QUESTION FORMATION IN KONO LANGUAGE

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QUESTION FORMATION IN KONO LANGUAGE
BAKARE, Olasubomi Monsurat
O7/15CB047
A LONG ESSAY SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF
LINGUISTICS AND NIGERIAN LANGUAGES, FACULTY OF ARTS,
UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, KWARA STATE
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS, (B.A. HONS)
LINGUISTICS
JUNE, 2011.
CERTIFICATION
This essay has been read and approved as meeting the requirements of the Department of
Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
____________________________
MR. S. A. AJE
Project Supervisor
_________________________
DATE
____________________________
PROF. A. S. ABDUSSALAM
_________________________
DATE
Head of Department
____________________________
EXTERNAL EXAMINER
_________________________
DATE
ii
DEDICATION
This research work is dedicated to Almighty Allah who has always been there for me
at all times.
To my mother, Alhaja Memunat Bakare. Am so happy to have you
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My profound gratitude goes to Almighty Allah for sustaining me throughout the period of
my studies.
My parents have been my priceless gift from Allah, you have invested so much on me
and I pray you live long to reap the fruit of your labour.
I will never forget my siblings; Mr. Olawale Bakare and Miss Oluwatosin Bakare. I pray
that Allah will make you head among your equals. I love you.
Words are inadequate to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Mr. S. A. Aje.
Your fatherly supervision is of immeasurable value to me. It is a privilege to be your supervisee.
I say a big thank you to Mr. R.L. Bello for his advice and moral support throughout this
project work, may the good Lord reward you abundantly.
To my informants, Mrs. Asabe Luka and Martha Luka. Thanks for helping me with the
language; God bless you.
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LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
S-
Sentence
GB-
Government and Binding
X-
X-Bar
Ө-
Theta
Spec- Specifier
SP-
Maximal projection
CP-
Complementizer phrase
IP-
Inflectional phrase
INFL- Inflection
NP-
Noun phrase
VP-
Verb phrase
AP-
Adjectival phrase
PP-
Prepositional phrase
N-
Noun
V-
Verb
P-
Preposition
N1-
N-Bar
V1-
V-Bar
A1-
A-Bar
C2-
C-Bar
AGR- Agreement
TNS- Tense
SS-
Surface structure
DS-
Deep structure
(Ti)-
Empty category
MOVE α - Move alpha
DET- Determiner
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Certification
i
Dedication
ii
Acknowledgements
iii
List of Symbol and Abbreviation
v
Table of Contents
vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0
General Background
1
1.1
Historical Background
1
1.2
Socio-Cultural Profile
1
1.2.1 Sociocultural Profile
2
1.2.1.1 Occupation
2
1.2.1.2 Marriage
2
1.2.1.3 Festival
2
1.2.1.4 Religion
3
1.2.1.5 Mode of Dressing
3
1.2.1.6 Naming Ceremony
4
1.2.1.7 Burial Rites
4
1.2.1.8 Circumcision
4
1.3
The Sociolinguistics of Kono
4
1.4
Research Methodology
6
1.5
Scope and Organization of Study
7
1.6
Theoretical Framework (Traditional Generative Grammar)
8
1.6.1.1 A Brief Review of the Theoretical Framework
8
1.6.1.2 X-Bar Theory
12
1.6.1.3 Case Theory
13
vi
1.6.1.4 Binding Theory
14
1.6.1.5 Movement Theory
16
CHAPTER TWO: BASIC PHONOLOGICAL/SYNTACTIC CONCEPTS
2.0
Introduction
18
2.1
Brief Phonological Analysis
18
2.1.1 Distribution of Kono Consonants
19
2.1.2 Distribution of Kono Vowels
32
2.1.2.1 Nasalized Vowels
2.2
2.1.3 Tonal System in Kono Language
40
2.1.4 The Syllable Structure
41
Syntactic Category
47
2.2.1 Lexical Category
47
2.2.2
2.3
37
2.2.1.1 Noun
47
2.2.2.1.2 Verb
51
2.2.1.3 Preposition
52
2.2.1.4 Pronoun
53
2.2.1.5 Adjective
53
2.2.1.6 Adverb
54
2.2.1.7 Conjunction
55
Phrase Structure Rules
55
2.2.2.1 Noun Phrase in Kono
55
2.2.2.2 Verb Phrase in Kono
56
2.2.2.3 Adjectival Phrase in Kono
57
2.2.2.4 Prepositional Phrase in Kono
57
2.2.2.5 The Kono Word Order
58
2.2.2.6 Sentence Types
58
Question Formation
63
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CHAPTER THREE: THE QUESTION TYPES IN KONO
3.0
Introduction
64
3.1
Question Formation in Kono Language
64
3.1.1 Wh-Question
64
3.1.1.1 Chi ‘Where’
65
3.1.1.2 Wh-Question in Kono: Àgúména ‘Who’
68
3.1.1.3 Exclamatory Question Formation: Akúyá’a “why”
70
3.1.1.4 Bùkúyà ‘What’
72
3.1.1.5 Emawa’a ‘When’
76
3.1.1.6 Búchámá: Marks the WH Question ‘Which’
78
3.1.17 Iya’a ‘How’
80
3.2
Yes/No Answer Question
83
3.3
Echo Question
86
3.4
Tag Question
89
3.5
Alternative Question
91
3.6
Rhetorical Question
92
CHAPTER FOUR: TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESS IN KONO QUESTION FORMATION
4.0
Introduction
94
4.1
Transformational Process in Kono WH-Question
94
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0
Introduction
101
5.1
Summary and Conclusion
101
5.2
Recommendations
101
Bibliography
103
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
viii
1.0
GENERAL BACKGROUND
The objective of this research work is to study question formation that is how question
are formed in Kono language.
Kono people are found in Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.1.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The Kono people are said to have migrate from a deep forest where they were surrounded
by mountains in the northern part of Kaduna.
The Kono people do not have a written history of their language but the elders of Kono can only
say orally what was told as story by their fore father.
Western civilization brought a lot of changes to the Kono community which includes
mode of dressing, cultural, and traditional beliefs and religion.
1.2.
SOCIOCULTURAL PROFILE
This section examines the socio cultural profile of the Kono people. We shall discuss
their cultural heritage and the socio linguistics of Kono. Driving the socio cultural profile of
Kono are; mode of dressing, religion, festival and ceremony. These are followed by the
sociolinguistics.
1.2.1. Sociocultural Profile
1.2.1.1.Occupation
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The major occupation of the Kono people are subsidized farmers through commercial
farming is also practiced. The major crop in Kono is sugar-cane. They also have other food crops
like Yam, Millet, Corn, Cassava e.t.c it is also said that there is a yam which is not planted but
grows itself, it is called “Mọrọngo”, the yam can only be eating but it can’t be pounded
according to the people of Kono. Hunting is done during dry season when farm work would have
reduced.
1.2.1.2 Marriage
Kono has a distinct way by which marriage is done. it indicates that a lazy man cannot
marry a Kono child, that is any man who is ready for marriage must first get the girl a carved
wood and axe for house shore because the carved wood will be used to carry fire wood from the
farm.
Also, a man that marries a Kono lady apart from being qualified age-wise will have to
farm for the family of the lady he intend to marry before and after marriage and this is done till
date in Kono. Another important thing about Kono marriage system i that no marriage ceremony
comes up during raining season because people will be busy with farm activities.
1.2.1.3 Festival
The Kono people don’t really have many festivals but some of the festivals they have are
called ‘Burkama’ and Kono day.
Most of the festival done in Kono comes up during the dry season because of farm work.
Burkama festival which the people always look forward to especially those that does not stay in
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the community. The term ‘Burkama’ means king or creator, during this festival; people show
appreciation to their creator for sparing their lives up to another harvest period.
Kono day is a period when Kono people from all field of works in life come together to
celebrate their tribe and this comes up usually during Christmas. The Konos and the non-native
of Kono celebrate together during this festival.
1.2.1.4 Religion
Before the arrival / coming of the Europeans into Africa and to Nigeria, the Kono people
are mainly traditional worshipers. When the Europeans came and introduced Christianity.
Christianity took over as a result of the missionaries who came and today we have about 95% of
Kono that are Christians while 50% are either Muslim or idol worshiper.
1.2.1.5 Mode of Dressing
Before the coming of the Europeans the Kono men use to dress in animal skin to cover
their private parts, they called it ‘Gupansu’ while the women used leaves and animal skin.
However the arrived of the Europeans brought changes to the dressing of the people and they
embraced the western way of dressing.
1.2.1.6 Naming Ceremony
The Kono people do their naming ceremony on the day the child is born by giving the
child his or her name, unlike today where we have to wait for a week in other to celebrate in full.
They do not believe in such celebration before now.
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1.2.1.7 Burial Rites
The major way burial is done is after death. The person is been washed and wrapped with
mat and the ground will be digged and the dead body will be lead in the grave.
