fec12047-sup-0002-TableS1-S4-FigureS1-S5

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Supporting Information
Table S1. Standardized Major Axis regression slopes and their confidence intervals for log-log transformed relationships comparing leaf traits of
glasshouse-grown Australian temperate wet forest (12 species, 64 individuals) and tropical wet forest (13 species, 65 individuals) species. Area-based
rates of gas exchange (measured at 25oC) were used in the analysis. Coefficients of determination (r2) and significance values (p) of each bivariate
relationship are shown. Significantly different p values are shown in bold. 95% confidence intervals (CI) of SMA slopes and y-axis intercepts are
shown in parentheses. In all bivariate cases, SMA tests for common slopes revealed no significant differences between the two wet forest groups (i.e.
p>0.05). Hence, when plotting bivariate relationships (Figs 1 and 2), common slopes were used (with CI of the common slopes provided). Where
there was a significant difference in elevation (i.e. y-axis intercept) of the common-slope SMA regressions, values for the elevation are provided.
Where appropriate, significant shifts along a common slope are indicated. Abbreviations: Temp, temperate wet forest group; Trop, tropical wet forest
group; [N], leaf nitrogen concentration; [P], leaf phosphorus concentration; LMA, leaf mass per area; A400, light-saturated net photosynthesis measured
under 400 ppm atmospheric [CO2]; A1500, light-saturated net photosynthesis measured under 1500 ppm atmospheric [CO2]; Rdark, leaf dark respiration
measured under 400 ppm atmospheric [CO2].
Bivariate relationship
(y- vs x-axis)
A400 vs LMA
A1500 vs LMA
Rdark vs LMA
A400 vs [N]
A1500 vs [N]
Rdark vs [N]
1
Group
r2
p
Slope
Slope CI
Temp
0.001
0.814
0.954
(0.742,1.226)
Trop
0.18
<0.001
1.398
(1.115,1.753)
Temp
0.05
0.078
0.676
(0.529,0.863)
Trop
0.25
<0.001
1.127
(0.908,1.399)
Temp
0.17
0.001
1.169
(0.930,1.469)
Trop
0.15
0.001
1.304
(1.036,1.641)
Temp
0.06
0.057
1.227
(0.961,1.567)
Trop
0.29
<0.001
1.337
(1.082,1.652)
Temp
0.19
<0.001
0.87
(0.693,1.091)
Trop
0.39
<0.001
1.078
(0.886,1.311)
Temp
0.19
<0.001
1.504
(1.199,1.887)
0.328
1.247
Trop
0.02
(0.974,1.597)
Common slope
Common slope CI
p
1.178
--
0.027
0.901
--
0.003
1.234
(1.05,1.451)
0.494
1.289
(1.099,1.512)
0.579
0.984
(0.847,1.142)
0.138
1.381
(1.168,1.633)
0.265
Common slope y-axis intercept
-----2.231b
-2.354a
Shift along a common slope?
