Nonverbal Communication Communication without use of linguistic means. Linguistic means: spoken and written language Nonverbal includes aural and visual communication (but nonlinguistic) Example: Spoken words - verbal But tone of voice - nonverbal Nonverbal cues in relation to verbal cues. repeat the verbal message. contradict the verbal message. substitute for the verbal message. complement and accent the verbal message regulate the back and forth flow of communication between people Forms of Nonverbal Communication Communication environment Physical appearance Proxemics Body motion (kinesic behavior). Paralanguage (nonverbal vocal cues) Touching behavior (haptics) Chronemics or the use of time. Communication environment Those elements that impinge on the human relationship but are not directly a part of it There are fixed and semi-fixed features of the environment Physical appearance The communicator's physical characteristics. Include: body type, general attractiveness, height, weight, hair and skin color, clothing, etc. Proxemics The study of interpersonal distance or space The use of interpersonal space or distance helps individuals regulate intimacy by controlling sensory exposure. Our “territories” Intimate distance: touching to approx. 18 inches from another person our personal bubble Personal distance: 18 inches to 4 feet; a personal zone "by personal invitation only" Social distance: 4 to 12 feet (business meetings and impersonal social gatherings. Public distance ranges from 12 to 15 feet Body motion (kinesics). Facial expressions (e.g., smiles) and body movements (e.g., gestures, posture) help us to express attitudes, emotions, or to manage communication. Paralanguage Paralanguage consists of the nonverbal vocal cues that surround speech behavior; Pitch, range, rhythm, tempo, and resonance. Intonation Vocalizations (e.g., laughing, crying, sighing, whispering) The dialect we speak. Touching Chronemics The use of time. Two distinguishable patterns of time: monochronic (M-time) polychronic (P-time).