Lecture 3. 01.31. Ethnic Conflict

Spring 2013
PSC 3192 – Political Violence
Prof. Evgeny Finkel, [email protected]
Thursday, 11:10AM-1PM
Office Hours
Wed. 2-3PM; Thu. 2:30-3:30PM
Monroe 252
Monroe 419
Course Description
Millions of people around the globe are confronted with violence on a daily basis. This can
include violence such as civil wars, ethnic riots, suicide bombings, famines, and genocide. While
these types of violent phenomena are ancient, only in recent decades have scholars devoted
serious study and attention to analyzing political violence in its various forms. The goal of this
seminar is to introduce students to this thriving field of study, to present key academic works on
various aspects and forms of violence, to discuss the similarities and differences between various
forms of political violence, and to analyze the theoretical and methodological approaches to
studying violence. We will end by discussing the impact of violence on the societies and people
that have experienced it and the ways to prevent and manage future violent conflicts.
Learning Objectives and Outcomes
As a result of completing this course, students will be able to:
Understand the main theories that explain the emergence and the unfolding of various
types of violence as well as the key concepts of the field;
To write short response papers that critically evaluate the field’s main theories and
To be able to translate academic knowledge into writing for broader audiences
To write an independently researched academic paper
Requirements and Class Policies
The class is a seminar. This means that the students are expected to attend the lectures and to
read all the required materials. The class is structured around weekly meetings, in which the
instructor and the students critically evaluate and discuss the readings. Hence, students’ active
participation in the discussions is required and class participation is a substantial part of the final
grade. This is a writing-oriented class and the students will be required to conduct various
research and writing assignments that culminate in the end-of-class final research paper. In
addition, the students will be required to submit three short response papers, and to create a
Wikipedia page on a topic, concept, or personality related to their final paper.
Response Papers
During the semester the students will be required to submit four response papers. The exact dates
of the papers will be determined during the first lecture. The goal of each response paper is to
critically evaluate the readings that have been assigned for the coming lecture and raise points
and questions for the classroom discussion. In addition, the students who wrote the week’s
response papers will serve as “discussion leaders” and will present a short summary of their
paper at the beginning of the lecture. The response papers should be sent to the class e-mail list
no later than Wednesday at noon (EST). The response papers will be graded and the feedback
will help you to proceed with your final research paper.
Wikipedia Page
To disseminate public knowledge about various aspects of political violence and to help students
to translate academic knowledge into writing for broader, non-academic audiences, the students
will be required to create a new Wikipedia page on a concept, personality, or idea, related to
their final research paper. Additions to or amendments of the existing Wikipedia entries will not
be allowed. The topic for the Wikipedia page must be approved by the instructor; topic proposals
should be sent to me by Friday, March 1, 6pm. The students are strongly encouraged to consult
me before choosing a topic or during the research for and writing of the entry. The Wikipedia
page outline (2-3 pages) which includes the central argument and the internal division of the
article with at least two sentences devoted to each section, is due by Friday, March 29, 6PM. The
Wikipedia page should be well researched, well written, and properly formatted. The webpage
should be ready by Friday, April 19, 6pm and will be evaluated on that day. The length of the
entry will depend on the topic and will be determined by the instructor and the student.
Research Paper
The research paper provides you with the opportunity to pursue any analytical, theoretical, or
historical question about political violence that interests you. A good paper both informs and
persuades; to do this it must be logically organized, clearly argued, well researched, and well
documented. Avoid writing a paper that merely restates the readings. You are expected to do
some original thinking, research, and analysis in this paper. There are several excellent guides on
the web that I encourage you to consult on how to go about writing an analytical research paper.
Some good sites include:
How to Research a Political Science Paper, by Peter Liberman:
Writing Political Science Papers: Some Useful Guidelines, by Peter Liberman,:
Reading, Writing, and Researching for History: A Guide for College Students, by Patrick
Rael: http://www.bowdoin.edu/writing-guides/
Writing a Research Paper, by Sarah Hamid:
An accurate summary of some things not to do, which (unfortunately) students commonly
do, can be found at Advice on How to Write a Bad Paper.
Paper proposals (about one page) which include the topic, the argument, and at least five relevant
sources are due by Friday, February 15, 6PM; the paper outline and summary (two to three
pages) are due by Friday, March 22, 6PM. Remember, by that time you should also be in an
advanced stage of research and writing for the Wikipedia entry. The paper drafts will be
reviewed by your peers and discussed in class. The draft paper is due by Monday, April 8, 12PM
The final paper should be 18-20 pages, double spaced, Times New Roman 12 font (not including
bibliography), with one-inch margins. The final papers are due by Friday, May 3, 12PM. Late
submission of papers will be penalized by a half of a letter grade for every day of the delay. The
paper topic should be approved by the instructor. The students are strongly encouraged to discuss
their ideas and progress with the instructor, and I do expect to meet every student at least twice
during the class. If you are unable to come to my office hours, I will be happy to schedule a
meeting at a different time.