The family of the deceased will have hair barbed, the extracts from the remains of guinea
corn that is use for eating and the lips are been pierced.
1.2.1.8 Circumcision
The Kono people even before their contact with religion normally have circumcision of
only male children at the age of ten and below. This is usually done traditionally by some people
who are said to be professionals in circumcision. This people use knife made by blacksmith
called Jọpore.
1.3
THE SOCIOLINGUISTICS OF KONO
The Kono community is surrounded by different towns and communities such as Kinuhu,
Dingi, Gure, Kiwapa and Gbure. Some of these communities speak Kono. They are Padan kono
and Gbure communities. Hausa and Fulani speaking people are close to the Kono community.
Christian missionaries brought Christian religion and western education to the Kono
people. So, there are schools. A white woman known as (majinmja) built a church which later
became a school.
Following the Greenberg (1963) of language classification which is considered to the
Benue – Congo language family. The language has over 17,000 speakers. According to
WWW.ehmologue.com (2009). The genetic tree below shows the origin of Kono language from
the Niger-Congo language phylum.
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Niger-Congo
Manda
West Atlantic
Akpes
Cur
CrossRiver
Ayere-Ahan Bantoid
Kwa
Dakoid
Benue-Congo
Defoid
Edoid
Adamawa
Idomoid
Eastern
Western
Amo
Northern
Piti Atsan
Kauru
Jera
Suraba
1.4
Vono
Kainfi
Bina
Dungu
Kinuku
Kairi
Kono GbiriNirangu
Mata
Tuni
Kuruma
Ruma
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The following were used to elicit data for analysis
1.
THE IBADAN 400 WORD LIST: The word list helps a researcher to obtain both
phonetic and phonemic, consonant and vowel system of the language under study. It also gives
information on the lexical items of the language.
2.
FRAME TECHNIQUE METHOD: This is used in collecting data on the cause of
study, the importance of frame technique is that it is easier for researcher to detemine the actual
xiii
word or consequences as well as the phonological or syntactical aspects in which sentence. It
also helps to determine the morphological or syntactic form of a given word.
3.
BILINGUAL INFORMATION: This are native speakers of kono language who helped
as informants for the collection of data needed in kono language. In the couse of this research,
two informants were used
Informant 1
Name: Mrs. Asabe Luka
Age:
58years
Sex:
Female
Occupation:
Business woman
Languiage:
Zampuru
language speaken apart from kono: English and Hausa
Numbers of years spent at home: 25years.
Informant 2
Name: Miss. Martha Luka
Age:
25years
Sex:
Female
Occupation:
Student (HNDII) kaduna State Polythenic.
Languiage:
English and Hausa
Numbers of years spent at home: 10years and Staying is Saminaka.
Home town: Zampuru
xiv
The data will be analyzed by frame technique method. Frame technique method makes it
easier for the field researcher to determine the constituent of the language as well as the
morphological and syntactic content of the language. To collect data, sentences / phrases are
written in English language and the equivalent is supplied in that language by the language
helper.
In this research work, all work will be done using frame technique method because the
work is based on syntax, which deals with the arrangement of words.
1.5.
SCOPE AND ORGANISATION OF STUDY
Chapter one is the introductory part of this project which
consists the general
introduction, historical background, Socio-cultural profit, Socio-linguistic profit, research
methodology, Scope and organisation of study and the brief review of the chosen frame work.
Chapter two is on the basic syntactic concepts including a brief phonological analysis of
kono language, lexical categories, phrase structure rules, kono word order and sentence types.
Chapter three will reveal the topic of the research work. Question formation will be
discussed bringing out example from kono language.
Chapter four will be on transformational process in kono question formation.
Chapter five contains the conclusion, summary and recommendations.
1.6.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (TRADITIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR)
1.7.
A Brief Review of The Theoretical Framework
1.6.1.1
A theoretical framework will be the Government and Binding version of Traditional
Generative Grammar as in chomsly (1981). this Governement and Binding theoty operates as a
xv
module grammar, using X-bar, theta, case, control, binding, boundary, government and
movement theories. this theory will be used in analysing question formation in kono language.
Haegeman (1994: 3) defined Governemt and Binding theory as a theory of universal
grammar which is the system of all priciple that are common to all human languages. GB theory
is a radical revision of Chomsky’s earlier theory in (1981) and was later revised in a minimalist
programme for theories in (1993).
Government and Binding theory of syntax in the tradition of transformational grammar
developed by Chomsky (1981).
In the Government and Binding framework it distnguishes between the two types of
Categories of syntax we have – namely
(1)
(2)
Lexical categories.
Functional categories.
Lexical categories in any human language include Noun, Verb, Adjective and
Preposition.
Functional categories include elements like, complementizer, Tense, Tnflectional,
Determiner, Focus and Agreement etc.
Syntactically, while the lexical categories project up to a single bar level and terminates
there, thus, making endless recursion possible with the aid of elements like complements and
modifiers, the functional categories project up to the specifier of XP level, this sealing off the
projection. A specifier is an element that closes off a category projection.
Lexical Categories are represented with the aid of a diagram.
xvi
VP = V11
NP = (N11 (XP)
AP = A11 (XP)
V1
A1
Spec
Spec
N1
Det
N0
V1
de
bèrilum
V0
mòmùr
gùríjìa
ìlaiwaská
The
man
Sleep
Very
good
Spec
Deg
A0
The fuctional categories can also be represented with the aid of a diagram.
FP
F1
Spec
IP
DP
F
Spec
IP
(head)D
I
NP
TNS
I
VP
AGR
Spec
V
CP
Spec
I1
Spec
D1
C1
IP
xvii
V1
NP
C
(Head)C
The maximal projection of the lexical node is the phrasal node with the maximum
number of that level. for example, the maximumal projection of N1 is N11.
Government and Binding theory has a sub-theories with which transformation operates.
the sub-theories do not operate in isolation. they are:
X – bar theory
Theta theory
Case theory
Movement theory
Government theory
Binding theory
Control theory
Bounding theory.
X –bar theory
D - Structure
Move ɤ
(Bounding)
Projection Principle
Lexicon
xviii
Case theory
(Case filter)
PHONETIC FORM
S - Structure
ECP
CONTROL
BINDING
θ – theory
θ criterion
S - Structure
Modules of Grammar
(Adopted from sells (1985) and cook (1988).
Some of these above listed theories will be examined.
1.6.1.2.
X – BAR THEORY
X – bar theory, according to Horrocks (1987:101) provides principles for the projection
of phrasal categories and imposes conditions on the hierarchical organisation of categories in the
form of general schemata. X – bar theory makes expiate the notion ‘head of a phrase’.
According to chomsky (1986:13), x – bar theory assumes a distinction between lexical
and non lexical categories, when the lexical categories are based on the features Noun, Verb,
Adjective and Preposition/Post Position.
Cook (1988:108) States that x – theory is a theory of the phrase structure of the deep
structure of a sentence. The X – theory proposes that all phrases in all languages share a simple
cell – like structure with two levels, one of which consist of the head (X1) and possoble
specifiers. The other which consists of the head and possible complement. The seperate principle
for expanding X11 and X1 may be combined together in a single formula. The X – theory also
uses bars for s to distinguish between s and principle of the X – the X – theory.
xix
XP
X
X11
Specifiers X1
X1
XP
complement
represent any phrasal category e.g. NP, VP, AP, and PP. Below is a
diagram that illustrates e.g. the owner of the farm.
N11
N1
Spec
P11
N
Det
P1
P N11
de gáyandará
The
N11
Owner
Spec
N1
Spec
N1
N Det
N
Of
Det
de
gàyálí
the
the of farm
de
ni
gàyálí
farm
‘the owner of the farm’
1.6.1.3 CASE THEORY
Case theory, according to Cook (1980: 143), deals with assignment to abstract case and
its morphological realization. Case theory regulates the distribution of phonetically realized NP
xx
by assigning abstract case is a system of marking dependent nouns for the types of relationship
they bear on their heads.
Blake (1987:1), cases are assigned under government, in government and binding theory
and they are assigned as;
-
Nominative case is assigned by tense INFL
-
Accusative case is assigned by verb
-
Oblique case is assigned by preposition. for example
She
bought a shoe
Nom. case Accusative
for
her
Oblique case
According to Yusuf (1998:28) case theory is,
-
Nominative – subject of a tensed clause.
-
Accusative – object of verb
-
Oblique – object of preposition.
Nominative and accusative are not known to assign any case. Further to the assignment
of case, all NPs that have phonetic content must have case or else they are ill-formed. this
corollary is known as the’ case filter’.
According to Cook (1980), “case filter says that any NP without a case assigner should be
filtered out. E.g. The woman who that he saw was Tolu’. With the help of case filter the
unwanted component is filtered out to give us; the woman that he saw was Tolu.
xxi
1.6.1.4
Binding Theory
Chomsky (1987:108) says, binding theory is one of the most important constructs in the
system and it concerned primarily with the conditions under which NPs in the sentence.
