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AT622, Review Material for Test 1 Maxwell’s Equations: We learned a rough history of light. Understand basic princples of what an electromagnetic wave is (how E & B are related, where the speed of light comes from in the equations, how E-field is modified in an absorbing medium with a non-zero imaginary part of the refractive index). Electromagnetic spectrum: basic parts of the spectrum, long vs. short wave, what is important about each part of the spectrum for atmospheric science (basically ch3 Petty). Solid Angle: Know the equation for calculating solid angle. Solid angle of a sphere viewed from anywhere. Quantities: Intensity/Radiance, Flux Density (spectral vs. monochromatic) = Irradiance, power, energy. Know the units on every such quantity we’ve talked about. Equation for flux density from radiance (angular integration). Remember the cosine term and why it is there. Planck’s function: What it describes. Limits: Wien limit (short wavelength), Rayleigh-jeans limit (long wavelength), and how to derive them. How is peak wavelength of emission related to temperature? What is the Stefan-Boltzmann law, where does it come from? What is the ultraviolet catastrophe, and what was the key in determining a physical basis for deriving this formula? What is brightness temperature; TB equation in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit and how to derive. What is Kirchoff’s law? Terms: emissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity. Brightness Temperature. Interaction at a planar boundary: Snell’s law, critical angle. Depends on incidence angle & index of refraction. What do the real vs. imaginary parts of index of refraction of a material affect? Fresnel relations for reflectivity & transmissivity at a planar boundary & their dependence on polarization state. Brewster’s angle. Definition of surface albedo. Specular vs. Lambertian surfaces. Solar stuff: Sun emits roughly as a blackbody at T=5870 K. Solar lines. Solar insolation: equation for SZA, how to get daily averaged, how to calculate length of day. Limiting cases: equinoxes, solstices, poles. Meanings of terms that determine solar insolation. Radiation balance stuff, Fin=Fout. Calculating emitting temps of objects & surfaces, net fluxes, heating rates.