Common Lab Equipment Used for Measurement and Data Analysis Lab Purpose: 1. To learn/review how to use the following pieces of common lab equipment- thermometer, meter stick, and graduated cylinder. 2. To learn/review to organize data in a data table. 3. To learn/review to graphically represent data using a bar, line and circle graph. Safety: Use all lab equipment careful, especially glass. If it breaks please, find Mrs. Joseph to help clean it up. ***Before you begin, take a data collection sheet and put your name on it. PART 1- THE THERMOMETER Thermometers are very fragile and MUST be handled with care. Read the following rules for the proper use of thermometers. Never shake down a thermometer to reset it. Never stir any liquid using a thermometer. Never allow the thermometer to touch the bottom or sides of the container. Complete the following directions for the thermometer review1. Place the bulb end of the thermometer into beaker A. 2. Hold the top (tip) of the thermometer for several minutes (3-4) to register the correct temperature of the liquid. 3. Keep the thermometer IN the liquid and read it. Record the data on the data collection sheet. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 for beaker B. 5. Answer the rest of the questions about thermometer on the data collection sheet. PART 2-GRADUATED CYLINDER Read the following directions for using and reading a graduated cylinder. Place the cylinder on a flat surface. Look at the cylinder at eye level. The view of the surface of the liquid will be slightly curved. The curved surface of the liquid is called the meniscus. Read the measurement from the BOTTOM of the meniscus. Complete the following directions for the graduated cylinder review: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is the largest measurement on cylinder A? Record this on the data collection sheet. What is the smallest measurement on cylinder A? Record this on the data collection sheet. What do each of the lines on cylinder A represent? Record this on the data collections sheet. Take a measurement of liquid in cylinder B. Record it on the data collection sheet. Repeat step 4 for cylinders C and D. Answer the remainder of questions about the graduated cylinder on the data collection worksheet. PART 3-METRIC RULER/METERSTICK The ruler that you see at this station has both inches and metric centimeters/millimeters on it. Make sure that you know the difference from the sides. We will always use the metric side. The meter stick at the station is longer than the standard yard stick. A meter stick is about 39 inches long while a yard stick is 36 inches long. Remember 1 meter stick = 100 centimeters = 1000 millimeters. There are 10 millimeters in every centimeter. Complete the following directions for the metric ruler and meter stick review. 1. How long is the ruler in inches? Centimeters and millimeters (you should write this as a decimal. For example 25.3. That means 25 cm and 3 mm.)? Answer this on the data collection worksheet. 2. Measure the length and width of the note card in centimeters and millimeters. Record this on the data collection sheet. 3. What is the length and width of the computer paper in centimeters and millimeters? Record this on the data collection sheet. 4. What is the length and width of one of the black tables in centimeters and millimeters? Record this on the data collection sheet. PART 4-MAKING A TABLE Anytime that data is collected in an experiment, it is most likely presented in a table. Each table should have a TITLE, ROWS, COLUMNS, and HEADINGS. Read the paragraph below and use the information to complete the table on the data collection worksheet. An experiment was conducted to measure the amount of oxygen consumed during cellular respiration by germinating seeds at different temperatures. Measurements were taken every two minutes for 10 minutes. The first set of seeds was kept in a cold environment in which the temperature was maintained at 10 degrees Celsius. The measurements (showing cumulative oxygen consumption) obtained at 2 minute intervals were 1 mL, 1.8 mL, 2.7 mL, and 4.5 mL. The second set of seeds was kept in a warm environment in which the temperature was maintained at 24 degrees Celsius. The measurements (showing cumulative oxygen consumption) obtained at 2 minute intervals were 2 mL, 3.1 mL, 4.3 mL, 5.6 mL, 6.5 mL. PART 5-MAKING A LINE GRAPH Line graphs are data points plotted on a graph and connected by a line. Line graphs are most often used to show change over time and compare two or more sets of data. The independent variable, the one that the scientist changes, is plotted on the x-axis (horizontal). The dependent variable, the one that changes because of the independent variable, is plotted on the y-axis (vertical). Use the following information to create a line graph on the data collections worksheet. 1. Label the x and y axis with titles. 2. Draw in your numbers. Make sure that the numbers use a scale. This means they all need to increase by the same number. For example, all numbers go up by 1 or go up by 2, or 5 etc. 3. Put a title on your graph. 4. Plot your points. Use the numbers from the table you created in part 4- you can reread the paragraph or use the information on the data collections sheet. 5. Label each line. PART 6- MAKING A BAR GRAPH Bar graphs are useful for showing data collected by counting. Bar graphs also have horizontal and vertical axes. Use the following information to create a bar graph on the data collections worksheet. 1. Set up the graph with numbers and labels. 2. Draw a bar for each piece of data using the table below. 3. Make sure your graph has a title. Part of the school Day Math Class Science Class English Class History Class Gym Lunch time # of Students 15 25 8 10 46 73 PART 7- MAKING A CIRCLE GRAPH A circle graph is used to show how a certain quantity is broken down into parts. It looks like a “pie.” Use the following information to create a circle graph on the data collection worksheet. 1. Use the information below to make the circle graph- remember that the percentage given should be reflected on the graph. For example. 50% should be half the graph. People were surveyed to determine what color automobile they would prefer Grey 50%, Red 25%, White 10%, Blue 10%, Beige 5% 2. Make sure each part of the “pie” has a label. 3. Give the graph a title.