NPs that are argument are assumed to fall into one of the three categories.
1 Anaphors
2 Pronominal
3 Referential expressions
ANAPHORS: are NPs whose reference is necessarily determined internally and which
cannot have independent reference. Reflexive and reciprocal pronoun in English language falls
into this class, for example.
1. Kunle kicked himself ‘himself’ here refers to the individual denoted by Kunle. Also
himself is the anaphor bound by Kunle.
2. Paul and peter slapped each other in the room ‘each other’ is the anaphor bound by Paul
and peter.
Pronominal: Are NPs lack specific lexical content and have only the features; person, number,
gender and case. They may either refer to an individual independently or co-refers to the
individuals already named in a given sentence. e.g. Sarah said she is beautiful. She may refer to
the individual denoted by Sarah or an individual not mentioned in the sentence.
Referential expressions: They have lexical heads which potentially refers to something.
Referential expression is also as R- expression and they are NPs with lexical ability to refer to
something for example, James says James
xxii
a. fat James says solid James must come home.
b. James said James should bring the cloths.
According to Cook (1988:46; 49) Binding theory deals with whether expression in the
sentence may refer to the same entities as other expression. Binding theory is basically
concerned with the same issue of how pronouns and other types of noun relate to other but
extends the antecedent / pronoun relationship to other categories. The theory also describes when
different expressions may be co-indexed i.e. When her or herself may refer to the same person
e.g. Tolu killed herself. Herself is bowed to Tolu and has the same index.
1 Anaphors is bound in a local domain.
2. Pronominal is free in a local domain.
3. A referring expression is free.
1.6.1.5 Movement Theory
Movement theory includes the movement of certain elements from their initial position to
other sites. In movement theory α stands for any category while move-α means move any lexical
category from a syntactic position to anywhere.
Cook (1988:189) says, the theory of movement operates the restrictions that human
languages actually place in movement.
A moved element either fills an empty position of the same syntactic category or it is
adjourned in to an existence mode.
For example
Ayo killed a goat yesterday
xxiii
Adjourned
Yesterday, a goat was killed by Ayo.
In the above example, the first NP Ayo is moved or extracted from its position to another
side i.e. Landing site. The final NP ‘a goat’ is moved to the initial position. While yesterday is
move (adjourned) to an existing mode as shown above.
In movement theory, there are two sites; ‘the extraction sites’ where the element is moved
from the ‘Landing site’ where the element is moved. The landing site of the moved element must
be controlled by either substitution or adjunction.
xxiv
CHAPTER TWO
BASIC PHONOLOGICAL / SYNTACTIC CONCEPTS
2.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter shall focus on the phonological and syntactic concept of Kono language.
Phonological will include sound inventory, tonal system and syllable structure while the
syntactic concept will include lexical categories, phrase structure rule, basic word order, sentence
types and question formation.
2.1
BRIEF PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Kono has thirty six (36) phonemes made up of twenty three (23) consonants, seven oral
vowels and six (6) nasal vowels.
The following consonants are shown in the following chart:
Bilabial
Stops
p
Fricative
Labio
dental
b
Alveolar
t
v
s
Palatal
alveolar
d
m
velar
Labio
velar
k
Kp gb
ʃ
z
ʧ
Affricative
Nasal
Palatal
xxv
Glottal
kw
h
ʤ
ŋ
n
g
Labialized
velar
Flap
r
Liquid
l
Approximant
j
w
2.1.1 Distribution of Kono Consonants
/p/: voiceless bilabial stop occurs initially medially and finally.
Initial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
pishes
[píʃes]
‘nose’
pópύlá
[pópύlá]
‘fly’
póká’a
[póká’a]
‘pour’
pá’un
[pá’ũ]
‘snake’
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
bípírátú
[bípírátú]
‘cow’
kúpágúlítúlύ
[kúkpágύlítúlύ]
‘belly’
gópobí
[gpɔbύ]
‘roast’
xxvi
[òpà]
òpa
‘stone’
Final
Kono
Phonetic Representation
manep
[mύnέp]
gusap
[gusáp]
Gloss
‘wine’
‘thorn’
/b/: voice bilabial stop occurs initially and medially.
Initial
Kono
phonetic representation
bérìlùm
[berilum]
bibarka
[bibarka]
bè’ét
[bè’ét]
bùchama
[bύtʃamá]
Gloss
‘man’
‘horse’
‘person’
‘witch’
Medial
Kono
Phonetic Representation
írábá
[írábá]
áyába
[ájaba]
góbùndú
Gloss
‘stomach’
‘plantain’
‘dust’
[gbũdú]
xxvii
/t/: voiceless alveolar stop occurs at initial medial and final position.
Initial
Kono
phonetic representation
Gloss
témi
[témi]
‘taste’
túgá
[túgá]
‘climb’
tòskógora
[tòskógora]
‘build’
Medial
Kono
mutat
Phonetic Representation
Gloss
[mutat]
‘forty’
kátai
[katai]
‘bite’
matá
[matá]
‘spit’
[sibuƚʃat]
‘untie’
Final
sibuchat
mògbòt
gágát
[mògbòt]
[gágát]
‘wing’
‘compound’
/d/: voice alveolar stop occurs initially and medially.
xxviii
Initial
Kono
Phonetic
representation
Gloss
duchen
[dutʃɛ]
‘charcoal’
dòrá
[dòrá]
‘follow’
dùgbí
‘that’
[dùgbí]
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
íláídύ
[ilaídύ]
‘big’
òshinda
[oʃĩda]
‘mortar
àgèdè
[àgèdè]
‘groundnut’
/k/: voiceless velar stop occurs initially; medially and finally.
Initial
kugbit
[kugbit]
‘ear’
kura
[kύra]
‘leopard’
kùnkúrú
‘tortoise’
[kùnkúrú]
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representative
Gloss
gukón
[gukὂ]
‘bat’
ὺkόmi
‘soup’
[ύkόmi]
xxix
mòkúmi
‘louse’
[mòkúmi]
Final
Kono
Phonetic representative
Gloss
litak
[litak]
‘buttocks’
livuk
[livuk]
‘water pot’
goshok
[goʃok]
‘calabash’
/g/: voiced velar stop
Initial
gòsύk
[gòsὺk]
‘cool’
génka’a
[gεka’a]
‘throw’
[gélilgá]
‘sew’
chinga
[tʃĩga]
‘pound’
yágorogὺr
[jagorogύr]
‘was’
tòskógora
[tòskógora]
gelilyà
Medial
‘build (house)’
/kp/: voiceless labio-velar stop occurs only at medial position.
Medial position.
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
Medial
xxx
likpo
[likpo]
‘navel’
gọkpọrè
[gɔkpɔrè]
‘knife’
bérúkpà
[bérúkpà]
‘male’
/gb/: voiced lbio-velar stop occurs initially and medially.
Initial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
gbẹlẹ
[gbέlέ]
‘Lizard’
gbòká
[gbòká]
‘vomit’
gbùgbó
[gbùgbó]
‘he goat’
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
gùgbót
[gùgbót]
‘feather’
kùgbit
[kùgbit]
‘ear’
ògbi
[ògbí]
‘grass’
/kw/: voiceless labialised velar stop occurs only at medial position
Medial
udãnkwali
‘cap’
[udãnkwali]
/V/: voiced labio-velar fricative occurs at medial position
Kono
àvà
Phonetic representation
gloss
‘tobacco’
[àvà]
xxxi
àvà
‘leave’
[àvà]
/S/: voicedless alveolar fricative occurs initially, medially and ending
Initial.
