Notes for Test - Livingston Public Schools

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Communication
Tabula rossa- blank slate
Communication events in the morning:
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Texting
Talking
Writing
Watching AM wired
Reading a book
Listening to music
Speaking with a teacher
Nonverbalo staring
o body language
o hand signals
Listening to parent or alarm clock
Email
Phone calls
International Calls
Communications have evolved:
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Used to have phones with cords
Went to record stores, had cassettes
Verbal and Non Verbal:
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Trying to hide the fact that you are bored
Playing poker
Being sarcastic- Verbal Irony: Saying the opposite of what you mean
Body Language- nodding, smiling
Communication:
STUDENT DEFINITIONS:
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The movement of thoughts, ideas, and directions through nonverbal and verbal signals.
A way which people interact with one and other and the way in which they express
themselves.
Conveying a message, idea, or thought to another individual using verbal or nonverbal
means.
The means of transferring information from person to person.
DICTIONARY DEFINITION
Dictionary.com; “The imparting or interchange of thoughts or opinions of
information by speech, writing, or signs.”
Communication: A SHARING OF MEANING BY
TRANSMITTING EXCHANGING MESSAGES
Meaning vs. Messages
Meaning- what you take from the information; the point you are saying (It’s different for
everyone)
Message- The symbols that stand for something else- DON’T contain the meaning
Messages are inherently MEANINGLESS!!!
Sender tries to encode them and receiver tries to decode them.
Communication is not a transmission, it’s a transaction.
Verbal Communication; Verbal Cues:
Denotation- the dictionary definition of a word
*Don’t get captured in the real meaning of the word*
Connotation- all the thoughts, meanings, and ideas that surround a word
LOADED WORDS: love, hope, brother, freedom, terrorist, abortion, porn, “cuss”
words, money, car, divorce, school, etc.
Individual
Group
Community
2 Kinds on Non-Verbal Communication:
 Visual:
o Body Language
o Hand Signals
 Aural:
o Pitch
o Volume
o Texture
o Pace
o Articulation/Enunciation
o Accents and Stress
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Subtext- reading between the lines
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“I’LL PRAY FOR YOU.”
Nobody else will pray for you, so I will.
I won’t pray for you.
Good luck.
You’re pathetic.
I’m sorry for your loss.
My prayers are ONLY for YOU.
You don’t have to do it—I’ll do it for you.
“GET OUT.”
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Leave the room.
You’re kidding.
Save yourself. The building is on fire.
Please send for Mr. Out.
“YOU’RE MY BEST FRIEND.”
“MAKE IT A GOOD DAY.”
“I’M GOING TO KILL YOU.”
“YOU’RE LATE.”
“I SAW A GREAT MOVIE.”
“I LOVE EXERCISING.”
“I MISS YOU.”
1. SHARED meanings are never EXACTLY the same.
2. Nonverbal cues must be taken into consideration. HOWEVER,
sometimes revealing,
sometimes misleading.
Own Words:
 Nonverbal cues can steer you in the wrong directions sometimes, even though
they are very helpful.
 You must look at a person’s nonverbal actions to understand what they’re
saying, even if they’re confusing.
3. MEANINGS change as EXPERIENCES change.
SCHEMA: Cognitive framework that helps you organize and interpret the
world. (filter)
Text to text, text to world, text to self
Prejudice and stereotypes are schemas
Selective attention
MISUNDERSTADNINGS CANNOT BE AVOIDED, BUT CAN BE ANTICIPATED.
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Receiver (audience)
Sender
Context
Message (symbols)
1. Receiver:
 Age/Generation
 Experience
 Beliefs and perceptions
 Nationality/ Region
 Mood/ emotional state
 Interests
 Gender
 Race
 Abilities/ Disabilities & Knowledge
 The motivation of the reason the receiver is there
o Are you “Preaching to the choir”?
2. Sender:
 Needs to know boundaries
 Johari—four quadrants
o Open—+you+others
o Hidden— +you-others
o Blind--+others-you
o Unknown— -you-others
3. Context: THE ENTIRE SITUATION, CIRCUMSTANCE
Can be looked at a
Macro--Big
Meso--medium
Micro--small
level
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Temporal Dimension—(time) “THE WHEN”
o Time of day
o Time of week
o Time of year
o Period in History—era
o Sequence
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Physical Dimension—(space) “THE WHERE”
o location
 micro, (room D262)
 meso (livingston/new jersey, etc.)
 macro (northeast/usa)
o weather/temperature
o presence and number of people
o appearance of people
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Cultural Dimension
o Trends
o Traditions
o Styles
o Values
o Taboos
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Psychological/Social Dimension
o Personal values
o Moods
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Relationship Dimension
o Family (siblings, parents, spouses) context
o Business/work/school (boss, fellow employees, students, teachers)
context
o Generational context
o Friends/Strangers/Enemies
o Areas of Interest or commonality/communties
4. Message:
 Literacy
o Vocabulary
NONVERBAL SYMBOLS
AURAL—PARALANGUAGE—IT’S THE NONVERBAL STUFF
YOU HEAR WITH YOUR EARS.
PITCH, PACE, VOLUME, TEXTURE (SMOOTH OR GRUFF),
ARTICULATION, WORD STRESS, INFLECTION (UP OR DOWN), PAUSES
TONE IS NOT YOUR PARALANGUAGE; IT’S WHAT YOU CONCLUDE FROM THAT
PARALANGUAGE.
VISUAL—KINESICS (BODY MOVEMENT/BODY
LANGUAGE)—IT’S THE NONVERBAL STUFF YOU SEE WITH
YOUR EYES.
THERE ARE FIVE TYPES OF KINESIC CUES:
1. Emblems—gestures that substitute for words
2. Affect Displays—movements that convey emotion
3. Regulators—control yours or others’ communication
4. Adaptors—satisfying a personal need
5. Illustrators—reinforce a concept
Limitations of Perception
1. Implicit-personality theory—humans create or devise
rules for certain personality characteristics that seem to
go together.
Socially awkward=physically clumsy
Quiet=boring, shy/introvert, evil/scary, insecure
Loud=outgoing/extrovert, obnoxious, conceited
2. Stereotypes—first impression of groups of people—
making unfair or inaccurate generalization.
3. Self-fulfilling prophesy
People make predictions about the world and themselves
and then act as if were true.
4. Primacy-recency theory
Prime-first
Recent-last
Logical Fallacy—things that are not logical and don’t make
sense—FAULTY REASONING.
1. Ad Hominem attacks
2. Loaded Words—murder, terrorist, love, nazi
3. Emotional appeals--pathos
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