Mr. Judd Name________________ Ch. 10 The Jazz Age Study Guide It was a time of stark and sometimes startling contrasts, in American life. World War One was over. Women got the right to vote. Fashion took a liberal turn. Alcohol was outlawed. Babe Ruth was king of the ballpark, Charles Lindbergh of the skies. Jazz filled the air - and the airwaves. And just about everybody who could afford it, went to the movies in “The Roaring ‘20s.” The Roaring Twenties has the reputation as a decade of play and prosperity. Though unemployment was low and many Americans were better off financially, real wealth was concentrated among just a few families. Sixty percent of America's riches were owned by only two percent of the people. The 27,500 wealthiest families had as much money as the twelve million poorest. With the end of World War One, the country desperately wanted to return to normal. But prices shot upward with the increased demand for goods and services, while wages were still low due to a ban on raises and labor strikes during the war. Now that the war had ended, strikes over higher wages resumed. In September 1919 Boston Police walked off patrol, citing lousy pay and long hours. Their subsequent absence triggered a free-for-all of looters and vandals. In turn, city officials granted no negotiation; the police force was replaced without the option to return. That same month 343,000 steel workers staged a nation-wide strike, only to taste a violent defeat. When substitute workers were hired, rioting erupted resulting in the mobilization of federal troops. Eighteen steelworkers lost their lives in the struggle; the walkout lasted four months with no reward. As labor unrest spread across the country some Americans felt it was being fostered by communists - radicals who believed in an economic and social system where prosperity is owned by everyone, and the needs of the whole are more important than those of the individual. Other citizens grew increasingly suspicious of immigrants, fearing they too, might be communists. This so-called "Red Scare" was at a high during the Presidential election of 1919. And Ohio Lieutenant governor, Warren G. Harding's campaign promise of, "A return to normalcy" was just what the country wanted to hear and believe. “FIRSTS” DIRECTIONS: The Roaring Twenties were full of America’s “Firsts.” Explore the textbook and identify five of the “firsts” of the 1920s. Next write a brief reflection on the feelings an American citizen of the 1920s might have had to the new changes. “FIRSTS” 1. __________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________________ An American’s Reflection ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ RED SCARE and RACE RIOTS (1919-1920) CAUSES OF THE RED SCARE Russian Revolution -Russian Revolutions of 1917, two revolutions that occurred in Russia in 1917. The first revolution, in February, overthrew the Russian monarchy. The second revolution, in October, created the world’s first Communist state. -It was led by a group of revolutionary socialists called Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks hoped that their revolution would result in more fundamental changes in Russian society and also inspire the working people of other countries to carry out socialist revolutions. -Lenin became the communist leader of the Soviet Union Strikes -Seattle docks were idled by a strike in January and U.S. Marines were sent in response to a plea from the mayor. Bombings -All of the following cities had bombings that exploded within 30 seconds of one another (a terrorist plot) -Boston was briefly paralyzed by a police strike in September; looting and theft were rampant. -Boston, Newton, Paterson, New York, East Orange, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Washington, D.C. -Steelworkers seeking an eight-hour day struck in the fall, slowing the return of the nation’s economy to normal peacetime functioning. -In November, a labor organizer for the Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W.) was seized by citizens of Centralia, Washington, castrated and hanged. Race Riots -Caused by Great Migration and return of U.S. men that fought in WW 1 -Race riots in several dozen cities led to the deaths and injury of hundreds during the summer. -“Red Summer” (1919) -38 mail bombs discovered -Italian anarchist suicide bomber exploded himself outside of A. Mitchell Palmer’s (attorney general) house -Cities with race riots (Longview, TX, Washington D.C., Chicago) -Creation of Communist International – coordinating communist parties in other countries Summarize what the Red Scare was…based on the causes provided above COMMUNISM 1.A theoretical economic system characterized by the collective ownership of property and by the organization of labor for the common advantage of all members. 