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
sumchá
[sumʧá]
‘run’
sán
[sã]
‘dog’
sumcha’
[sumʧá]
‘run
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
bòsì
[bòsì]
‘father’
tọskai
[tskái]
‘plait hair’
berisere
[bérisere]
‘strong’
Medial
Final
ligus
[lìgús]
‘rainy season’
pishes
[pìʃès]
‘nose’
ìlàíchès
[ìlàíchès]
‘dry’
/Z/: voiced alveolar fricative
Initial
zangai
[zaŋú]
‘sit down’
Medial
xxxii
lizẹn
[lizέn]
‘name’
bùzò
[bùzò]
‘friend’
mèzèbì
[mèzèbì]
‘fire wood’
/ ʃ /: voiceless palato-alveolar fricative
Initial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
shinùrá
[ʃĩùrá]
‘kneel’
shurwàa
[ʃurwà]
‘hawk’
goshók
[goʃok]
‘calabash’
lìshi
[liʃi]
‘head’
òshida
[oʃĩda]
‘mortar’
Medial
/h/: voiceless glottal fricative
Initial
[haikagùbit]
‘pierce’
yoh-sọ
[johs]
‘drink’
òlàha
[òlàha]
‘fire’
mùhànà
[mùhànà]
‘salt’
haikagbànà
Medial
xxxiii
/ ʧ /: voiceless palato- alveolar affricative
Initial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
chirùm
[ʧirum]
‘crocodile’
chinga
[ʧiŋa]
‘pound’
kurcha’
[kùrʧá]
‘wring cloths’
yachárálá
[jaʧárálá]
‘right side’
lichichi
[liʧiʧi]
‘egg’
Medial
/ ʣ /: voiced palato – alveolar affricative
Initial
jikilibis
[ʣkilibis]
‘star’
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
jijarki
[ʣiʤarki]
‘donkey’
jòjọn
[ʣòʤ]
‘door’
Medial
xxxiv
ojùrembia
[oʣùrèmbia]
‘matchet’
agànjáwaó
[agãʤáwaó]
‘return’
òkàọmayíta
[òkàmaʤíta]
‘grinding stone’
/ m /: bilabial nasal
Initial
mọn
[m]
‘water’
màlúk
[màlúk]
‘palm wine’
Mèzèbì
[mèzèbì]
‘fire wood’
ùkọmí
[ùkmí]
‘soup’
àlèmú
[àlèmú]
‘orange’
ìsámbà
[ìsámbà]
‘maize’
bilẹm
[bilέm]
‘tongue’
ùkwùm
[ùkwùm]
‘bone’
ùdọm
[ùdm]
‘body’
[nòtúbòli]
‘mud’
Medial
Final
/ n /: alveolar nasal
Initial
nòtúbòli
xxxv
natakalmi
[natakalmi]
‘shoe’
niyetki
[nijetki]
‘hard’
ùnébo
[ùnébo]
‘river’
kùnkúrú
[kũkúrú]
‘tortoise’
òrowọnyi
[òrowọnyi]
‘casava’
liwòn
[liwỡ]
‘dry season’
lizẹn
[lizn]
‘name’
ejen
[eʤẽ]
‘sronger’
Medial
Final
xxxvi
/ ŋ /: velar nasal
Medial
‘sister (older) for man’
bunàngóna
[bũàŋỡa]
kanangan
[kãáŋã] ‘brother (younger) for woman’
linmí lalingà
[lĩmí lálĩŋà]
‘down’
/ r /: alveolar flap
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
bibárkà
[bibárkà]
‘horse’
kúrá
[kúrá]
‘leopard’
gùrijìa
[gùriʤia]
‘well’
Liĉhír
[ liʧir ]
‘earth’
Kono
Phonetic presentation
Gloss
bìlẹr
[bilέr]
‘vagina’
mòmúr
[mòmúr]
‘sleep’
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
lìjó
[lìʤó]
‘smoke’
Final
/ L /: alveolar liquid
Initial
xxxvii
lunmi
[lũmi]
‘rope’
lichir
[liʧir]
‘throne’
òclùlà
[òʧilà]
‘bow’
gbẹlẹ
[gbέlέ]
‘lizard’
cọlọcọlọ
[klkl]
‘snail’
likpél
[likpel]
‘penis’
ìwil
[Ìwil]
‘one’
Medial
Final
/ j /: Palatal approximant
Medial
yazinga likata
[jaziŋa likata]
‘dawn’
yoh-sọ
[johs]
‘drink’
yànga
[jàŋá]
‘link’
Medial
gàyálí
[gàjálí]
‘farm’
gòyòli
[gòjòli]
‘word’
àyàbà
[àjàbà]
‘plantain’
xxxviii
/w/: labio-velar approximant
Initial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
wùnai
[wũcù]
‘beat’
wipágachara
[wikpágutʅara]
‘cover’
waó
[wáò]
‘come’
Medial
gàwáka’a
[gàwakahaa]
‘song’
gàkanwa
[gàkãwa]
‘crab’
ìlàiwaská
[ilàiwali]
‘surpass’
xxxix
KONO ORAL VOWEL CHART
Front
central
bark
High
Low
Mid
I
u
e
o
Ɛ
ɔ
а
2.1.2 Distribution of Kono Vowels
/ i /: high front unround vowel
Initial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
ìbil
[ìbil]
‘seed’
ìrábá
[Ìrábá]
‘stomach’
ìsho
[ìʃo]
‘beans’
gàasita
[gàasita]
‘paper’
lìlú
[lìlú]
‘knee’
lishi
[liʃi]
‘head’
Medial
xl
Final
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
gùkpì
[gùkpì]
‘rat’
liázi
[lìázi]
‘breast’
lijiji
[liʤiʤi]
‘sand’
/ u /: high back rounded vowel
Initial
ùgóráà
[ùgóráà]
‘house’
ùlí
[ùlí]
‘rain’
uchíárá
[uʧárá]
‘arm’
[gòsuk]
‘cooking’
Medial
gòsuk
gùsàp
‘thorn’
[gùsàp]
[bùkarmá]
‘king’
dùtú
[dùtú]
‘steal’
ilaídù
[ilaídù]
‘big’
ìdámelemtú
[ìdámelemtú]
‘tasty’
bùkarmá
Final
xli
/ e /: mid-high front unrounded vowel
Initial
eshi
[eʃi]
‘hundred’
ejen
[eʤẽ]
‘Stranger’
bériseré
[bériseré]
‘strong’
màla’chédáma
[màla’chédáma]
‘fry’
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
[lizέ]
‘name’
gbélé
[gbέlέ]
‘lizard’
ùsómówẹlẹ
[ùsómówẹlẹ]
‘fear’
ibalégẹbẹlẹ
[ibalégẹbẹlẹ]
‘story’
lizén
Final
/ O /: mid high front round vowel
Initial
òtá
[òtá]
‘snow’
òshinda
[òʃȋda]
‘mortar’
ògbí
[ogbí]
‘grass’
òpàúzakalá
[òkpàúzakalá]
‘mountain’
xlii
Medial
gòtùka
[gòtùka]
‘day’
gòtùk
[gòtùk ]
‘darkness’
gọyòu
[gɔjòu]
‘word’
Final
agànjawao’
[agãgzawaó]
‘return’
gásakchámakoso
[gásaktʃámakoso]
‘wash’
ùpó
[lìkpó]
‘navel’
/ Ɛ /: mid- high front unround vowel
Medial
bilém
[bilє’m]
gęngbęsú
[gέŋbέsú]
‘tongue’
‘mouth’
/ ɔ /: mid –low back rounded vowel
Initial
Kono
Phonetic representation
xliii
Gloss
ogọrọ
[gɔṙ]
‘kolanut’
ọyọt
[jt]
‘teeth’
ibọtì
[ibti]
‘rotten’
ọyọt
[jt]
‘teeth’
mọnó
[mn]
‘nail’
utọ’
[ut]
‘neck’
kọ
[k]
‘child’
joh - sọ
[ʤohs]
‘drink’
Medial
Final
/ a /: low back unrounded vowel
Initial
àvà
[àvà]
‘leaf’
àgbàgbà
[àgbàgbà]
‘duck’
armà
[armà]
‘monkey’
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
màta’
[màtá]
‘spit’
mutat
[mutat]
‘hundred’
bigau
[bigàu]
‘heart’
xliv
xlv
Final
keská
[keská]
‘pull’
fulyá
[fuljá]
‘blow’
dòrá
[dòrá]
‘follow’
2.1.2.1.
Nasalized Vowels
/ ĩ /: high front unrounded vowel
Initial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
inyàndò
[ĩjãdò]
‘wait’
inyandòbú
[ĩjãdòbú]
‘like’
Medial
òshinda
[òʃĩda]
‘mortar
linmi’
[lĩmi]
‘sun’
shingùrá
[ʃĩgùrá]
‘kneel’
ìlàísin
[ìlàísĩ]
‘red’
gèsín
[gèsĩ]
‘back’
Final
xlvi
/ ũ /: high back rounded vowel
Initial
[ũbàmùbú]
unbàmùbú
‘request’
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
gunyà
[gũjà]
‘mat’
gòsùnò
[gòsũò]
‘fish
lungbi
[lũgbi]
‘tie rope’
/ Õ /: mid – high front rounded vowel
Medial
Kono
Phonetic representation
Gloss
monmanuámi
[mõmaũámi]
‘thirty’
ilaizòkúpóni
[ilàízòkúkpõi]
‘short’
/  /: mid –front unrounded vowel
Initial
ẹnmet
‘lie(s)’
[met]
Medial
gebẹnga’
[gámɛa’]
‘extinguish’
gámẹná
[sὲgáurudú]
‘sing’
lẹni
[li]
‘enter’
xlvii
Final
mẹnjẹn
‘charcoal’
[mjέ]
/  /: mid back rounded vowel
Final
Kono
Phonetic representation
gloss
jòyọn
[ʤòj]
‘door(way)’
mọn
[m]
‘water’
/ ã /: low back unrounded vowel
Initial
àngúlú
‘vulture’
[ãgúlú]
Medial
Gànìn
[gain]
‘bird’
Mamanja
[mamãʤa]
‘oil palm’
Gakanwa
[gakãwa]
‘crab’
Sán
[sã]
‘dog’
Ibitaran
[ibìtarã]
‘black’
Ilaiwaskán
[ilaiwaskã]
‘surpass’
Final
xlviii
KONO NASAL VOWEL CHART
Front
High
Central
Back
ĩ
ũ
Mid
õ

Low
ã

2.1.3. Tonal System in Kono Language
The below tones are used in kono to create differences in meaning of words that have the
same form. They could also have syntactic significance.
