Ch 1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and

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Ch 8 Aquatic Biodiversity
Name_____________________________
Read Ch 7 & answer the following – you may attach additional pages if needed
1. Why should we care about coral reefs?
3 Ecological reasons
2.
Date__________________ Per________
3 Economic reasons
What is coral bleaching, and what are its main causes? _________________________________________________________
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3. List the major types of marine and freshwater ecosystems:
Marine
ecosystems
Freshwater
ecosystems
4.
Types of aquatic organisms:
Define
Example/s
Phytoplankton
Zooplankton
Ultraplankton
Nekton
Benthos
Decomposers
5.
In deep aquatic ecosystems photosynthesis occurs mostly in the (upper / middle / lower) layer. This layer is called the
________________ zone. The depth of this zone (increases / decreases) if there is an algae bloom. Dissolved oxygen levels
are (lower / higher) near the surface because oxygen is produced by (photosynthesis / cellular respiration). The concentration
of dissolved oxygen (increases / decreases) with depth. The concentration of carbon dioxide (increases / decreases) with
depth because photosynthetic organisms near the surface (use / produce) carbon dioxide, and aquatic animals and
decomposers (use / produce) carbon dioxide.
6.
What usually limits net primary productivity in the open ocean? ___________________________________________________
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7.
Saltwater covers about ________ of the Earth’s surface.
8.
List three reasons why temperature and salinity vary widely in estuaries and coastal wetlands:
9.
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List 3 reasons why are estuaries and coastal wetlands so important:
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10. Why are barrier islands important? __________________________________________________________________________
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11. What government policies keep coastal developers and residents from paying the true full cost of building and living on the
coast? _________________________________________________________________________________________________
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12. Coral reefs can only grow under a narrow range of conditions. Coral reefs thrive in water that is (clear / cloudy), (cool /
warm) and has (a lot of / little) sediment. List 4 threats to coral reefs:
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13. Describe the features of each biological zone of the open ocean and the organisms found in each zone:
Description
Euphotic
zone
Bathyal
zone
Abyssal
zone
Organisms
14. The net primary productivity per unit area of the open sea is very (high / low) except at upwellings near the equator where the
NPP is very (high / low). However, because the open sea is so large, it makes the (smallest / largest) contribution to the
Earth’s overall NPP.
15. Describe the features of each biological zone of a lake and the organisms found in each zone:
Description
Organisms
Littoral
zone
Limnetic
zone
Profundal
zone
Benthic
zone
16. Compare and contrast an oligotrophic and eutrophic lake and use Fig 7-17 to complete the diagram:
Oligotrophic lake
Eutrophic lake
17. Describe the features of each zone of a river and the organisms found in each zone:
Description
Source
zone
Transition
zone
Floodplain
zone
Organisms
18. List 3 reasons why inland wetlands are important?
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19. List 4 human activities that have a negative impact on freshwater systems and contribute to flood and drought damage:
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20. Critical thinking: List a limiting factor for each of the following:

The surface layer of a lake 
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The surface layer of the open sea 
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The source zone of a mountain stream 
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The bottom of a deep lake 
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You should be familiar with the following basic science terms. Be sure to review them before the test:
Limestone
Zooxanthellae
Salinity
Nutrients
Phosphates
Nitrates
Coastal zone
Continental shelf
Estuary
Coastal wetland
Intertidal zone
Barrier beaches
Sand dunes
Detritus
Hydrothermal vents
Upwelling
Chemosynthesis
Mesotrophic lakes
Surface water
Runoff
Watershed
Glacier
Tributary
Flood plain
Oxbow lake
Delta
Inland wetlands
Marshes
Prairie potholes
Floodplains
Seasonal wetlands
Sign here to acknowledge all of the responses above are your original work: ________________________________
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