Study Guide: The Rock Cycle Vocabulary sedimentary rock (sed•uh•MEN•tuh•ree RAHK) A type of rock that forms when layers of sediment are pressed together. A cliff may be made of layers of rocks; one layer on top of another. igneous rock (IG•nee•uhs RAHK) A type of rock that forms from melted rock that cools and hardens. rock (RAHK) A naturally formed solid made of one or more minerals. volcano (vahl•KAY•noh) A place where hot gases, smoke, and melted rock come out of the ground onto Earth's surface. mineral (MIN•er•uhl) A nonliving solid that has a crystal form. (All minerals are natural, solid, and nonliving. ***They are formed in nature.) Mohs Scale Values: Talc: 1 Gypsum: 2 Calcite: 3 Flourite: 4 Apatite: 5 Feldspar: 6 Quartz: 7 Topaz: 8 Corundum: 9 Diamond: 10 Which is the hardest mineral on Moh’s Scale? Diamond Which is the softest mineral on Moh’s Scale? Talc You can scratch minerals with a hardness of 2 or less with a fingernail. You can scratch minerals with a hardness of 6 or less with a steel nail. Is a mineral with a hardness of 5 harder or softer than a mineral with a hardness of 7? (It is softer.) If the mineral fluorite can be scratched by a steel nail, but not by a fingernail, what would be this mineral’s hardness? (It would be between 3 and 6.) When minerals break, if the edges are smooth and straight, it is classified as a cleavage break. If the mineral breaks into uneven pieces, it is classified as a fracture. Quartz is known for its ability to conduct electricity. Mica can be scratched with a fingernail. It can also be broken into thin sheets, which means it has cleavage. A mineral’s luster describes how minerals reflect light. Some minerals have a metallic luster while some have an earthy luster. rock (RAHK) A naturally formed solid made of one or more minerals. What are the scientists that study fossils called? List the three types of rock. The rock cycle processes or forces which form metamorphic rock are pressure from above and heat from molten rock. List causes of metamorphic rock. What kind of rock is limestone? If you find a rock that has small mineral crystals near a volcano, do you think it cooled quickly or slowly? Explain. Know the paths of the Rock Cycle. Refer to FUSION book p. 435 Short Response Essays: **Emily has a brown mineral. She wants to test its properties. Describe how she should test the mineral’s streak. Emily should test streak by dragging the mineral across a white tile, or streak plate. The color of the powder left on the tile is the mineral’s streak. Explain why streak is more useful than color when trying to identify a mineral. Streak is more useful than color because the same mineral can be many colors, but it will always have the same streak color. **Matt is learning about the rock cycle. He and his lab partner have a crayon, a beaker, a hot plate, a ball of clay, and scissors. Describe how they can use these items to make a model of metamorphic rock and then show how it could change into sedimentary rock. The students can cut the crayon into small pieces and embed them, edge on, into the clay to form a banded metamorphic rock. They can then use scissors to cut the rock into pieces to model weathering. The pieces can be put back together again to form a sedimentary rock.