Kono language makes use of three distinctive level tones, which are;
High tone ( / )
Mid tone (unmarked)
Low tone ( \ )
High tone
Kono
Phonetic representation
gloss
kashákúrá
[kaʃákúrá]
‘old person’
géliljà
[gélilʤá]
‘sew’
xlix
gópọbú
[gpɔbú]
‘roast’
Phonetic representation
[ga]
gloss
‘lose’
Mid tone
Kono
ga
moji
[moʤi]
‘ground’
[gòʃò]
[kùgbìt]
[m]
‘weep’
‘ear’
‘water’
Low tone
gosho
kugbit
mọ
2.1.4. THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE
Kono language operates the syllable structure that can be described as cv, vcvcv, vcv,
cvcv, cvcvcv, and cvcvv.
Examples of words in kono language that have cv structure.
m 
‘Water’
c v
g a
‘Lose something’
l
c v
k 
‘Child’
c v
Examples of words with vcvcv structure
àtámá
‘Jaw’
vcvcv
òʧilà
‘Bow’
vcvcv
ukasi
‘Food’
li
vcvcv
sʃĩda
‘Mortar’
vcvcv
Examples of words that have vcv structure
òtá
‘Snow’
vcv
àvà
‘Leaf’
vcv
uli
‘Rain’
lii
vcv
ìba
‘Two’
vcv
Examples of words that have cvcv structure are;
bòsì
‘Father’
cvcv
màtá
‘Salva’
cvcv
tέmi
‘Touch’
liii
cvcv
goʃo
‘Weep’
cvcv
Example of words that have CVCVCV structure.
m a g o l
c
v
a
‘Know’
cv c v
l è g ú m
á
‘Fight’
liv
c v c v c v
g è b έ g á
c v
c v
g é d
c v
‘Extinguish’
c v
έ
g
í
c v
c
v
‘Beat Drum’
Examples of words with CVCVV structure are;
b
i
g a u
c v
c v v
d a b
i
a
‘Heart’
‘Cat’
lv
c v
c v
v
2.2 SYNTACTIC CATEGORY
2.2.1 Lexical Category
According to Yusuf (1992:117) “words in a natural speech situation are said to belong to
different parts of speech. These words are classified according to their function and the different
parts with which words are classified is called ‘part of speech which is called lexical categories
in modern linguistics
Thus, the grammarians identified seven part of speech, noun, verb, adjective, adverb,
pronoun, preposition and conjunction.
2.2.1.1 NOUN
Awobuluyi (1978:22) defined a noun as any word functioning as subject of a verb, or the
object of a verb or a preposition in a grammatical sentence within a given language. Noun is
classified into various types:
CONCRETE NOUN
Concrete noun are nouns that can be seen or torched. Examples of concrete noun in Kono
are listed below:
ìbil
‘seed’
ĺìvék
‘water pot’
úpàtàyan
‘axe’
lvi
jóyón
‘door’
Ẁcàśi
‘food’
úpàtàyan
axe this
‘this is an axe’
úkàśi eliana
food my here
‘my food is here’
ABSTRACT NOUN
Abstract noun deals with things that are not seen but are imagined or thought of. Abstract
noun are also said to be ideas, qualities or things that can be felt. Examples of abstract noun in
kono are:
ùsómuwali ‘fear’
iporó ‘hunger’
gótcìk ‘might’
lchéchélí ‘laugh’
Akúyáà dan bo ùsómuwali
lvii
why do you fear
why do you fear?
COLLECTIVE NOUN
Collective nouns are mostly concrete but are in groups. Examples of collective noun in Kono
language are:
gùzèbì ‘tree’
màlàlà ‘animal’
ìbil ‘seed’
bérilìm
wona
màlàlà
man
kill
animal
‘the man killed the animal’
bùkpá à
matuma
ìbil
woman
sell
seeds
‘the woman sells seeds’
ANIMATE NOUN
Animate noun are nouns regarded as a living things. Examples of animate noun in Kono
are;
bérilìm
‘man’
lviii
bùzò
‘friend’
kòn
‘child’
gayandará
‘get’
Sán
‘dog’
bùkarmá beridogubá
king
old
‘The king is old’
ma wona gòsùnò
i
kill
fish
‘I killed a fish’
INANIMATE NOUN
Inanimate noun are nouns that are non living and non- human.
Examples of inanimate noun in Kono are;
gàkúrá
‘hoe’
gànúra’à
‘needle’
lùnmì
‘rope’
nàtàkalmí
‘shoe’
lix
mà
gésérí
nàtàkalmí
i
buy
shoe
‘I bought shoes’
gàmíra à eliana ga
needle my lost
‘my needle is lost’
2.2.1.2
Verb
According to Yusuf (1992:96), ‘a verb is a predicator of a sentence and it’s a doing
word’. Obafemi (2003:49) say, ‘a verb is the word that tells what a subject does, express a state
of being’. A verb is the most important element or word in a sentence and it can either be
transitive or intransitive
Transitive Verb
Transitive verb are verb that has an NP object. Examples in kono language are:
ma
I
kàmá
‘go’
nànhá
‘see’
gásakchámakoso
‘wash’
mìtka
‘eat’
gàsachàmakoso
òyòt eliana
wash
teeth my
‘I washed my teeth’.
lx
ma
I
yalya lsikama
eat
rice
‘I ate rice’
Intransitive Verb
Intransitive verb, according to Awobuluyi; (1997:56) ‘is a class of word that does not
have an object NP’. Examples in Kono language are;
momur
leri
ìchéchélé
‘sleep’
‘jump’
‘laugh’
ìmàdòbàè ‘arrive’
ma
I
ìmàdòbàè
arrive
‘I arrived’
ma
I
sleep
‘I
2.2.1.3
momur
slept’
Preposition
lxi
Preposition, according to Akande (2004:27) ‘is derived from Latin and it means some
things placed before a noun’. Preposition shows the relationship of noun / pronoun to some other
words in the sentence.
According to Yusuf (1992:97), ‘preposition relates a noun to a verb in terms of location,
direction, state, condition etc ’. Examples of preposition in Kono are;
lèní ‘in’
angu ‘on’
2.2.1.4 Pronoun
Yule (1986), ‘pronouns are used in place of nouns. Thus, it has the same description as a
noun’. Examples of pronoun in Kono language are;
mà ‘i’
bò
‘you’
yèn
‘them’
ínépidi ‘we’
boya kpe
are you go
Are you going?
2.2.1.5 Adjective
lxii
Yusuf (1997:25) says,adjective are qualities of noun or pronoun. They are word that
qualify, describe or tells us more about nouns or pronouns in a sentence. Examples of adjective
in Kono are;
màmáya
‘fat’
ibitaran
‘black’
ìlaíkón
‘long’
ìdámeozu
‘bad’
ìlàípas
‘new’
mòkúmi
ìlàípas
house
new
‘New house’
2.2.1.6 Adverb
Martinet (1960:133) says, adverb comprises units belonging to quite different classes.
When the predicate corresponds to an action, the adverb is naturally a complement of the action.
Adverb provides more information about the actions and events. Examples of adverbs in Kono
language are;
chìkàrá ‘quickly’
mùtàra ‘slowly’
butárà ‘roughly’
lxiii
mà
sùmchá
chikara
kàmá
ùgóráà
I
run
quickly
go
house
‘I ran home quickly’
2.2.1.7 Conjunction
Conjunction according to Yusuf (1995:97) joins words, phrases, clauses or sentences.
Examples of conjunction in Kono are;
goro
Tina
Tina
2.2.2
‘and’
goro Joseph kàmá markaranta
and Joseph go
school
‘Tina and Joseph go to school.’
Phrase Structure Rules
According to Yusuf (1997:6), ‘phrase structure rules are set of rules that generate the
constituent (i.e. the item that group together to form a unit) of a phrase or clausal category. They
are also set of rules which generate structure description of sentences.
2.2.2.1 Noun Phrase in Kono
Noun phrase is a phrase headed by a noun or pronoun. The head of a phrase is the single
lexical item that can replace the whole phrase. It is also a category that codes the participants in
the event or state describe by the verb, Yusuf (1977:8-9).
lxiv
Noun phrase can be found in different constituents in the sentence, the subject position,
the object position or as object of a preposition.
Examples in Kono language.
bérilùm
béríseré
man
Strong
‘The strong man’.
ùkásì
eliana
food
my
‘My food’.