Grading Criteria
Response Papers: 10%
Wikipedia Page: 25%
Research Paper: 45%
Participation: 20%
Academic Conduct
I personally support the GW Code of Academic Integrity. It states: “Academic dishonesty is
defined as cheating of any kind, including misrepresenting one's own work, taking credit for the
work of others without crediting them and without appropriate authorization, and the fabrication
of information.” For the remainder of the code, see: http://www.gwu.edu/~ntegrity/code.html
Special Needs and Support outside the Classroom
Any student who may need an accommodation based on the potential impact of a disability
should contact the Disability Support Services office at 202-994-8250 in the Marvin Center,
Suite 242, to establish eligibility and to coordinate reasonable accommodations. For additional
information please refer to: http://gwired.gwu.edu/dss/
The University Counseling Center (UCC, 202-994-5300) offers 24/7 assistance and referral to
address students' personal, social, career, and study skills problems. Services for students
Crisis and emergency mental health consultations
Confidential assessment, counseling services (individual and small group), and referrals
Course Outline and Schedule
Lecture 1. 01.17: Course Overview and Description
Lecture 2. 01.24. Studying Violence: Perspectives and Concepts
Vittorio Bufacchi, "Two Concepts of Violence," Political Studies Review 3:2 (2005), pp.
Stathis Kalyvas, “The Ontology of Political Violence,” Perspectives on Politics, 2003,
1(3), pp. 475-494.
Kimberly Marten, “Warlordism in Comparative Perspective,” International Security,
31:3 (Winter 2006-2007), 41-73.
James Ron, “Varying Methods of State Violence,” International Organization, 51(2),
1997, pp. 275-300
Peter Turchin, “Dynamics of political instability in the United States, 1780–2010,”
Journal of Piece Research, 49(4), 2012, pp. 577-591
Lecture 3. 01.31. Ethnic Conflict
Barry Posen, “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict,” Survival, 1993, 35(1), pp. 2747.
Charles King, “The Benefits of Ethnic War: Understanding Eurasia's Unrecognized
States,” World Politics, 2001, 53(4), pp. 524-552.
V.P. Gagnon, “Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict: The Case of Serbia,”
International Security, 19(3), 1994-95, pp. 130-166.
James Fearon and David Laitin, “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War,” American
Political Science Review, 2003, 97(1), pp. 75-90.
Lars-Erik Cederman et al., “Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnonationalist Civil War: A
Global Comparison,” American Political Science Review, 105(3), 2011, pp. 478-495
Lecture 4. 02.07. Riots and Pogroms
Donald Horowitz, The Deadly Ethnic Riot (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of
California Press, 2001), pp. 1-42.
Steven Wilkinson, “Riots,” Annual Review of Political Science, 2009, 12, pp. 329-343.
Ashutosh Varshney, “Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond,” World
Politics, 2001, 53(3), pp. 362-398.
Steven Wilkinson, Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India,
(New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), ch. 1
Jeffrey Kopstein and Jason Wittenberg, “Deadly Communities: Local Political Milieus
and the Persecution of Jews in Occupied Poland,” Comparative Political Studies, 2011,
44(2), pp. 259-283.
Lecture 5. 02.14. Resistance, and Rebellion
Ted Gurr, Why Men Rebel, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970), ch. 2.
James Scott, The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast
Asia, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976), ch. 7.
Roger Gould, “Multiple Networks and Mobilization in the Paris Commune, 1871,”
American Sociological Review, 1991, 56(6), pp. 716-729.
Jack Goldstone and Bret Useem, “Prison Riots as Microrevolutions: An Extension of
State‐Centered Theories of Revolution,” American Journal of Sociology, 104(4), 1999,
pp. 985-1029.
Sarah Parkinson, “Organizing Rebellion: Rethinking High-Risk Mobilization and Social
Networks in War,” unpublished paper, will be distributed in hard copy.
Lecture 6. 02.21. Terrorism
Alan Krueger and Jitka Maleckova, “Education, Poverty, and Terrorism: Is There a
Causal Connection?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2003, 17(4), pp. 119–44.
Andrew Kydd and Barbara Walter, “The Strategies of Terrorism,” International Security,
2006, 31(1), pp. 49-80.
Robert Pape, “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism,” American Political Science
Review, 2003, 97(3), pp. 1-19.
