Space experiment Regeneratsiya (Neogenesis) The goal of the experiment: assessment of weightlessness impact on structural & functional restoration of mutilated organs and tissues of creatures. The tasks of the experiment: • investigation of ophthalmic feelers neogenesis of terraneous air-breathing snails Helix lucorum; • investigation of neogenesis of eddy worms planaria Girardia tigrina`s entire organism from its fragments. The equipment used: • container Ulitka (Snail) • container Planariya (Planaria) What was done on ISS: The experiment was entirely completed in the course of the ISS Expedition 17. Scope of activity: Pre-flight period: selection and preparation of experimental objects; preparation of Ulitka and Planariya containers for flight and control creatures; surgical removal of snails` ophthalmic feelers and fragmentation of Planarias; In-flight period: Rassian Segment crew members place containers with creatures in the ISS Zvezda Service Module with temperature within 18-25 °C; prepare containers for return in a descent vehicle; Post-flight period: after return the creatures to the Earth they are subjected to photo- and video shooting; preparations for structural analysis and reveal of element structure and morphological parameters of the regenerates are arranged; an electroretinogram (ERG) of intact and reactivated eyes is logged. Сreatures from control assemblages undergo investigations similar to those of the flight-underwent assemblage. The obtained results: Snails Upon opening the Ulitka container 16 snails were dead (25 %) and 43 were alive (75 %). 25 of the alive zooids had new eye follicles instead of the removed ones. However they were much less in sizes than eye follicles on intact feelers. A electroretinogram logged from the surface of the intact eyes is a sequence of negative slow potentials with concealed periods of 70-190 ms with amplitude within 2– 6.5 mV. For dual light stimulation pulses the initial reaction to the second puls was restored in 1.5–2 min intervals between the pulses. In case of the reactivated eyes ERG appeared with the concealed t periods of 90–230 ms. Its amplitude characteristics were considerably less than those for intact eyes (0.3–1 mV). At the same time it was noted that in case of dual light stimulation pulses ERG restoration Planarias All fragments of flight-underwent assemblage planarias turned out to be revivified. In all cases there took place neogenesis of missing organs. Instead of the removed forward organs there appeared new ones and the slit fragments reactivated their missing halves. Locomotor activity of the revivified planarias was reached by smooth sliding or consecutive arctation and extension of the body on the bottom of a vessel or on the water surface. Their feeding behavior was standard. A part of the revivified planarias were subjected to 2.5 % gluteraldehyde-fixation with phosphate mixture (pH=7.4) for scanning electronic microscopy. caused by the second puls was marked at the same intervals of time (1.5–2 min). Reactivated eyes follicles of 4 snails and eyes follicles of intact feelers were subjected to 10 % formol-fixation for light microscopy. Reactivated eyes follicles of 3 snails and eyes follicles of intact feelers were subjected to 2.5 % gluteraldehyde-fixation with phosphate mixture (pH=7.4) for transmission electron microscopy. In-flight and control objects investigations are expected to be completed within the first quarter of 2009. By reason of absence of light and electronic microscopy equipment at disposal of IMBP State Science Center under due funding it will be needed to award a contract other scientific institutions. Significance of experimental results: Preparations-based neoformation underlies restoration of organs and tissues of insulted terrestrial organisms. Extension of space flights duration and enlargement of scope of activities as well as sophistication of missions increase risk for cosmonauts to be involved into mischances, get hurt of various sort of traumas including those requiring surgical interference. Information gained in modeling experiments on living beings will undoubtedly be useful to upgrading the package of measures connected with medical support of manned space flights. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Experiment planner: Russian Federation RAS- IMBP State Science Center. Experiment science manager: Doctor of Science (Biology), professor G.I.Gorgiladze.