2.2.2.2 Verb Phrase in Kono
The Kono verb phrase is traditionally called the ‘predicate’ because it has the sentence
predicator, namely, the verb. The constituent that can be contained in a verb phrase includes, the
verb itself, noun phrase and prepositional phrase i.e VP
Examples of verb phrase in Kono are;
mitka
ùkásì
eat
food
‘eat the food’
mòmùr
sleep
Sleep
lxv
V (NP) (PP).
túgá
gùzèbi
climb
tree
‘climb the tree’
2.2.2.3 Adjectival Phrase in Kono
Adjective is the head of an adjectival phrase, which takes complements. According to
Greenberg (1973:115), ‘an adjectival phrase is a phrase with an adjective as its head’. Examples
of adjectival phrase in Kono are:
gòàkà
ibitaran
bag
black
‘black bag’
bérúkpà
ìdámeozù
boy
bad
‘bad boy’
ùgoráà ìlaidu
house
big
‘big house’
2.2.2.4
Prepositional Phrase in Kono
lxvi
Prepositional phrase are words that indicate directions with an NP. The prepositional
phrase has the obligatory prepositional head and the other satellites. Examples in Kono are;
‘on’
‘in’
‘by’
angu
leni
gbérgúgbàrú
Asabe
yo
kurga
mun
angu
table
Asabe
it
is
that
water
table
It is Asabe that put that water on the table.
2.2.2.5
The Kono Word Order
Kono exhibits the S.V.O order. This means that in Kono language, like Yoruba,, Efik,
Igbo and many other languages , the subject begins a sentence, followed by the verb and then the
object (SVO) in that order.
Examples showing the word order of Kono are;
S
ma
I
V
O
yando
gòkóro
want
Chicken
‘I want Chicken’
ma
mágola
I
know
gàzílgáná
girl
‘I know the girl’
2.2.2.6
Sentence Types
lxvii
Classical grammarians analyzed sentences by breaking it down into the subject and
predicate. They see sentence as comprising of NP, AUX, and VP (AUX is known as INFL).
Sentence can be divided into three (3) types, depending on the number of verbs in the sentence.
1. Simple sentence
2. Compound sentence
3. Complex sentence
Yusuf (1998:66) says, we can classify sentence by examining the function of the sentence
perform and secondly by considering the structure of the sentence (i.e. the composition of the
sentence).
The Kono Simple Sentence
The Kono simple sentence contains one finite verb, and it is made up of one NP subject and
predicate.
For example;
bérilùm
ìlaiwaskán
man
good
‘the man is good’
angu ya rubuta
who write him
‘who wrote him?’
lxviii
Simple sentence can also be classified into;
i.
Declarative sentence
ii. Imperative sentence
iii. Interrogative sentence
Declarative sentence, according to Adegbija (1998:114), ‘is the type of sentence that
makes a statement or an assertion about the truth or falsity of a particular phenomenon’.
Examples of declarative statement in Kono are;
mà
ìnijàndòbù
I
like
sarah
sarah
‘I like sarah’
go
malam
baleni makaranta
the
teacher
teach student
‘the taught the student’
Imperative sentence gives command or make request. In general, the speaker or writer of
such a sentence intends to make somebody else do something. Examples of imperative sentences
are;
lìktá’a
stand up
‘Stand up’
lxix
zàngú
sit down
‘sit down’
Interrogative sentence asks a direct question which demands that some information be
provided by the addressee. Examples of interrogative sentence in Kono are;
bò
yà
kpe
you
are
going
‘are you going?’
ìyán
subu
akwangaa
your
what
name
‘what is your name?’
The Kono Compound Sentence
According to Adegbija (1988:113), ‘compound sentence is a kind of sentence which
consists of two or more independent (main clause) clause and no subordinate clause, where the
two main clauses have the same subject’. A compound sentence is the co-ordination of more than
simple sentences by conjunction. Examples of compound sentence are:
mà ya goro so
I
mon
eat and drink water
‘I ate and drank water’
lxx
berilum goro bùzò
man
wáó
and friend come
‘the man and his friend will come’
The Kono Complex Sentence
The Kono complex sentence is a sentence embedded in one of the phrasal categories NP
or VP. Traditionally, complex sentence is described as a main clause and a number of
subordinate clauses.
Kono complex sentence consist of one independent clause and one or more subordinate
clause(s).
Examples of complex sentence in Kono are:
pastor
pastor
ya
wona
was killed
gam
by
gùkón
Bat
‘the bat was killed by the pastor’.
kon
ge meni ge de
ùgóráà ona gúnwá
child
the that the owns
house was here
‘the child that owns the house was here’.
lxxi
2.3
QUESTION FORMATION
According to Quirk (1972:386), ‘question formation is primarily used to express lack of
information on a specific point and to respect the listener to supply this information.
Radford (1988:462) discussed three types of question, WH- question, Yes/No and Echo
question.
Quirk (1972:386-395) also discussed three types of questions: Rhetorical, Alternative and
Tag question.
Crystal (1987:324) ‘question formation is typically used to elicit information in a
response and explain according to grammatical, phonological, semantic, or on socio-linguistics
ground in contrast with statement, command and explanation in a given natural language’.
Questions are formed from the basic sentence, which is the declarative sentence.
Examples of questions formation are given below;
The man killed the snake (basic sentence)
Who killed the snake? (Question formation)
She went to London (Basic question)
Who went to London? (Question formation)
Tolu wants a cap (Basic question)
Who wants a cap? (Question formation).
CHAPTER THREE
lxxii
THE QUESTION TYPES IN KONO
3.0.
INTRODUCTION
This chapter focuses on Kono question types. In Kono, questions are generally asked due
to a lack of information on specific points and to request the listeners to supply the information.
Questions are generally formed from a declarative sentence e.g. ‘The teacher came here’
is the basic sentence from which the question ‘who came here?” is derived.
3.1.
QUESTION FORMATION IN KONO
The following question types are attested in Kono.
1.
Wh – Question
2.
Yes/No Answer Question
3.
Echo Question
4.
Tag Question
5.
Rhetorical Question
3.1.1. WH – QUESTION
WH questions are used when a speaker needs information about something. Each
question markers has its own function. The reply might be a word, phrase or a sentence.
The WH question markers in Kono are:
chi
‘where’
emawa’a
‘when’
akúyá’a
‘why’
bùkúya
‘what’
lxxiii
àgúména
‘who’
buchámá
‘which’
iya’a
‘how’
angu
‘whom’
3.1.1.1 Chi
Chi ‘where’ is one of the ‘WH’ question marker that seek to kono ‘location’. It questions
the object NP of a sentence. e.g. The teacher is in the office. Where is the teacher?.
In kono, chi ‘where’ also seeks to know the location of a particular thing in a sentence.
Examples in kono:
Derived
1a.
dan
inabá bi
logae chi?
do
he
the money where
find
‘where did he find the money?’
Basic
1b.
inabá bi
logae?
he
find
money
‘he
found the money’
Derived
2a.
bo
ya
kpe
you
are
going where
lxxiv
‘Where are you doing?’
Basic
2b.
bo
ya
kpe
you
are
going
‘are you going?’
Derived
3a.
dan
bo
ìncàpì chi?
do
you
live
where
‘where do you live?’
Basic
3b.
mà
ìncàpì
lèní
I
live
in
‘I
live
in
lichir lókònù
village
the village.’
a.
CP
C1
Spec
IP
C lxxv
W
H
dan
do
Chi
I1
Spec
Pro
bọ
TN +
DO
VP
Spec
V1
you
where
‘where did you live?’
lxxvi
b.
IP
I1
Spec
I
N
P
TNS
AGR
V
P
Spec
V
1
Pro
mà
V
I
V
PP
ìncàpì
P1
live
P
NP
lèní
N1
in
N
lichir lókònù
village
‘I live in the village’
lxxvii
3.1.1.2 WH Question in Kono: Àgúména
Àgúména ‘who’ is a WH question marker which seeks to know the doer of an action i.e.
It questions the subject NP of a sentence.
In Kono, Àgúména also seeks to know the doer of an action in a sentence. For example:
Derived Sentence
1a.
àgúména
wúńai
kòn
who
beat
child
‘who
beat the
child’
malam
wunai
kòn
teacher
beat
child
Basic Sentence
b.
‘the teacher beat the child’
Derived Sentence
2a.
aguména
zo
ilaìbù
bùzò
who
is
your
friend
‘who
is
your
friend?’
zo
is
is
bùzò
friend
my
alaina
my
friend’
Basic Sentence
2b.
Asabe
Asabe
‘Asabe
Derived Sentence
lxxviii
3a.
aguména
who
‘who
Basic Sentence
3b.
Sarah
Sarah
‘Sarah
mitka
eat
ate
còlòcòlò
snail
snail?’
mitka
eat
ate
còlòcòlò
snail
snail’
CP
1a.
Spec
C1
C
IP
WH
I
Spec
Aguména
N
P
(ei)
Who
I1
VP
TN
S
AGR
Spec
V
1
‘who beat the child’
V
NP
wunai
N1
beat
N
kọn
Child
lxxix
IP
1b.
