Anderson Theodore Rollin Anderson COL Sheldon 13 December

Anderson 1
Theodore Rollin Anderson
COL Sheldon
13 December 2014
Help Received: Col. Sheldon reviewing paper and critiquing/making comments, Cadet Mullinax
(in same section of class) for asking whether or not I had to cite Wikipedia if not using it directly
but finding links/other sources from there).
Theodore R. Anderson
Paper One Final Draft: Greek City of Cyrene, Africa
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I wrote my first paper on the city of Cyrene in current day Libya, Africa. In my paper I
will attempt to explain the importance of the city of Cyrene (with a focus on the temple of Zeus)
to ancient Greece through first explaining the history, then moving onto contributions of the city,
and finally look at the lifestyle and culture. Located in current day Libya, Africa, is the famous
Greek city of Cyrene. Cyrene is also known as “Qurina, Quorinah and Shattah”. 1 Moreover,
Cyrene is known for having been one of the largest cities in Africa during the 4th century B.C.
and its temple of Zeus was known for being larger than the Parthenon in Athens’.2 In writing this
paper, the focus specifically however, will be on the temple of Zeus at Cyrene. Perhaps most
well known for being one of the key cities of the Hellenic world, Cyrene has an immense amount
of history. Rulers of Cyrene that most people would recognize include Cleopatra, Alexander the
Great, and finally, Marc Antony.3
The city of Cyrene is an important site to ancient Greece for several reasons. First,
Cyrene offers a unique perspective into a Greek city that seemingly focused a great deal on
hedonism and peace, while still managing to produce such scholars and scientists as
Eugamamon, Theodorus, and Callimachus. 4 In my opinion, this is interesting given hedonism is
a life full of pleasure, and to see such scholars and scientists come out of a society is fascinating.
Secondly, Cyrene is a noteworthy city for its fame in becoming one of the largest cities in all of
Temehu,, “Cyrene:Libyan-Greek Archaeological Site in Cyrenaica”,
Temehu,, “Cyrene:Libyan-Greek Archaeological Site in Cyrenaica”,
Temehu,, “Cyrene:Libyan-Greek Archaeological Site in Cyrenaica”,
Livius, “Cyrene”,
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the Mediterranean by the end of the 4th century. 5 Just north of Cyrene is the fountain of Apollo,
to the southeast there are the Agora and Roman forum. In total, there is a vast amount of
archaeological remains to see at Cyrene, but the most notable are the Sanctuary of Apollo, the
Acropolis and the Agora. 6 Also, I believe that Cyrene is an interesting and important site to
ancient Greece due to its location and the amount of influence and power it was seemingly able
to gain. To me it is particularly interesting that the Greeks ended up in Libya, as I had never.
Before taking this course realized that the Greeks I never thought that the Greeks had colonized
that far outside of Greece, let along northern Africa.
Cyrene is an interesting archaeological site both for its reputation and its history. In more
recent times, Cyrene has been made into one of the top archaeological sites in all of Libya today
since 1982. 7 The first settlers came across what is known as Cyrene with the attempt of escaping
the previously overly crowded Greek island Thera.8 Thus, the first group of Greeks who arrived
in what is now known as Cyrene came across the island of Platea at the front of the coast of
Libya.9 Sometime later, they took over a coastal strip of Aziris and eventually made a treaty with
the locals (Libyans), under which Cyrene named its capital Cyrenaica.10 Cyrene, according to
myth is based on the many love affairs of Apollo. Specifically, in terms of Cyrene, we now
understand it to be composed of four cities that were coastal: Eusperides, Taucheira, Ptolemais,
and Apollonia.11 Thus, Cyrenaica actually includes all of the four cities and Cyrene.12 Cyrene
Temehu,, “Cyrene:Libyan-Greek Archaeological Site in Cyrenaica”,
UNESCO World Heritage Centre, “Archaeological Site of Cyrene,
Temehu,, “Cyrene:Libyan-Greek Archaeological Site in Cyrenaica”,
Livius, “Cyrene”,
Livius, “Cyrene”,
Livius, “Cyrene”,
Violatti, “Cyrene”, Ancient History Encylopedia,
Violatti, “Cyrene”, Ancient History Encylopedia,
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was founded in 630 B.C., and the capital Cyrenaica, known for having the “Fountain of Apollo”
and providing the city with abundant amounts of clean, distillable water, was taken over by
Alexander the Great around 440 BC13
The Cyrene temple of Zeus is an ancient temple dedicated to Zeus that was founded in
the 6th century, presented by the Emperor at the time, Augustus.14 “The measurements of the
temple are 70 meters by 32 and is known for having 17 by 8 Doric columns for its makeup.”15
Another architectural peculiarity associated with the Temple of Zeus in Cyrene that not many
people know is that “the Doric columns are constructed inwards so as to give off the illusion of
being straight to the person viewing them.” 16 In other words, I believe the architecture was
designed in such a way so as to impress visitors to the city and show off its prestige. When it
refers to being constructed inward, it is as if The city was founded in 631BC but interestingly
enough like many archaeological sites I suppose, only a third has been excavated up until this
point.17 Perhaps this is due to the massiveness of the site, but it is interesting given its importance
as a UNESCO world heritage site and how it has only been looked into such a little amount. If
that wasn’t enough, Cyrene is often times considered, aside from being a UNESCO world
heritage site, to being have said related to the great philosopher Plato and other similar
philosophers. This would be logical given its importance as an “unraveled city”18
Livius, “Cyrene”,
UNESCO World Heritage Centre, “Archaeological Site of Cyrene,
Livius, “Cyrene”,
UNESCO World Heritage Centre, “Archaeological Site of Cyrene,
Alex Hunger, Cyrene Temple of Zeus- Ancient Temple in Libya,
Ain Mizrag, The Temple of Zeus in Cyrene,
Ain Mizrag, The Temple of Zeus in Cyrene,
Ain Mizrag, The Temple of Zeus in Cyrene,
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A brief glimpse into the history of the settlers of Cyrene shows that the first leader was
named Aristotles, but “he was known as Battus meaning stammerer in Greek and is most likely
related to what’s known as a title in Libya.” This is interesting in itself given that it is believed
that Cyrene was a Libyan Amazonian queen, thus giving the city a more suitable name. 19
Moving farther along, following Battus, the rulers of Cyrene included: “Arcesilas I 599-583,
Battus II the Blessed 583-560, Arcesilas II the Tough 560-550, Battus III the Lame 550-530,
Arcesilas III 530-514, Battus IV the Fair 514-470, and Arcesilas IV from 470-440.” 20 Other
areas of interest in terms of famous Cyrenaens include various Greek scholars and scientists.
