Chapter Review Drugs and Toxicology KEY Chapter 5 A drug is

Chapter Review Drugs and Toxicology KEY
Chapter 5
1. A drug is anything that affects the way your mind and body work. More than
75% of evidence in crime labs is drug related.
2. Personal characteristics of the user, society’s attitude towards the drug,
setting in which the drug was used
3. Psychological dependence- conditioned use of a drug caused by underlying
emotional needs Physical dependence- physiological need for the drug
brought about by its regular use and characterized by withdrawal symptoms
when drug is abruptly stopped
4. C. uses on a regular schedule
5. The extent to which the drug has become interwoven into the fabric of the
user’s life
6. Substances that relieve pain and produce sleep
7. Heroin, morphine and codeine
8. Methadone-appears to eliminate user’s desire for heroin; oxycodone- similar
to morphine, thought to reduce risk of abuse and addiction
9. Drugs that cause marked alterations in normal thought processes,
perceptions and moods. THC, LSD and PCP.
10. Marijuana, THC
11. 1) resin 2) flowers 3) leaves 4)stem 5) seeds
12. reduction of eye pressure in glaucoma and lessening of nausea caused by
anticancer drugs
13. PCP mixed with LSD or amphetamine, long term use produces individuals
that are violent and depressed or even suicidal
14. Alcohol
15. Depressants, slow down or depress the nervous system
16. Practice of sniffing volatile solvents
17. Stimulants speed up the central nervous system, amphetamines, cocaine
18. Liquid- usually injected solid (ice)- usually smoked
19. Cocaine
20. Crack is a form of cocaine that is mixed with baking soda and allowed to
21. MDMA- hallucinogen and stimulant, GHB and Rohypnol- depressants
22. Steroids are related to male sex hormone testosterone. Used to promote
muscle growth, and develop male characteristics…
23. Screening and confirmation
24. Screening tells if drug is there. Confirmation test tells positive ID.
25. Marquis, Dillie-Koppanyi- empirical because they give you clues about the
structure of the drug based on how it reacts with other chemicals
26. Qualitative does not indicate quantity, just the likelihood that it is a particular
substance. Quantitative tells you how much was in the sample.
27. Separates the drug from other substances that may be used to cut the drugs
28. C. solubility of the gas
29. The molecules that are larger or attracted more to surface of silica are slower
to move up the gel, to the detector…the smaller fragments move more
30. Can detect nanograms of drug, it is fast, can yield quantitative results
31. Not an absolute means of ID because several substances may have the same
retention time
32. Selective absorption of types of electromagnetic spectrum components by
each compound.
33. IR gives a fingerprint of a compound that is unique to that substance
34. Mass spectrometer, allows it to determine the exact mass and fragment
patterns of a substance so it can be unequivocally Identified
Chapter 6
1. Toxicologists detect and identify drugs and poisons in body fluids, tissues,
and organs.
2. Alcohol
3. Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that break down substances in
the body.
4. Absorption, distribution and elimination
5. Liver, enzymes break down the alcohol
6. Total time taken to consume the drink, amount of alcohol in the drink, the
quantity consumed, type of food present in the stomach when drinking
7. D. carbon dioxide and water
8. Breath
9. To the concentration of alcohol in the blood
10. The legal measure of impairment from drinking is considered to be 0.08
percent blood alcohol. Blood must be used.
11. Lower
12. Vein, artery, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery
13. Stomach and small intestines
14. ??
15. tiny pear shaped sacs through which the blood can become oxygenated
16. breath testing for alcohol
17-29 do not study…won’t be on test
30. 0.08 percent
31. per se law means that any individual that meets or exceeds the legal limit of
alcohol is legally intoxicated
32. implied consent law means that the driver must consent to an alcohol test if
requested by a law enforcement official or surrender his/her license for 6 mo-1
33. really small quantities are present, they often metabolize in the body to other
substances, toxicity may vary on a case by case basis
34. blood and urine
35. alcohol, marijuana and cocaine
36. to remove and isolate the drugs from other biological materials
37. acids donate a hydrogen ion to solution. Bases accept a hydrogen ion from
solution. By controlling the pH of a solution, toxicologists can determine which
drugs are extracted from the sample.
38. A screening test gives likelihood that a drug is present in a sample. A
confirmation test verifies the ID of the drug.
39. 3 screening tests: GC, TLC and immunoassay Confirmation test:GC-MS
40. a. lead
41. carbon monoxide bonds to the hemoglobin in red blood cells. Not enough
cells are left to carry oxygen, so cell death occurs and asphyxia occurs.
42. history of drug use, other drugs that the individual may be taking and blood
concentration of the drug
43. urine is outside the circulatory system, so drug concentrations can build up
in it over time