No
No
Yes
-1.220a
-1.272a
1.066b
0.988a
Yes
Yes
2.449b
2.170a
No
Table S2. Pearson correlation values (top right hand corner of table) for bivariate trait relationships
from A-Ci curve fitting results (see main text for species used), irrespective of environmental origin
of species. Leaf traits were log10 -transformed before analysis. Abbreviations: LMA, leaf dry mass
per unit leaf area; [N], mass-based nitrogen concentration (% dry mass); Vcmax, carboxylation
capacity; Jmax, photosynthetic electron transport capacity;
LMA
[N]
Jmax/Vcmax
Vcmax
2
[N]
-0.71***
Jmax/Vcmax Vcmax
Jmax
0.37**
-0.59***
-0.57***
-0.31**
0.55***
0.52***
-0.48**
0.18ns
0.94***
Table S3. Standardized Major Axis regression slopes and their confidence intervals for log-log transformed relationships comparing leaf traits of glasshouse-grown
Australian temperate wet forest (12 species, 64 individuals) and tropical wet forest (13 species, 65 individuals) species. Analysis undertaken using species means of
mass based data; for comparable analysis using individual plant replicate data, see Table 3 in the main text. Dry mass-based rates of gas exchange (measured at
25oC) were used in the analysis. Coefficients of determination (r2) and significance values (p) of each bivariate relationship are shown. Significantly different p
values are shown in bold. 95% confidence intervals (CI) of SMA slopes and y-axis intercepts are shown in parentheses. In all bivariate cases, SMA tests for
common slopes revealed no significant differences between the two wet forest groups (i.e. p>0.05). Hence, when plotting bivariate relationships (Figs 1 and 2),
common slopes were used (with CI of the common slopes provided). Where there was a significant difference in intercept of the common-slope SMA regressions,
values for the y-axis intercept (intercept) are provided. Where appropriate, significant shifts along a common slope are indicated. Abbreviations: Temp, temperate
wet forest group; Trop, tropical wet forest group; [N], leaf nitrogen concentration; [P], leaf phosphorus concentration; LMA, leaf mass per area; Asat, light-saturated
net photosynthesis measured under 400 ppm atmospheric [CO2]; A1500, light-saturated net photosynthesis measured under 1500 ppm atmospheric [CO2]; Rdark, leaf
dark respiration measured under 400 ppm atmospheric [CO2].
Bivariate
relationship
(y- vs x-axis)
[N] vs LMA
A400 vs LMA
A1500 vs LMA
Rdark vs LMA
A400 vs [N]
A1500 vs [N]
Rdark vs [N]
3
Group
r2
p
Slope
Slope CI
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
0.408
0.172
0.548
0.108
0.646
0.204
0.141
0.157
0.507
0.392
0.643
0.656
0.297
0.025
0.158
0.006
0.273
0.002
0.121
0.229
0.180
0.009
0.022
0.002
0.001
0.067
-0.750
-0.931
-1.334
-1.088
-1.013
-0.837
-0.865
-0.754
1.777
1.168
1.349
0.899
1.153
(-1.26,-0.447)
(-1.65,-0.526)
(-2.107,-0.844)
(-1.965,-0.602)
(-1.522,-0.674)
(-1.468,-0.477)
(-1.599,-0.469)
(-1.343,-0.424)
(1.104,2.862)
(0.711,1.92)
(0.896,2.033)
(0.615,1.314)
(0.658,2.021)
Trop
0.056
0.437
-0.810
(-1.486,-0.442)
Common slope y-
Intercept
Common
slope
Common slope CI
p
2.904
-0.825
(-0.567,-1.211)
0.577
1.641
-1.241
(-0.862,-1.763)
0.588
1.4707
-0.952
(-0.682,-1.309)
0.584
-0.1022
-0.805
(-0.532,-1.217)
0.727
-3.521
1.46
(1.016,2.073)
0.216
no
no
-2.448
1.086
(0.803,1.467)
0.136
no
no
-3.4517
0.985
(0.647,1.480)
0.397
no
no
axis intercept
3.045a
2.926b
1.465a
1.284b
1.355a
1.157b
-0.217a
-0.400b
Shift along a
common slope?
no
no
no
no
Table S4. Standardized Major Axis regression slopes and their confidence intervals for log-log transformed relationships comparing leaf traits of glasshouse-grown
Australian temperate wet forest (10 species, 52 individuals) and tropical wet forest (11 species, 55 individuals) angiosperm species. Dry mass-based rates of gas
exchange (measured at 25oC) were used in the analysis. Coefficients of determination (r2) and significance values (p) of each bivariate relationship are shown.
Significantly different p values are shown in bold. 95% confidence intervals (CI) of SMA slopes and y-axis intercepts are shown in parentheses. In all bivariate
cases, SMA tests for common slopes revealed no significant differences between the two wet forest groups (i.e. p>0.05). Hence, when plotting bivariate
relationships (Figs 1 and 2), common slopes were used (with CI of the common slopes provided). Where there was a significant difference in elevation (i.e. y-axis
intercept) of the common-slope SMA regressions, values for the elevation are provided. Where appropriate, significant shifts along a common slope are indicated.