I1
Spec
C
NP
IP
I1
Spe
c
N’
VP
I
TNS
AGR
Spe
c
V
mallam
teacher
V1N
NP
N1
‘the teacher beat the child’wunai
beat
N
kọn
child
3.1.1.3
Exclamatory Question Formation: Akúyá’a ‘why’
In kono, Akúyá’a ‘why’ is used to ask for reasons of an action in a sentence. Examples of
Akuya’a in kono are;
Derived
1a.
akuya’a
dan
bo
why
did
you
‘why did you steal meat?’
Basic
1b.
bo
butu
bùtí
steal
ìnámá
lxxx
yabagora
meat
you
‘you
steal
stole
Derived
3a.
akúyá’a
why
‘why
meat
meat’
dan
did
did
bo
gáúnai
gùkpì
you
kill
rat
you kill the rat?’
Basic
3b.
mà
I
‘I
gaunai gùkpì
kill
rat
killed the rat’
1a.
IP
C1
Spec
IP
C
WH
I1
Spec
QM
I
NP
akuya’a
dan
Pro
why
did
bo
VP
Spec
V1
V
you
NP
N1
‘why did steal meat’
N
lxxxi
bùtú
ìnámá
steal
meat
1b.
IP
I1
Spec
VP
I
V1
Spec
NP
V
NP
Pro
N1
bo
N
you
bùtú
ìnámá
meat
steal
‘you stole meat’
3.1.1.4 Bùkúyà
In kono Bùkúyà ‘what’ functions as asking for a particular thing. It usually questions the
object NP in the sentence.
Examples are;
lxxxii
Derived
1a.
bùkúyà dan
what
‘what
Basic
b.
mà
I
‘I
bo
do
do
mézin
sell
sell
mézin
you
sell
you
sell?’
butarda
book
books’
Derived
2a.
bùkúyà
ìlàibú
what
your
‘what is your name?’
Basic
2b.
Sarah
Sarah
‘Sarah
zo
is
is
lisén
name
ìlìána
my
my
lisén
name
name’
lxxxiii
CP
2a.
Spec
C1
C
IP
WH
I
Spec
Bùkúyà
NP
I1
VP
(ei)
What
TNS
AGR
Pres Spec
V
1
V
NP
be
zo
is
eliablu lisén
Your name
‘what is your name?’
lxxxiv
2b.
IP
I1
Spec
I
VP
NP
TNS AGR
V1
Spec
N1
V
NP
N
iliana lisén
Sarah
my name
zo
is
‘Sarah is my name’
lxxxv
1.
CP
C1
Spec
IP
C
WH
I1
Spec
QM
I
VP
NP
Spec
bukuya
dan
Pro
what
do
bo
V1
V
you
mézin
sell
‘what do you sell?’
lxxxvi
NP
(ei)
1b.
IP
I1
Spec
I
NP
VP
TNS AGR
Spec
V1
Pro
V
NP
N’
mà
N
I
mézin
butarda
sell
book
‘I sell books’
3.1.1.5 Emawa’a
Emawa’a ‘when’; is used to ask/denote when a particular event took place in kono
Examples of Emawa’a are;
Derived
1a.
emawa’a
when
‘when
dan
did
did
bo
you
you
ínìadòbàè
arrive
arrive?’
lxxxvii
Basic
1b.
mà
ínìadòbàè
ano
I
arrive
yesterday
‘I
arrived yesterday’
Derived
2a.
emawa’a
ida
bo
dubai ùgórá
when
will
you
come home
‘when
will
you
come home?’
Basic
2b.
mà
ida
dubai ùgórá
ka
I
will
come house
today
‘I
will
come home
today’
lxxxviii
1a.
CP
C1
Spec
IP
C
I1
Spec
WH
QM
I
VP
NP
TNS AGR
emawa’a
dan
Pro
when
do
bo
Spec
V1
V
you
u
iniadobae
arrive
‘when did you arrive?’
lxxxix
NP
(ei)
1b.
IP
Spec
I
I1
VP
NP
TNS AGR
Spec
V1
Pro
I
V
Imadobea
arrive
NP
N1
N
ano
yesterday
‘I arrived yesterday’
3.1.1.6 Búchámá: Marks the WH Question
Given options, Búchámá ‘which’, seeks to know a particular thing or person in a
sentence. i.e. specification. It questions the subject NP of a sentence. For example.
Derived
1a.
búchámá
yèn
zo
ìlàibù
wich
them is
your
‘which of them is your friend?’
xc
bùzò
friend
Basic
1b.
yana ya
they are
‘they are
bùzò ìlàína
friend my
my
friend’
Derived
2a.
búchámá
letapi zo
idamezeìlàína
which
book is
yours
‘which of the book is yours?’
Basic
2b.
letapi
ya
idamezeìlàína
book
are
yours
‘the books are yours’
1a.
CP
C1
Spec
IP
C
WH
NP
I1
Spec
I
Pro
búchámá
yèn
Which
them
NP
VP
Spec
V1
Pro
Idameze ìlàína
your
V
NP
N1
‘which
N
of them is your friend’
bùzò
xci
friend
1b.
IP
I1
Spec
VP
NP
I
Spec
V1
TNS AGR
NP
V
Pro
yana
they
ya
N1
are
N
bùzò
friend
3.1.1.7
Det
ìlàína
‘they are my friends’
my
Iya’a
In kono language, Iya’a ‘how’ wants to know the manner of an action performed in a
sentence. It questions the verb of a sentence.
xcii
Examples of Iya’a in kono are:
Derived
1a.
iya’a
dan
àtàu gaunai bÌwó
how did hunter kill goat
‘how did the hunter kill the goat’
Basic
1b.
àtáu gaunai bìwó
hunter kill goat
‘the hunter killed the goat’
Derived
2a.
Ìya’a dan bo gachitká òshìnda
how did you carve mortar
‘how did you carve the mortar’
Basic
2b.
mà gachitka òshìnda
I carve mortar
‘I carved a mortar’
xciii
1a.
CP
C1
Spec
I
C
I1
Spec
WH
NP
N1
I
TN
S
VP
AGR
N
Spec V1
V
QM
NP
N1
N
Iya’a
how
dan
did
atau
hunter
gaunai
kill
biwo
goat
‘how did the hunter killed the goat’
IP
Spec
I1
xciv
V
P
I1
NP
I
TNS
AGR
Spec
N1
V
NP
N
N
1
N
atau
hunter
gauna
ikill
biwo
goat
‘the hunter killed the goat’
3.2
YES / NO ANSWER QUESTION
A Yes/No answer question is a polar question which is derived from the declarative
sentences through Aux- NP inversion rule. To derive a Yes/No answer question, the subject NP
in declarative sentence swap position with the INFL element or AGR, TNS, MODAL etc.
Yes/No answer question are usually asked particularly in conversation by means of
statement followed by a question tag. Examples of Yes/No answer question in kono are ;
xcv
Derived
1a. ini susan kàmà ùgórá
QM susan go house
‘is susan going house’
Basic
1b. Susan
kàmá
ùgórá
Susan
go
house
‘Susan
is going home’
Derived
2a.
Johnson
dan
mìtka
ùkási
Johnson
did
eat
food
‘Did Johnson eat the food?’
Basic
2b.
Johnson
mitka ùkási
Johnson
eat
food
‘Johnson ate the food’
xcvi
Derived
3a.
Ini
Qm
James
tukai motor
James
drive car
Is James driving a car
Basic
3b.
James
tukai
James
drive
‘James drove a car’
motor
car
CP
3a.
Spec
C1
C
IP
I1
Spec
VP
I
NP
TNS
AGR
V1
Spec
N1
V
NP
N
NP
ini
is
James
N
tukai
drive
motor
car
‘is James driving a car?’
xcvii
IP
3b.
I1
Spec
VP
I
TNS
NP
AGR
Spe
c
V1
V
NP
N1
N1
N
N
James
tukai
drive
motor
car
‘James drove a car’
3.3.
ECHO QUESTION
Echo question is used as a reaction to a sentence by a speaker who wishes the interlocutor
to repeat the sentence or part of it. It is simply formed by substituting a question word for
constituents.
xcviii
If the hearer does not quite catch all of a speakers utterance, the hearer may echo the
speaker’s utterance replacing the unclear portion(s) with an interrogative. Thus, Did John see
what? Might be a response to ‘Did John see (unclear)’.
Examples of Echo question in kono language
Derived
1a.
bérìlum
yohsó
bukuya?
man
drink
what?
‘the man drank what’
Basic
1b.
bérìlum
yohsó
màlúk
man
drink
palmwine
‘the man drank palm wine’
Derived
2a.
bò
sèngáuruzú
chi?
you
sing
where
‘you sing where?’
Basic
2b.
ma
sèngáuruzú
lèní
ùlyó
I
sing
in
room
xcix
‘I sing in the room’
1a.
