Native Language Instruction Program Guidance and Rubric This guidance was developed based on current research on bilingual programs and the conditions outlined in the Consent Decree. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to any charter school seeking to develop language allocation guidelines to guide native language instruction. Consent Decree The program components, teacher qualifications, staffing, and instructional program organization shall be as follows: 1. Native language instruction, Supported English Content Instruction, and ELD shall be available at each grade level in core content classrooms staffed by an on track or fully qualified ELA-S teacher. If only Supported English Content Instruction and ELD are provided in a classroom for students who are part of the TNLI program, a fully qualified ELA-E teacher shall be provided. Native language support services may be provided to ELLs at all levels, but should not be used as a substitute for native language instruction where such instruction is required by the relevant program services or this MCD. Research based It is important to note that most studies of academic achievement of ELLs in various program types have focused on students in elementary school. However, there have been a few that have focused on high school students and the effects of various program types on student achievement levels, GPA, high school dropout and retention rates and attitudes. The meta-analysis conducted by Lindholm- Leary and Genesee in 2010 on the academic achievement of ELLs in various program types outlined the following findings: English language learners benefit from native language instruction - Most large scale studies and relevant research find that there is a benefit to bilingual instruction for ELLs over English- only instruction. “Overall, where differences between two instructional conditions were found in the studies reviewed, the differences typically favored the bilingual instruction condition. This is the case for studies conducted with students in both elementary and secondary schools, and with students possessing a range of abilities.” (Francis et al 2006) o Other studies that focused on middle and high schools found that students who had been educated in bilingual programs, especially late-exit and dual language programs, demonstrated academic achievement that was “as good as and usually higher than that of comparison groups of students.” (Block, 2007; Burnham-Massey & Pina, 1990; Curiel, Rosenthal & Richek, 1986; Fulton-Scott & Calvin 1983; Lindholm-Leary, 2001Lindholm-Leary & Block, in press; Lopez & Tashakkori, 2006; Ramirez, 1992). o There is little evidence showing that more time spent in English leads to overall higher performance of ELLs in English. “The results show more that instructional time spent in Spanish positively impacts achievement in Spanish and has no negative effect on achievement measured in English.” (Lindholm-Leary & Howard, 2008; August & Hakuta 1997; Genesee et al 2006; LindholmLeary & Borsato, 2006). There is no “one best model” – Context matters - The authors of the meta-analysis highlight that there is “no one best model that will serve all English Learners at all times.” It is important to consider the “community context, the needs of the students to be served and the resources that are available for implementing the program.” Reference: Lindholm-Leary, K. & Genesee, F. (2010). “Alternative Educational Programs for English Learners.” Improving Education for English Learners: Research- Based Approaches. California Department of Education: Sacramento. Guidelines for Developing Native Language Instruction Plan and Language Allocation Guidelines Entering Level 1-1.9 Emerging/ Developing Level 2-3.5 Developing/ Expanding/ Bridging Level 3.6-4.9 English Instruction specifically targeted for ELs Supported English Content Instruction with ELD. 30% of Spanish instruction* averaged annually across content areas English Instruction specifically targeted for ELs English Instruction specifically targeted for ELs Supported English Content Instruction with ELD. Supported English Content Instruction with ELD. Content taught in Spanish per language allocation guidelines Minimum annual percentage of Spanish language instruction across shaded content areas** **Mathematics Spanish Instruction* Social Studies within approved plan. Science Native language supports provided by a fully qualified ELA-S Resource teacher. 20% of Spanish instruction* averaged annually across content areas Supported English Content Instruction with native language supports. Spanish Instruction* within approved plan. Native language supports provided by a fully qualified ELA-S Resource teacher. Supported English Content Instruction with native language supports. Academic Electives: Spanish AP Spanish Heritage Language Other Students must choose at least one Academic Elective in Spanish Students may choose at least one Academic Elective in Spanish Content taught in English English Language Development (ELD) Minimum of 45 Minute class for ELs Language Arts Students must choose at least one Academic Elective in Spanish *Best practice suggests that native language instruction should include SLD, Bridge, and Extension **Determined by taking total time spent in instruction in these content areas and time allocated to Spanish language instruction as averaged across all these subjects over the course of the year. Other Spanish language instruction opportunities may be identified in partnership with the District to help meet these minimum percentages. Program Design Comments REQUIRED: The bilingual program model is grounded in clearly articulated language allocation guidelines* that indicate when students will receive native language instruction, native language supports, Sheltered content instruction in English and English Language Development (ELD) as a part of their school day. *Refer to the guidance on language allocation guidelines above. REQUIRED: The