Final Review

Biology 120 Final Review
Definition of allele
phenotype vs. genotype
Heterozygous vs. homozygous (homozygous recessive/homozygous dominant)
dominant vs. recessive, codominant, incomplete dominance, sex-linked traits, multiple allele
How to use the Punnett square, what do the squares mean, what do the spaces on the outside
of the square mean?
Can you figure out what gametes will be formed if given the parent's genotypes?
Can you figure out what the parent's genotypes are if you are given the offspring's genotype?
What are Mendel's theory of independent assortment
how do you use a pedigree? What are the squares, circles, can you determine the genotypes
and what rule the trait follows?
How many different types of gametes will a parent produce? Example if the parent is Aa- how
many different gametes will be produced? If the parent is AA how many different types of
gametes will the parents form?
Ecosystems and Conservation
 Know all the cycles (water, carbon, nitrogen)
 Know all of the biomes and their most important characteristics
 Populations vs. community vs. ecosystem vs. biome
 what is a niche?
 What are the 3 different kinds of symbiotic relationships that we talked about? What are some
examples of each?
 What are some adaptations to predation?
 Keystone species
 Food chain, food web, primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, etc. Also
autotroph, hetertroph, herbivore, omnivore, carnivore
 Biological magnification
 What are the reasons according to E.O. Wilson that species are becoming endangered?
 What is an endemic species, endangered species, threatened species?
 Climate change (evidence, greenhouse gases), ozone layer issues (ozone is not related to climate
Population Biology
 Limiting factors- what does this have to do with population growth.
o density dependent
o density independent
Population change (birth, death, immigration, emigration)
Exponential growth vs. logistic growth
Survivorship curves- (type I, II, III)
carrying capacity- definition and how this relates to maximum sustainable yield
how to read population pyramids
Different natural history reproductive lifestyles