Daniel Kang Biology 2

Daniel Kang Biology 2
ABO Blood Type Lab Report
Blood Type Lab Report
In this lab, we will be determining the ABO and RH blood type of four unknown
blood samples and estimate the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes in
normal blood. Throughout this experiment, we will learn about actual blood
typing procedure, observing how antigen/antibody reacts to the simulated
blood, and understand the requirements for blood transfusion.
4 Blood typing slides
12 Toothpicks
1 Microsoft Slide
1 Cover Slip
1 Compound Microscope (400X Magnification)
1 Marker
4 Unknown blood samples: Mr. Smith, Mr. Jones, Mr. Green, and Ms. Brown
1 Stimulated Anti-A Serum
1 Stimulated Anti-B Serum
1 Stimulated Anti-RH Serum
1. Label each blood typing slide for all 4 samples: Mr. Smith, Jones, Green
and Ms. Brown.
2. Place 3 to 4 drops of Anti-A, B, and RH Serum to all 4-blood samples in
each of A, B, and RH wells.
3. Stir each blood typing slide with three toothpicks.
4. Observe each slide and record your observations. Confirm if the blood
agglutinated or not.
5. After recording, choose one of the vials of simulated Blood and add one
drop of the blood to the microscope slide and cover with a cover slip.
6. Examine the slide with the low power (10X) and find an area with an even
distribution of cells.
7. Continue number 6 with high power (40X) and count the red blood cells.
Record the number in Table 2.
8. Count the number of simulated white blood cells and record the number
in Table 2.
9. Repeat the counting procedure with two other fields of view and record
these counts in table 2.
10. Calculate the average of the red blood cell counts and white blood cells in
three different fields of views. Record each value in Table 2.
11. Using the average value for both Red and White blood cells, multiply their
dilution factor to calculate the total number of blood cells per mm3
Data Collection
Each unknown blood samples
Mr Smith
Mr. Jones
Mr. Green
Ms. Brown
Red blood
Anti-A Serum
Anti-B Serum
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
Blood Type
A Rh+
B RhAB Rh+
O RhTotal # blood
cells per mm3
or Avg. # cells
x Dilution
Total #
of cells
Avg. #
150,000 14950500
1st count + 2nd count+ 3rd count = Total number of cells
(109+94+96 = 299)
Total number of cells / 3 = Average number of cells
(299 / 3 = 99.67)
Average number of cells x Dilution factor = total number of blood cells per mm
(99.67 x 150,000 = 14950500)
In part 1, the results showed that Mr. Smith was A Rh+ type blood, Mr. Jones
coming out as B Rh- type, Mr. Green as AB Rh+, and Ms. Brown as O Rh-. By going
through the actual blood typing procedure, I learned how Antigen/Antibody
reacts towards bloods (in this lab, simulated blood) and get an idea about how
actual blood typing procedures work. I added each different serum on different
unknown blood samples to see how reaction occurs. After the blood typing
procedure and I entered the part 2 of the experiment, I got an idea how white
and red blood cells look like in a blood sample and how to calculate the average
number each blood cells in each section of the blood sample. I counted both red
and white blood cell numbers in 3 different sections and calculated the average
number of cells by adding up the 3 different counts of both white and red blood
cells and dividing by 3. In the above table/charts, it provides the each count that
I had in different parts of the blood sample; number of both white and red blood
cells. All of my calculations are in those charts.
Throughout this lab, I had both strength and weaknesses. First, I was extra more
careful about getting my results. I tried not to mix different blood samples to
another, so that no unwanted result will show up. Second, I compared my counts
of both red and white blood cells with my partner to see how close and accurate
my average cell number is. As we used the same blood sample, I thought if both
of us have at least close average number of blood cells it would be more reliable.
My final strength during this lab was that I recorded every attempt I tried during
this lab. Just by recording my results right away, it made no chance for me to
forget or confuse results with some other. Even though I had a lot of strengths, I
also had few weaknesses. First, I could have miscalculated the numbers of both
Red and White blood cells. As there were about hundreds of cells, there are
chances that I have counted red blood cells as white blood cells and vice versa.
Second, I could have misjudged agglutination when there was only minimum
reaction occurring to those blood samples. For example, there were few times
when serum was added to each blood samples, had reactions that weren’t quite
straightforward. I could have observed wrongly and my conclusion could have
been wrong. My last weakness was that I could have counted my both red and
white blood cells wrongly. As there were almost 100 cells every trial I counted, I
could have counted wrongly which lead to wrong conclusion. If I have another
lab, I could use more accurate ways like using computer programs to count the
most accurate measure, attempt trials separately to avoid any chances of
samples getting mixed and getting more advice about not clear reactions.