Name ______________________________________________ Science Chapter 10 Study Guide 1. What did Gregor Mendel do to study different characteristics in his genetics experiments? 2. Which term refers to physical characteristics that are studied in genetics? 3. What does the notation T T mean to geneticists? 4. What is the probability of producing a tall pea plant from a genetic cross between two hybrid tall pea plants? 5. What is a mutation? 6. Cancer is a disease in which cells _________________________________. 7. An organism’s physical appearance is its __________________________. 8. Name some traits that are influenced by both inheritance and environmental factors. 9. A heterozygous organisms has ___________________________. 10.Which term or phrase describes what occurs when more that one gene controls the expression of a trait? 11. How are genes and chromosomes related? 12.Be able to identify what would happen if you mixed a hybrid with a purebred animal (What is the probability that each trait would be displayed)? 13.Why is it that if you mix a red snapdragon with a white one, you get pink offspring? 14. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. 15.Genes are carried from parents to their offspring on structures called ____________________. 16. Alleles that are neither dominant nor recessive produce an inheritance pattern known as ____________________. 17. A chart used to predict results of genetic crosses is known as a(n) ____________________. 18. The process in which a parent cell divides twice to produce sex cells is called ____________________. 19. An organism that has two dominant or two recessive alleles is said to be ____________________ for that trait. 20. The ability to speak a certain language is an ________________ trait. 21. When Mendel crossed purebred short plants with purebred tall plants, all of the offspring were _________________. 22. A mutation in a ________________ cell can be passed to offspring. 23. An organism’s _________________ is its allele combinations. 24. A _____________________ is a mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably. 25.Be able to identify which trait is dominant given alleles and characteristics. Which one is recessive? 26.Be able to identify genotype and phenotype of offspring in a Punnett square given characteristics and alleles. 27.Be able to identify where organisms are purebred and hybrid. 28.Be able to compare and contrast as well as name some pros and cons to sexual and asexual reproduction. 29. In pea plants, purple flower color is controlled by a dominant allele. White is controlled by a recessive allele. Explain why a plant with white flowers can never be a hybrid. 30. A woman gives birth to a son. Two years later, she gives birth to another son. What is the probability that her third child will be a girl? Explain your reasoning. 31. Explain the results when Mendel crossed purebred purple flowered and white flowered pea plants. 32.Contrast the effects of harmful and helpful mutations.