Max Abrahms, “Why Terrorism Does Not Work,” International Security, 2006, 31(2),
pp. 42-78.
Claude Berrebi and Esteban Klor, “Are Voters Sensitive to Terrorism? Direct Evidence
from the Israeli Electorate,” American Political Science Review, 2008, 102(3), pp. 279301.
Lecture 7. 02.28. Civil War 1
Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, “Greed and Grievance in Civil War,” World Bank, 2001
Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era (Stanford:
Standford University Press, 2001), pp. 13-30, 69-89.
Stathis Kalyvas, “‘New’ and ‘Old’ Civil Wars: A Valid Distinction?” World Politics, 54
2001, 54, pp. 99-118.
Michael Ross, “What Do We Know about Natural Resources and Civil War?” Journal of
Pease Research, 2004, 41(3), pp. 337-356.
Stathis Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War, (New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2006), pp. 1-15, 146-209, 330-363.
Lecture 8. 03.07. Civil War 2
Stathis Kalyvas, “Ethnic Defection in Civil War,” Comparative Political Studies, 2008,
41(8), pp. 1043-1068.
Jason Lyall, Are Co-Ethnics More Effective Counter-Insurgents? Evidence from the
Second Chechen War,” American Political Science Review, 2010, 104(1), pp. 1-20.
Elisabeth Wood, “Armed Groups and Sexual Violence: When is Wartime Rape Rare?”
Politics and Society, 2009, 37(1), pp. 131-162.
Elisabeth Wood, Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador, (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2003), ch. 1.
Jeremy Weinstein, Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence, (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 1-60.
Lecture 9. 03.21. Genocide and Mass Violence 1
Scott Straus, “Contested meanings and conflicting imperatives: a conceptual analysis of
genocide,” Journal of Genocide Research, 2001, 3(3), pp. 349-375.
Christian Gerlach, “Extremely violent societies: an alternative to the concept of
genocide,” Journal of Genocide Research, 2006, 8(4), pp. 455-471.
Manus Midlarsky, Origins of Political Extremism: Mass Violence in the Twentieth
Century and Beyond, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 25-54.
Michael Mann, “The Dark Side of Democracy,” New Left Review I/235, May-June 1999,
pp. 18-45.
Scott Straus, “Retreating from the Brink: Theorizing Mass Violence and the Dynamics of
Restraint,” Perspectives on Politics, 10 (2), 2012, pp. 343-362
Charles King, “Can There be a Political Science of the Holocaust,” Perspectives on
Politics, 10(2), June 2012, pp. 323-341
Lecture 10. 03.28. Genocide and Mass Violence 2
Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the
Holocaust (New York: Knopf, 1996), pp. 1-24.
Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final
Solution in Poland (New York: Harper Collins, 1998), pp. 159-189.
Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (New York: Harper and
Row, 1973), pp. 1-12.
Benjamin Valentino, Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth
Century (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004), pp. 66-90.
Scott Straus, “Order in Disorder: A Micro-comparative Study of Genocidal Dynamics in
Rwanda,” in Stathis Kalyvas, Ian Shapiro and Tarek Masoud, Order, Conflict and
Violence, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 301-320.
Lecture 11. 04.04. War and Peace 1
Séverine Autesserre, “Hobbes and the Congo – Frames, Local Violence, and International
Intervention in the Congo,” International Organization, 2009, 63, pp. 249-280.
Page Fortna, "Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the
Duration of Peace After Civil War," International Studies Quarterly, 2004, 48(2), pp.
Peter Andreas, "Symbiosis Between Peace Operations and Illicit Business in Bosnia,"
International Peacekeeping, 2009, 16(1), pp. 33-46.
Benjamin Valentino, “The True Costs of Humanitarian Intervention: The Hard Truth
About a Noble Notion,” Foreign Affairs, 90(6), 2011, pp. 60-73
Christopher Blattman, “From Violence to Voting: War and Political Participation in
Uganda,” American Political Science Review, 2009, 103(2), pp. 231-247
Lecture 12. 04.11. Peer Review of Paper Drafts.
Lecture 13. 04.18. Peer Review of Paper Drafts.
Lecture 14. 04.25. War and Peace 2
Jennifer Lind, “Apologies in International Politics,” Security Studies, 2009, 18(3), pp.
Nicholas Sambanis, “Partition as a Solution to Ethnic War: An Empirical Critique of the
Theoretical Literature,” World Politics, 52(4), 2000, pp. 437-483.
Roy Licklider, “The Consequences of Negotiated Settlements in Civil Wars, 1945-1993,”
American Political Science Review, 89(3), 1995, pp. 681-690.
Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature, New York: Viking 2011, pp. TBA