Writing Practice
1.) Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four
types of cellular transport.
Active transport
Facilitated diffusion
Endocytosis/ Exocytosis
For each of the three types of transport you choose,
a. describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell
membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules across membranes,
b. explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may
use different cell types as examples)
2.) Directions: Answer the following question.
Answer must be in essay form. Outline form is not acceptable. Labeled diagrams may be used to
supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice. It is important that you read
question completely before you begin to write. Write your answer on the lined pages that appear
the end of the question.
1. The unit of genetic organization in all living organisms is the chromosome.
(a) Describe the structure and function of the parts of a eukaryotic chromosome. You may wish
to include a diagram as part of your description.
(b) Describe the adaptive (evolutionary) significance of organizing genes into chromosomes.
(c) How does the function and structure of the chromosome differ in prokaryotes?
3.) Question: The one part of evolution tries to show unity and diversity exists among all
organisms on earth. All living organisms on Earth are either composed of Prokaryotic
cells or Eukaryotic cells. Justify unity by stating one cellular structure all organisms have
in common and for diversity state two structures that all eukaryotic cells possess that
Prokaryotic cells do not possess. For each structure state the structures function within
the cell
4.) Question: The nervous system runs off of electrical current generated through ion
concentration exchange across the neuron membrane. Neurons remain in a resting
potential state UNTIL stimulated by some form of energy. Then the stimulation may
generate an action potential “spike” within the cell, if the stimulus is strong enough. Tell
and describe the 3 components of an action potential within neuron.
5.) Question: The pyruvate conversion is an important step in being able to utilize
carbohydrates, lipids, or proteins (amino acids) for energy production by the
mitochondria. Explain the purpose of the Pyruvate conversion and how lipids and amino
acids become involved at this point
6.) Question: As animals are heterotrophic organisms, the ability to move and find food is
important. Movement on earth, for animals, occurs basically in three different
environments (Air, land, or water). Each environment has the same forces working
against movement (Friction and gravity). Choose ONE environment for movement and
tell to what degree each force hinders movement and describe how those forces are
overcome by the anatomical structure of animals that utilized that environment
7.) Question: Carbon is an extremely important element to all life forms on the planet. Life
on Earth, as we know it, could not exist without this element. A) Identify the ultimate
source of all Carbon for living organisms alive today and B)provide two brief
explanations of why Carbon is important molecularly speaking
8.) Question: Lectins are naturally occurring plant proteins that help promote increased
mitosis within plant root tips. These proteins influence the normal production of MPF
within the root cells and thereby speed up the cell cycle. In no more than three sentences,
state ONE similarity and TWO differences between Lectin influenced cells and cancer