Abbreviations: Temp, temperate wet forest group; Trop, tropical wet forest group; [N], leaf nitrogen concentration; [P], leaf phosphorus concentration; LMA, leaf
mass per area; A400, light-saturated net photosynthesis measured under 400 ppm atmospheric [CO2]; A1500, light-saturated net photosynthesis measured under 1500
ppm atmospheric [CO2]; Rdark, leaf dark respiration measured under 400 ppm atmospheric [CO2].
Bivariate
relationship
(y- vs x-axis)
[N] vs. LMA
A400 vs. LMA
A1500 vs.
LMA
Rdark vs. LMA
A400 vs. [N]
A1500 Vs. [N]
Rdark vs. [N]
4
Group
r2
p
Slope
Slope CI
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
Trop
Temp
0.294
0.070
0.324
0.052
0.494
0.138
0.235
0.108
0.260
0.175
0.401
0.325
0.263
0.004
<0.001
0.05
<0.001
0.095
<0.001
0.005
<0.001
0.014
<0.001
0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
0.659
-0.813
-0.873
-1.455
-1.474
-1.147
-1.192
-1.395
-1.388
1.790
1.690
1.412
1.366
1.716
-1.590
(-1.03,-0.642)
(-1.135,-0.671)
(-1.834,-1.154)
(-1.922,-1.131)
(-1.403,-0.939)
(-1.535,-0.926)
(-1.784,-1.091)
(-1.795,-1.073)
(1.405,2.28)
(1.319,2.165)
(1.135,1.756)
(1.092,1.71)
(1.348,2.185)
(-2.087,-1.212)
Trop
Common
slope
Common slope CI
p
-0.839
(-0.704,-1)
0.677
-1.463
(-1.23,-1.741)
0.948
-1.164
(-0.996,-1.362)
0.831
-1.391
(-1.165,-1.661)
0.971
1.741
(1.465,2.068)
0.736
1.390
(1.189,1.623)
0.830
1.660
(1.386,1.986)
0.673
Common
slope yaxis
intercept
3.034b
2.96a
1.671b
1.834a
1.714b
1.522a
0.771b
0.619a
-3.453b
-3.488a
-2.5b
-2.59a
-4.263b
-4.293a
Shift along
a common
slope?
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
Figure S1. Australia-wide spatial distributions of each of the tropical and temperate wet-forest species used in our glasshouse study. Distributions
show are mapped occurrence patterns obtained from the Atlas of Living Australia website (http://bie.ala.org.au/species/), with individual mapped
occurrences shown as blue or orange data points on maps of Australia.
Biome
Species distribution
Agathis robusta
Cryptocarya laevigata
Doryphora aromatica
Dysoxylum papuanum
Ficus destruens
Ganophyllum falcatum
Gomphandra australiana
Prumnopitys ladei
Synima cordierorum
Syzygium kuranda
Toona ciliata
Wrightia laevis
Acacia verticillata
Acradenia frankliniae
Anopterus glandulosus
Aristotelia peduncularis
Atherosperma moschatum
Athrotaxis selaginoides
Eucalyptus regnans
Hedycarya angustifolia
Lagarostrobos franklinii
Nothofagus cunninghamii
Tasmannia lanceolata
Tropical
Temperate Eucryphia lucida
5
Xanthophyllum octandrum
Figure S2. Matrix showing distribution in relation to rainfall of the tropical and temperate wet-forest species used in our glasshouse study.
Distribution values have been arranged in annual rainfall classes (in groups of 100 mm year -1), using mapped occurrence patterns and associated
rainfall values from the Atlas of Living Australia website (http://bie.ala.org.au/) (dark blue indicates species presence; light blue indicates species
absence). We acknowledge the generous help of Dr Adam Carroll (Division of Plant Sciences, ANU) in obtaining and processing of the rainfall
distribution data.
