The Highway Transportation System (HTS) & Risk Management

The Highway Transportation System (HTS) &
Risk Management
Has 3 components – Roads, vehicles and people (other).
Roads – Nearly 4 million miles, range from multilane superhighways to
dirt & gravel country roads.
Vehicles – Nearly 250 million registered vehicles from as large as a
tandem tractor-trailer to as small as a motorcycles
People – Nearly everyone including 250 million licensed drivers
Other – animals, debris or obstructions
Goal of the HTS
***Enable people and goods to move safely & efficiently.
Who regulates the HTS? (Federal, state and local governments)
Federal –
The National Traffic & Motor Vehicle Safety Act – require car maker
to build certain safety features.
The National Highway Safety Act – sets guideline for states to follow in
regards to registration, licensing, inspections, traffic laws and courts,
highway construction and maintenance. Each state sets the traffic rules
and you must obey the laws of the state you are driving in, not where you
are licensed. EX – Right on Red Laws
State/county – MVC, maintenance of state roads, court system, set rules
of the road.
Local – Maintain local roads, parking regulation, local enforcement
Risk - The probability or threat of quantifiable damage, injury, liability, loss,
or any other negative occurrence that is caused by external or internal
vulnerabilities, and that may be avoided through preemptive action.
Risk – There is always a risk of injury or property damage. Realizing
this is the 1st step toward being a responsible driver.
 1 in 5 chance of being in a collision in any given year
 1 in 83 chance of suffering a disabling injury
 85% of traffic deaths occur in their first collision
 50% of deadly accidents involve a single car
Understanding and Reducing Risk
Keep your car in top condition
Know the vehicle you are driving
Learn the rules of the road
Be Alert, be prepared act in time
Anticipate the actions of others (defensive driving), BUT assume the
other drivers will make a mistake.
Take steps to protect yourself
Drive only when you’re in sound physical & mental condition
Make a conscious effort to improve your driving skills
Managing Visibility, Time and Space
Visibility – What you can see from behind the wheel and how well do
you see it, also the ability for others to see you.
Time – Ability to judge speeds and how long it will take you to stop
Space – Distance or margin for error
What is a defensive driver? – The driver who will do whatever it
takes to avoid and incident or accident. (Review)
With Time and Practice this will become instinctive.
1 mph =
20 seconds
29 feet
25 mph = 733 feet
60 mph = 1790 feet
30 seconds
44 feet
1100 feet
2640 feet
1 ½ to 2 Blocks at 25 mph
1/3 to ½ mile at 55 to 65 mph
*A car traveling at 60 mph travels 88 feet per second
Make Sure Others See You
Communicate with other drivers and pedestrians let them know your
there and what are your intensions.
Tap horn – blind spots and when approaching from behind back out
of a parking space.
Use all lights – in day light 4,700 feet with low beams 2,500 without
Tap Brakes
Leave Yourself a Way Out or a Margin of Safety
Keep a space cushion on all sides of the car
Adjust speed
Steer first brake second
3-Second Rule
Don’t drive in the Blind Spot
Don’t stay on the side.
Let faster traffic pass.
 Search or Scan– look on and off the roadway 20-30 seconds
ahead– Use a systematic pattern
 Identify – object or conditions 12 to 15 seconds ahead that can
interfere with your intentions (12 second rule manual) – this is more
than simply looking at the scenery you have to think about it. Your
aim is to identify threats to your travel path.
 Predict – What action or conditions on or near the roadway could
increase risk
 Decide – actions to take to reduce risk (Steer, slow or stop), there
are several choices which will reduce the threat the most.
 Execute – take action