2.Communism a. A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single, often authoritarian party holds power, claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people. TYPES OF GOVERNMENT SOCIALISM 1.Any of various theories or systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned collectively or by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy. 2.The stage in Marxist-Leninist theory intermediate between capitalism and communism, in which collective ownership of the economy under the dictatorship of the proletariat has not yet been successfully achieved. ANARCHY 1.Absence of any form of political authority. 2.Political disorder and confusion. 3.Absence of any cohesive principle, such as a common standard or purpose. b.The Marxist-Leninist version of Communist doctrine that advocates the overthrow of capitalism by the revolution of the proletariat. DRAW A PICTURE REPRESENTING GOVERNMENT TYPE DRAW A PICTURE REPRESENTING GOVERNMENT TYPE DRAW A PICTURE REPRESENTING GOVERNMENT TYPE Red Scare Cartoons DIRECTIONS: The Red Scare was a very controversial time during the Roaring Twenties. Many were able to express their viewpoint of the Red Scare by publishing political cartoons. Study the political carton and answer the following question. What was the artist’s message in the cartoon? Explain your answer. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Immigrant Interview DIRECTIONS: It is the 1920s and radio broadcasting has just become very popular. You have your own radio program and are about to interview an immigrant living in the United States. Develop questions to ask and create some possible responses. Be sure to include questions about the latest fears Americans are having of immigrants and the Act to restrict and limit immigrants. Question #1 _____________________________________________________________________ Possible Response _____________________________________________________________________ Question #2 _____________________________________________________________________ Possible Response _____________________________________________________________________ Question #3 _____________________________________________________________________ Possible Response _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Question #4 _____________________________________________________________________ Possible Response _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Progressive vs. Traditional Values The 1920s was a decade of exciting changes and profound cultural conflicts. For many Americans, the growth of cities, the rise of a consumer culture, and the so-called "revolution in morals and manners" represented liberation from the restrictions of the country's Victorian past. But for others, the United States seemed to be changing in undesirable ways. The result was a thinly veiled "cultural civil war," in which a pluralistic society clashed bitterly over such issues as foreign immigration, evolution, the Ku Klux Klan, and alcohol. Change Suffrage Examples Women Roles African American Pride and Nationalism Harlem Renaissance- Black Nationalism/Marcus Garvey- War Against Alcohol Attack on Fundamentalism Roaring Twenties DIRECTIONS: Read the following key terms of the Roaring Twenties. Match each term in Column I with its description in Column II by writing the letter next to the term. Column I Column II 1. Talkies A. Harding’s pro-business cabinet appointee B. A movie with sound 2. Speakeasies 3. Ohio Gang C. Most efficient way to perform a task 4. Warren Harding D. Reduction in income taxes 5. Calvin Coolidge E. Oil lands illegally sold 6. Herbert Hoover F. New Credit System 7. Mellon Plan G. “Return to Normalcy” 8. The Flapper 9. Scientific Management H. “Silent Cal” 10.Picture Palaces I. Street cars and subways 11.Installment Plan J. Elaborate Movie Theaters 12.Mass Transit K. Harding’s poker buddies 13.Origins Act of 1929 L. Illegal clubs that sold alcohol 14.Monkey Trial M. Limitation on immigration 15.Teapot Dome Scandal N. Women’s new image O.Theory of Evolution taught in schools DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Explain the Red Scare and its development. 2. Describe the state of labor workers and their difficulties during the 1920s. 3. What was the Teapot Dome Scandal and who was responsible for it? 4. What role did the Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Case play in American’s fears? 5. List two changes in business practices during the Roaring Twenties. 6. Briefly explain what the Harlem Renaissance was and how it developed? 7. How were Americans suddenly able to have leisure time and give three examples of how they enjoyed it? 8. Give at least three example of the woman’s new role in the Roaring Twenties. 9. In addition to the changing roles of women, what were two other issues that caused a clash between traditional and new moralities? 2 . .