Animal Reproduction and Genetics

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Animal Reproduction and Genetics
COMPETENCY: 014.00
Discuss reproduction management used in the animal science industry.
OBJECTIVE: 014.01
Define terminology related to reproductive management and breeding
systems including castration, colustrum, estrus, gestation, lactation,
and parturition
Terminology
•
•
•
•
•
•
Castration
– __________________________________________________
Colustrum
– __________________________________________________
Gestation
– __________________________________________________
Estrus
– __________________________________________________
____________________________
– Period of time that milk is secreted by the mammary glands
Parturition
– __________________________________________________
OBJECTIVE: 014.02
Discuss crossbreeding, grading up, inbreeding, linebreeding, and
purebred breeding
Breeding Systems
•
•
•
Pure Breeding
– ________________________________________________
– ________________________________________________
Cross Breeding
– ________________________________________________
– ________________________________________________
Inbreeding
– ________________________________________________
– ________________________________________________
– ________________________________________________
•
•
– ________________________________________________
Linebreeding
– Breeding more distant relatives than inbreeding
– ________________________________________________
Grading-Up
– Mating purebred ___________________ to unregistered or
corssbred _________________________
– ________________________________________________
– Hybrid Vigor
• ______________________________________________
• ______________________________________________
COMPETENCY: 015.00
Analyze how the female reproductive system of livestock functions.
OBJECTIVE: 015.01
Identify the parts of the female reproductive system of livestock.
Female Reproductive System
Ovary - the ovary is comparable to the male testicle and is the site of
___________________ production.
– A bovine animal has __________________ potential eggs per ovary,
while a human female has __________________ potential eggs per
ovary.
– Ova are fully developed at ____________________ and are not
continuously produced as in the male.
– All species contain two functional ovaries except for the hen which has
only a _________________ functioning ovary.
The ovaries have three major functions:
• ____________________ production
• Secrete _______________________________ (hormone)
o absence of muscle development
o development of mammary glands
o development of reproductive systems and external genitalia
o fat deposition on hips and stomach (source of energy)
o ______________________________________________
• Form the ___________________________________________
Infundibulum - the ____________________shaped portion of the fallopian
tube near the ovary that ___________________ the ovulated egg.
_______________________________ - pair of small tubes leading from the
ovaries to the horns of the uterus (5 - 6 inches).
– ______________________________ occurs in the oviduct.
– Egg travels from ovary to uterine horn in ______________ days
_______________________________ - The anterior, divided end of the
uterus in the cow, ewe, and mare. Sow has only 2 horns, no body, woman
has no horns, only body.
Uterus - Muscular sac connecting fallopian tubes and cervix
1. Sustains the sperm and aids in its _______________________
2.
__________________________________________________________
________________________________________________
3. Expels fetus at parturition
Cervix
– ____________________________________________________
– Normally closed
– Opens at estrus and parturition
– (2 -3 inches)
Vagina _____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
1. admits penis
2. receives semen (except in __________________)
3. passageway for _________________________ at parturition
Bladder - ________________________________________________
______________________ - extended genitalia; opening for both urinary
and genital tracts
Reproductive Functions (Female)
Steps in the female reproductive process:
1. Ovulation
— Produce gamete (ova or ovum)
— ________________________________________________
— Infundibulum pushes the ovum into the fallopian tube
2. Estrus (heat, estrous period)
–Period of time when a female will accept a male in copulation
–The female must stand (standing heat) to be mounted before the
reproductive process can begin
3. Gestation
— ________________________________________________
— ________________________________________________
4. _________________________
— Expel fully developed young at birth
5. Lactation
— _________________________________________________
Ovulation Rates by Species
Cow- __________________________________________
Ewe- __________________________________________
Sow- __________________________________________
Mare-__________________________________________
Hen- Approx. ______________________ eggs per month
Gestation and Lactation Periods
Species
Cow
Ewe
Sow
Mare
Woman
Gestation Period Lactation(Milking)
275 - 285 days beef 180 - 270 days
dairy 305 - 365 days
115 - 142 days 60 - 90 - 120 days
112 - 115 days 21 - 42 days
330 - 345 days 90 - 150 days
270 days
? years
Estrous period
Cow
Ewe
Sow
Mare
Hens & Women
length by species:
________________ hours
24 - 36 hours
48 - 72 hours
90 - 170 hours
________________
Estrous cycle - time from one ________________ (or menstrual cycle) to
the next.