Biome
Species
Distribution across wet forest sites differing in rainfall (mm)
100-200
Agathis robusta
Doryphora aromatica
Dysoxylum pachyphyllum
Ficus destruens
Ganophyllum falcatum
Tropical
Gomphandra australiana
Prumnopitys ladei
Synima cordierorum
Syzygium kuranda
Toona ciliata
Wrightia laevis
Xanthophyllum octandrum
Acacia verticillata
Acradenia frankliniae
Anopterus glandulosus
Aristotelia peduncularis
Atherosperma moschatum
Temperate
Athrotaxis selaginoides
Eucalyptus regnans
Eucryphia lucida
Hedycarya angustifolia
Lagarostrobos franklinii
Nothofagus cunninghamii
Tasmannia lanceolata
6
200-300
300-400
400-500
500-600
600-700
700-800
800-900
900-1000
1000-1100 1100-1200 1200-1300 1300-1400 1400-1500 1500-1600 1600-1700 1700-1800 1800-1900 1900-2000 >2000
Figure S3. An example curve fitting of the response of light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate, A (areabased) to intercellular CO2 (Ci) for a leaf from a temperate wet forest species (Eucalyptus regnans).
Dashed line corresponds to Rubisco-limited rates (Ac) and the dotted line corresponds to RuBPregeneration limited rates (Aj) for an A-Ci curve. Vcmax and Jmax were calculated from curve fits using
equations in the Materials and Methods. For this replicate, Vcmax (carboxylation capacity) and Jmax
(photosynthetic electron transport capacity) values were 103.8 and 172.3 μmol m–2 s–1, respectively.
60
50
-2
-1
Anet (mol m s )
70
40
30
20
10
Measured
Modeled Ac
0
Modeled Aj
0
500
1000
1500
Ci (ppm)
7
2000
2500
Figure S4. Log-log plots of area-based leaf gas exchange rates in relation to leaf mass per unit leaf
area (LMA) (A, C, E) and leaf [N] (B, D, F) for glasshouse-grown 12 temperate and 13 tropical wet
forest species. (A) and (B) show rates of light-saturated photosynthesis measured at 400 ppm [CO2]
(A400), while (C) and (D) show rates of light-saturated photosynthesis measured at 1500 ppm [CO2]
(A1500). (E) and (F) show rates of leaf respiration measured in darkness (Rdark). Data points represent
individual plant values (temperate, 64 individuals; tropical, 65 individuals). Standardized Major
Axis (SMA) tests for common slopes revealed no significant difference when comparing temperate
and tropical species, but with the elevation (i.e. y-axis intercept) of the bivariate relationship being
higher in temperate species when plotted against LMA (Table 2); no difference in elevation was
found when plotted against leaf [N]. Symbols: closed symbols, temperate species; open symbols,
tropical species. SMA regressions: solid line, temperate species; dashed line, tropical species; dotted
line, both temperate and tropical species combined
(B)
(A)
30
-2
-1
A400 (umol m s )
Temperate
Tropical
10
3
(C)
(D)
(E)
(F)
-2
-1
A1500 (umol m s )
1
100
30
10
-2
-1
Rdark (umol m s )
3
10
3
1
.3
20
40
80
160
-2
LMA (g m )
8
1
3
10
-2
Leaf [N] (g m )
Figure S5. Log-log plots of mass-based rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A400) (A and B) and
respiration in darkness (Rdark) (C and D) versus [N] and LMA. Values for our data from glasshousegrown temperate and tropical wet forest species are shown on top of GLOPNET leaf trait values
(Wright et al. 2004).
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
2.5
-1
-1
A400 (nmol g s )
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.5
-1
-1
Rdark (nmol g s )
0.5
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.0
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
-2
LMA (g m )
9
3.0-0.5
0.0
0.5
Leaf [N] (%)
1.0
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