IP
I1
Spec
VP
I
NP
Spec
TNS
V1
AGR
N1
N
NP
V
Spec
WH
Bérìlùm
Man
yohsọ bukuya
drink what
‘the man drank what?
c
1b.
IP
I1
Spec
I
NP
TNS
VP
AGR
Spec V1
1
N
N
V
NP
N1
N
bérìlùm
man
yohsọ
drink
maluk
palm wine
‘the man drank palm wine’
3.4.
TAG QUESTION
Tag question is used to ask for confirmation whether something is true or not, by making
a statement in a declarative mood. Thus, the expression could be negative / positive. There must
be a definite pronoun in the tag and this pronoun must agree with the subject of the main clause.
ci
1a.
Examples of tag questions in kono are:
ba
isi
mezin
idabá, ida mézin?
he
not
sell
yam, he sell
‘he doesn’t sell yam, does he?’
2.
John zo
ukénì, iś
John is
tall,
not
‘John is tall, isn’t he?’
3.
bo yo
kpe
you are
going
‘you are going, aren’t you?’
ida
he
cii
IP
1.
Spe
c
I1
I
NP
Pro
VP
AGR
TNS
V
Spec
1
Neg
V
NP
Spe
c
NP
mezin
sell
N
1
N
N
Pro
1
VP
V
1
N
V
bà
he
isi
not
ìdabá
yam
ba
he
mezin
sell
‘he doesn’t sell yam, does he?’
3.5.
ALTERNATIVE QUESTION
Alternative question makes use of the conjunction ‘or’ to link up the proffered
alternatives in the sentence. This type of question gives the listener options from which he / she
makes a choice.
Examples in Kono are:
1a.
ìda bò
gbiná nìutìí wọ
ciii
kòfì
will you
take
tea
or
coffee
‘will you take tea or coffee?’
2.
ìda Ruth
kàmá ulọkọchi
wọ
nògú
will Ruth
go
or
sleep
party
‘will Ruth go to party or sleep?’
3.
dan
malam
dubai
wọ
ìsí ?
did
teacher
come
or
not
‘did the teacher come or not?’
civ
2.
CP
C1
Spec
C
IP
Spec
QM
I1
I
NP
VP
Spec
V1
NP
ida
will
Pro
V
NP conj N1
N1
bo
you
gbiná
take
N
N
mutii
tea
wo kofi
or coffee
‘will you take tea or coffee?’
3.6.
RHETORICAL QUESTION
Rhetorical question is a type of question which has normal rising information of yes / no
answers question, but it distinguished by the range of pitch movement. Rhetorical question is
interrogative in structure and has the force of a strong assertion and does not require any answer.
cv
Rhetorical question is used when in distress or when someone is controlled by a
surprising situation.
Examples of rhetorical question in kono are:
1.
aguména
who
‘who
2.
dan
do
‘do
3.
zo
is
mágola Gèsìlùù
know
God
know
God?’
bò yandọ
gáinai imeni
you want
kill
me
you want to kill me?’
ùsómuwali
fear
‘where is fear?’
chi
where
cvi
1.
CP
C1
Spec
C
IP
I1
Spec
WH
VP
I
V1
Spec
(ei)
V
NP
aguména
who (ei)
N1
N
magola Gèsilu
know
God
‘who knows God?’
cvii
CHAPTER FOUR
TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESS IN KONO QUESTION FORMATION
4.0.
INTRODUCTION
This chapter is on the transformational processes attested in kono question formation.
The question types attested in kono language are: WH-question, Yes/No answer question, Echo
question, Tag question, Alternative question and Rhetorical question.
4.1.
TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESS IN KONO WH-QUESTION
A transformational process occurs when an element of a sentence under goes a change
through a syntactic rule generally known as movement rule (move α). A transformational process
change the deep structure of a sentence into its surface form or structure through a set of
transformational rules.
In Kono, a question is derived from the basic sentences through a given transformational
rule. Question formation is a transformational process attested in kono language. It asks for
information about an entity.
Examples:
Derived
1.
Sarah
zo
chi?
Sarah
is
where?
‘where is Sarah’
cviii
Basic Sentence
Sarah
zo
Sarah
is
‘Sarah is here’
Phrase Marking.
gúnwá
here
CP
1.
C1
Spec
C
QM
IP
I1
Spec
I
VP
WH
TNS
AGR
NP
chi
where
V1
Spec
V
N1
NP
Spec
N1
N
N
Sarah
‘where is Sarah?’
cix
zo
is
Ø
2a.
Derived
dan
bo
ìncàpi
do
you live
chi
where
‘where do you live?’
Basic
2b.
mà
ìncàpi lèní
lichir lókònù
I
live in
Village
‘I live in the Village’
cx
Phrase marking
2.
CP
C1
Spec
C
QM
IP
I1
Spec
I
VP
WH
TNS
+Do
V1
Spec
Pro
V
chi
where
dan
do
NP
Spec
bo
you
N1
N
Ø (ei)
ìncàpì
live
‘where do you live?’
cxi
Derived
3a.
emawa’a
dan
bo
ímàdòbàè
when
did
you
arrive
‘when
did
you
arrive?’
Basic Sentence
mà
ímàdòbàè
ano
I
arrive
yesterday
‘I
arrive
yesterday’
Derived
4a.
bùkúyà dan bo
mézin
what
do
you
sell
‘what
do
you
sell’
ma
mézin
butarda
I
sell
book
‘I
sell
book’
Basic
b.
cxii
3. Phrase marking
CP
C1
Spec
C
QM
IP
I1
Spec
VP
I
TNS
WH
AGR
NP
V1
Spec
V
NP
N1
Pro
N
emawa’a dan bò
when (i) did you
ìmádòbàè
arrive
‘when did you arrive?’
cxiii
Ø (ei)
4
CP
C1
Spec
IP
C
WH
Spec
QM
I1
I
VP
NP
Spec
V1
Pro
V
NP
(ei)
bùkúyà
what (i)
de
do
mézin
sell
bo
you
‘what do you sell?’
As exemplified above at the surface level, a landing site is being created for the extracted
constituent so as to avoid crash landing. The arrow shows the direction of movement from one
position to another through move α.
The questioned entity is usually replaced by a nullity to show it absence.
cxiv
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0.
INTRODUCTION
Chapter five is the last chapter of this essay work. It serves as the concluding part of the
essay. The summary, conclusion, recommendations and list of references are embedded in this
last chapter.
5.1.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The investigation on this research work has been able to analyze question formation in
Kono language under a prominent level of language known as syntax. As far as syntax is
concerned, it is a level of language that deals with the ways in which words can be combined
together to form phrases and grammatical sentences. This shows that syntax is very important in
the study and development of any human language.
I hope that this research work will be a great contribution and a source of reference for
further studies with respect to Kono language and to also motivate the interest of students to
undertake further research work in this area of study.
5.2.
RECOMMENDATIONS
This research project addresses the aspect of kono question formation with the intention
that it will serve as a source of reference for researchers, linguist as well as serving as a reference
material to kono speakers generally.
It is therefore recommended that further linguistic research on Kono language should
endeavour to cover other levels of linguistics in Kono language such as phonology, Morphology,
cxv
Semantics, as well as lexicography. Further research should also be carried out on question
formation in kono language.
I further recommend that all kono language speaking parents should make sure that their
children are taught this native language. By so doing, the language will be protected from dying
and the culture of the language will be passed to the children.
cxvi
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Adegbija .E. (1998). The use of English. Ilorin. University of Ilorin
Akande, (2004). Language and Communication Skills. Ilorin: Haytee Publisher.
Awobuluyi .O. (1978). Foundation of General Linguistics. Ibadan: Oxford
University of Ibadan.
Awobuluyi .O. (1997). Essential of Yoruba Grammar. Ilorin: University of Ilorin.
Blake .B.J. (1987). Case. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Crytal .D. (1987). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language: Cambridge
University Press.
Close .T.G. (1975). Reference Grammar of Students of English. U.K. Longman
Cook .V.J. (1988). Chomsky’s University Grammar. London Basil Blackwell.
Chomsky .N. (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris
Publication.
Haegeman .L. (1994). Introduction to Government and Binding Theory: Oxford
U.K. Blackwell Publisher Limited.
Horrocks (1987). Generative Grammar. Longman: London and New York.
Martinet, Andre (1960). Elements of General Linguistics. University of Chicago
Press.
Obafemi .O. (2003). Studies and Discourse. Ilorin: Haytee Publisher
Quirk .R. et al (1972). A Grammar of Contemporary English. Longman Group
Limited.
cxvii
Radford .A. (1988). Transformational Grammar. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Yusuf .O. (1992). Introduction Linguistics. Ilorin: University of Ilorin Press
Yusuf .O. (1997). Transformational Generative Grammar. Ijebu-Ode: Sebotimo
Publication.
Yusuf .O. (1998).Fundamentals of Syntax and the Study of Nigerian Languages.
Ijebu-Ode: Sebotimo Publication.
cxviii
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