Daniel Kang Biology 2 4B ABO Blood Type Lab Report Blood Type Lab Report Introduction: In this lab, we will be determining the ABO and RH blood type of four unknown blood samples and estimate the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes in normal blood. Throughout this experiment, we will learn about actual blood typing procedure, observing how antigen/antibody reacts to the simulated blood, and understand the requirements for blood transfusion. Materials 4 Blood typing slides 12 Toothpicks 1 Microsoft Slide 1 Cover Slip 1 Compound Microscope (400X Magnification) 1 Marker 4 Unknown blood samples: Mr. Smith, Mr. Jones, Mr. Green, and Ms. Brown 1 Stimulated Anti-A Serum 1 Stimulated Anti-B Serum 1 Stimulated Anti-RH Serum Method 1. Label each blood typing slide for all 4 samples: Mr. Smith, Jones, Green and Ms. Brown. 2. Place 3 to 4 drops of Anti-A, B, and RH Serum to all 4-blood samples in each of A, B, and RH wells. 3. Stir each blood typing slide with three toothpicks. 4. Observe each slide and record your observations. Confirm if the blood agglutinated or not. 5. After recording, choose one of the vials of simulated Blood and add one drop of the blood to the microscope slide and cover with a cover slip. 6. Examine the slide with the low power (10X) and find an area with an even distribution of cells. 7. Continue number 6 with high power (40X) and count the red blood cells. Record the number in Table 2. 8. Count the number of simulated white blood cells and record the number in Table 2. 9. Repeat the counting procedure with two other fields of view and record these counts in table 2. 10. Calculate the average of the red blood cell counts and white blood cells in three different fields of views. Record each value in Table 2. 11. Using the average value for both Red and White blood cells, multiply their dilution factor to calculate the total number of blood cells per mm3 Data Collection Each unknown blood samples Mr Smith Mr. Jones Mr. Green Ms. Brown Red blood cells White blood cells Anti-A Serum Anti-B Serum Yes No reaction Yes No reaction No reaction Yes Yes. No reaction Anti-Rh Serum Yes No reaction Yes No reaction Blood Type A Rh+ B RhAB Rh+ O RhTotal # blood cells per mm3 or Avg. # cells x Dilution factor 1st count 2nd count 3rd count Total # of cells Avg. # cells Dilution factor 109 94 96 299 99.67 150,000 14950500 67 85 91 243 81 5000 405000 Calculations: 1st count + 2nd count+ 3rd count = Total number of cells (109+94+96 = 299) Total number of cells / 3 = Average number of cells (299 / 3 = 99.67) Average number of cells x Dilution factor = total number of blood cells per mm (99.67 x 150,000 = 14950500) Conclusion In part 1, the results showed that Mr. Smith was A Rh+ type blood, Mr. Jones coming out as B Rh- type, Mr. Green as AB Rh+, and Ms. Brown as O Rh-. By going through the actual blood typing procedure, I learned how Antigen/Antibody reacts towards bloods (in this lab, simulated blood) and get an idea about how actual blood typing procedures work. I added each different serum on different unknown blood samples to see how reaction occurs. After the blood typing procedure and I entered the part 2 of the experiment, I got an idea how white and red blood cells look like in a blood sample and how to calculate the average number each blood cells in each section of the blood sample. I counted both red and white blood cell numbers in 3 different sections and calculated the average number of cells by adding up the 3 different counts of both white and red blood cells and dividing by 3. In the above table/charts, it provides the each count that I had in different parts of the blood sample; number of both white and red blood cells. All of my calculations are in those charts. Evaluation: Throughout this lab, I had both strength and weaknesses. First, I was extra more careful about getting my results. I tried not to mix different blood samples to another, so that no unwanted result will show up. Second, I compared my counts of both red and white blood cells with my partner to see how close and accurate my average cell number is. As we used the same blood sample, I thought if both of us have at least close average number of blood cells it would be more reliable. My final strength during this lab was that I recorded every attempt I tried during this lab. Just by recording my results right away, it made no chance for me to forget or confuse results with some other. Even though I had a lot of strengths, I also had few weaknesses. First, I could have miscalculated the numbers of both Red and White blood cells. As there were about hundreds of cells, there are chances that I have counted red blood cells as white blood cells and vice versa. Second, I could have misjudged agglutination when there was only minimum reaction occurring to those blood samples. For example, there were few times when serum was added to each blood samples, had reactions that weren’t quite straightforward. I could have observed wrongly and my conclusion could have been wrong. My last weakness was that I could have counted my both red and white blood cells wrongly. As there were almost 100 cells every trial I counted, I could have counted wrongly which lead to wrong conclusion. If I have another lab, I could use more accurate ways like using computer programs to count the most accurate measure, attempt trials separately to avoid any chances of samples getting mixed and getting more advice about not clear reactions.