Length of estrous cycle by species:
Cow
19 - 21 days
Ewe
16 - 17 days
Sow
19 - 21 days
Mare
21 - 24 days
Woman
28 days
Hen
none
The Male Reproductive Tract
_______________________ - external sac that holds testicles outside of the
body to keep sperm at _______________ cooler than the body temperature
Testicles - the primary male organs of reproduction
• _______________________________________________
• _______________________________________________
Epididymis - _________________________ that is a path for sperm
– Provide passageway for sperm out of the seminiferous tubules
– __________________________________________________
– Fluid secretion to nourish sperm
– __________________________________________________
___________________________ - slender tube from epididymis to urethra
which moves sperm to the urethra at ejaculation
Urethra - long tube from _________________________; passageway for
urine and sperm out of the body
____________________________ - male organ of copulation which
conveys semen and urine out of the body
Penis retractor muscle - allows extension and retraction of the penis;
sigmoid flexure extends in copulation
Accessory Glands:
•Seminal vesicles- add fructose and citric acid to nourish the sperm
•Prostate Gland - located at the neck of the bladder
– ________________________ prior to and during ejaculation
– _________________________________________________
– provides the medium for sperm transport
•Cowper’s gland
•Also called the _________________________________ gland
•Paired organs
•Cleans the urethra prior to semen passage
Reproduction in Poultry
COMPETENCY: 017.00
Examine animal science reproduction in poultry.
OBJECTIVE: 017.01
Describe the reproductive system of egg-laying species such as
poultry.
The poultry oviduct has five parts:
1) Vagina
– _____________________________________________
2) Uterus
– _____________________________________________
3) Isthmus
– _____________________________________________
4) Magnum
– _____________________________________________
5) Infundibulum
– _____________________________________________
Reproduction in Poultry
Major difference:
o Embryo of livestock develop inside
female’s body while the embryo of
poultry develops inside the egg.
o Poultry only have the ___________
ovary and oviduct when mature
o Chicken Incubation
– __________________ days
the
Animal Reproduction and Genetics
COMPETENCY: 018.00
Recognize the importance of genetics in animal science.
OBJECTIVE: 018.01
Describe the cell and processes involved in cell division including how
genes affect the transmission of characteristics.
The body is made up of _____________________ of tiny cells
• Most of the cell is made up of protoplasm
• Cell parts:
 Nucleus
 Cytoplasm
 Cell membrane
Cell Division
•
•
Mitosis
–__________________________________________
–__________________________________________
–__________________________________________
Meiosis
–__________________________________________
–Only have one-half the chromosomes of normal cells
Fertilization
•
•
•
•
When the sperm from a male reaches the egg from a female
Two cells join to form a complete cell
Pairs of _________________________ are formed again
Many different combinations of traits are formed
Chromosomes
•_________________________________________________
•_________________________________________________
•Found in the cell nucleus
•_________________________________________________
The number of chromosome pairs differ for various animals
– Cattle _______
– Swine _______
– Horses _______
– Chickens _______
– Humans _______
Genes
•Located on __________________________________
•Thousands found in each animal
•Control inherited characteristics
– Carcass traits
– Growth rate
– Feed efficiency
•Two types of inherited traits
 ___________________________
 ___________________________
•Dominant gene
–__________________________________________________
–__________________________________________________
–__________________________________________________
•Recessive
–__________________________________________________
–__________________________________________________
Example:
The dominant gene is written- P
The recessive gene is written-p
P= Polled
p= horned
Homozygous and Heterozygous
•
___________________________ gene pair
–Carries two genes for a trait
–Polled cow might carry the gene PP
•
___________________________
–Carries two different genes that affect a trait
–Polled cows might carry a recessive gene with the dominant Pp
Predicting Genotype
• Genotype-___________________________________________
• Phenotype- the ___________________ appearance of an animal
• ___________________________ are used to predict genotypes and
phenotypes of animals
Example:
Two polled cattle that are homozygous for the polled trait
P= Polled
p= horned
Heritability
OBJECTIVE: 018.02
Discuss heritability estimates for beef cattle and swine.
Heritability________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
____________________________________
–Low heritability
•___________________ herd improvement
–High heritability
•___________________ improvement
Heritability
•Swine rates are usually __________________ than cattle
•Heritiability for carcass traits are _________________ than
reproductive traits
•Estimates vary from __________________%
Heritability Review
•Herd improvement
–____________________________________________
–____________________________________________
•Estimates are higher for:
–____________________________________________
–____________________________________________
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