bilingual program model is organized to promote second language acquisition using cognitively demanding and gradelevel appropriate content. Native language instruction and/or support is provided for all English learners, regardless of ELP level. REQUIRED: The program design includes a stand-alone ELD block daily for all English Learners, regardless of ELP level. The ELD block should last a minimum of 45 minutes, be taught by an ELA qualified teacher and utilizes a research based ELD curriculum. REQUIRED: The program describes the use of annual performance objectives, activities, timeframes, language(s), grade(s), performance standards that are tied to the language allocation guidelines. REQUIRED: The school leadership communicates the language allocation guidelines with appropriate stakeholders including new and returning families. Assessment and Accountability Comments REQUIRED: Student assessment data, including language proficiency data, is used to make educational programming decisions. REQUIRED: The language of assessment is aligned to the language of instruction. REQUIRED: Student assessment is aligned to the content and language standards and is used for evaluation of the program and instruction. RECOMMENDED: The school leadership uses multiple data measures for program accountability and evaluation. Curriculum and Resources/ Materials Comments REQUIRED: Standards based curriculums are used to support all content areas and the language allocation guidelines. REQUIRED: Resources are distributed equitably within the program and the school to support native language, Sheltered English and ELD instruction. RECOMMENDED: Scope and Sequence documents and/ or unit maps are used to outline native language instruction, as well as bridging and extensions in the content areas. RECOMMENDED: Classroom libraries are available in both English and Spanish for the ELA-S classrooms. Instruction Comments REQUIRED: Native language instruction is provided in bilingual classrooms, aligned to the language allocation guidelines, to develop academic language and literacy in the native language. REQUIRED: Language instruction is planned so that what is learned in one language supports and reinforces what is learned in the other language. RECOMMENDED: Teachers use a variety of cues (visual, color-coding, etc.) to clearly indicate how and when instruction will occur in Spanish, in English or in a bilingual metalinguistic space. RECOMMENDED: A variety of supports (sensory, visual and grouping) are utilized in all content areas and classrooms for English learners. RECOMMENDED: Differentiation for students of varying language abilities is evident both at the program level and the classroom level. Staff Recruiting and Retention Comments REQUIRED: A staffing structure and recruitment plan that includes: High quality bilingual teachers (i.e. ELA-S) Spanish-speaking paraprofessionals to provide native language supports A trained and bilingual counselor/designee for postsecondary readiness Spanish-speaking office staff REQUIRED: A trained school leader oversees and evaluates the effectiveness of ELA services provided by the school teachers. Staff evaluations are performed by personnel who are familiar with bilingual education. Bilingual teachers are evaluated by bilingual administrators. RECOMMENDED: Selection of new instructional, administrative, and support staff takes into consideration credentials and language proficiency. RECOMMENDED: Teacher evaluation, coaching and observation tools are reflective of the bilingual program model. Professional Development Comments REQUIRED: The school has a professional development plan to ensure that all staff members are trained on the bilingual program model, language allocation guidelines and its implementation. REQUIRED (Charter schools): The school has a designated trainer who will train staff on the ELA modules as a part of the ELA Qualification Training channel to ensure that all teachers gain their ELA qualification within two school years. RECOMMENDED: The principal attends professional development for the implementation of bilingual programming. RECOMMENDED: The professional development plan is aligned to the UIP. RECOMMENDED (District run schools): The principal supports teachers attending the ELA-S District professional development. Family and Community Comments REQUIRED (District run schools): The school has an effective PAC (Parent Advisory Committee) that is comprised of families of students receiving ELA program services that meets at least four-times per year. Provide the opportunity for PAC representatives to participate in the monthly ELA District Advisory Committee (DAC) meetings. REQUIRED (Charter schools): The school has an effective SAC or an equivalent structure that meets statutory requirements, includes families of students receiving ELA program services and monitors ELA programming REQUIRED: The school has a responsive infrastructure for positive, active, and ongoing relations with students’ families and the community in their home language. REQUIRED: The school has a process for articulating the Language Allocation Guidelines with prospective, new and returning families. RECOMMENDED: The school has parent education and support services that are reflective of the bilingual and multicultural goals of the program. RECOMMENDED: The program views and involves parents and community members as strategic partners. Implementation Plan (year 0-3) Comments REQUIRED: The principal will create a hiring plan for years 0-3 to ensure adequate staffing the bilingual program and its oversight and appropriately reflects staffing and other expenses associated with native language, Sheltered English and ELD instruction. REQUIRED: Budget is created for years 0-5 RECOMMENDED: Professional Development Plan is developed for years 0-3 RECOMMENDED: There is a coordinated plan for promoting bilingualism and biliteracy. RECOMMENDED: There is a coordinated plan for promoting crosscultural competence.