Included in these scholars and scientists, the hometown (all born in Cyrene) of Cyrene brings
with it the famous Eugammon from the six century, a poet of the Epic Cycle, the mathematician
Theodorus(465-399), who is known for developing the theory of irrational numbers and is often
considered to have been one of the founders of atheism. Theodorous’ student, Callimachus is
also important for having thought to be an important poet of antiquity. Callimachus’ student
Eratosthenes, who is referenced here from the dates 276-193 B.C. He is important notably for
having been the first man to take the measurements of the circumference of the earth
(approximately 43,500 kilometers)21. More or less, the Cyrenaen philosophy was thought to be a
“life of pleasure” which meant a slightly hedonistic culture that could have possibly been the
reason for such a focus on the arts, sciences and the Cyrenaean who is associated with
developing atheism. With such a philosophy devoted to a hedonistic lifestyle, the focus seemed
to have been less on warfare, and given that Cyrene is described as having been a peaceful town
Livius, “Cyrene”,
Livius, “Cyrene”,
Livius, Cyrene,
Theodorus of Cyrene,
Eugammon of Cyrene,
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and lacking tumultuousness compared with other Greek cities, this could possibly have made
sense in this case.22
In terms of geography, if we look at some maps of the city of Cyrene, we will notice its
location in in northeastern Libya, south of Greece. Also looking at the maps below, we can see
what composed Cyrenaica, the five surrounding cities which are defined as this region.23
To conclude, Cyrene is
most notable due to its Temple
of Zeus which was larger than Athens’ Parthenon. We are not sure when it was built (around 6th
century B.C.), but we know that is was rebuilt during the 2nd century. Moreover, the
archaeological site of Cyrene is currently part of the UNESCO world heritage sites 26 Through
one source, Cyrene is referred to as the “Athens of Africa” and I believe this fitting due to its
Livius, Cyrene,
Violatti, “Cyrene”, Ancient History Encylopedia,
Archaeological Site of Cyrene-Libya,
Cyrene, Libya, “Geographical Names”,
Archaeological Site of Cyrene-Libya,
Temehu,, “Cyrene:Libyan-Greek Archaeological Site in Cyrenaica”,
Violatti, “Cyrene”, Ancient History Encylopedia,
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versatility and prestige as both a city of peacefulness, history, as well as its productive economy,
arts and sciences, and distinct hedonistic lifestyle. 27 I believe the archaeological site of Cyrene
plays an interesting role in Greek history given the famous philosophers and poets that came out
of the period, as well as the rulers including Marc Antony and Cleopatra.28
Cyrene, Libya,Princeton University,,_Libya.html
Temehu,, “Cyrene:Libyan-Greek Archaeological Site in Cyrenaica”,
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Archaeological Site of Cyrene. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Archaeological site of Cyrene - Libya. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Automatic Bibliography Maker. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Callimachus. (2014, September 26). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Course Syllabus Ancient Greece Fall 2014 from Col. Sheldon
Cyrene. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Cyrene. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Cyrene. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Cyrene, Libya. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from,_Libya.html
Cyrene, Libya. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Cyrene, Libya. (2014, September 22). Retrieved December 13,2014, from,_Libya
Eratosthenes. (2014, September 25). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Eugammon of Cyrene. (2014, September 19). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
“Footnote or Endnote format” handout from Col. Sheldon
Guidelines for Referencing Papers. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Hunger, A. (n.d.). Cyrene Temple of Zeus. Retrieved December 13,2014, from
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Microsoft word
Paper I Reviewed by Col. Sheldon
Taylor, C. (n.d.). How to Fully Justify the Margins in Microsoft Word for the IMac. Retrieved
December 13,2014, from
The Temple of Zeus in Cyrene. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
The Temple of Zeus in Cyrene. (n.d.). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
Theodorus of Cyrene. (2014, September 28). Retrieved December 13,2014, from
“Things to remember” handout from Col. Sheldon
APA formatting by