scarcely hardly neither nobody Never use 2 negative words in the same sentence! Otherwise, you will be saying the opposite of what you intended to say! Examples: Wrong: I do not want nothing. Correct: I do not want anything.