Facts to know

Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Olden times, gaea, the titans, cronus
Pg 1-15
Facts to Know
Mother Earth, mother of all living things
Father Sky
Titans & Titanesses
first Children of Earth and Uranus; giants
one-eyed children of Earth and Uranus
the deepest, darkest pit of the earth
youngest Titan; overcame Uranus
wife and sister of Cronus; a Titaness
youngest child of Cronus; King of gods
island where Zeus was raised
1. Magnificent to behold: __________________________________________
2. Warm and bountiful mother: _____________________________________
3. Lord of the universe: ____________________________________________
4. Tremendously strong smiths: _____________________________________
5. Looked at them with disgust: _____________________________________
6. Of hardest flint: ________________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
7. She fashioned a sickle: __________________________________________
8. his monstrous brothers: _________________________________________
9. But Rhea mourned (mourn): ______________________________________
Comprehension Questions:
1. How were the Greek gods similar to mortals in olden times? How were they different?
2. What did Uranus do to upset Mother Earth?
3. Who became first Lord of the Universe and how did he acquire (get) this position?
4. What did Cronus do to all of his children? Why?
5. How did Rhea and Mother Earth fool Cronus?
6. Who was the sixth child of Rhea, hidden in youth?
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 2
Zeus and His Family
Pg 16 – 21
Facts to Know
fairy god, horns flowed with ambrosia and nectar
breastplate of Zeus
first wife of Zeus; goddess of prudence
Prometheus, Epimeteus
Titans who left to join Zeus in revolt
Lightning bolt
Zeus’s weapon; symbol of his power
strongest Titan; carries the sky on his shoulders
Typhoon and Echidna
monsters sent by Mother Earth to fight Zeus
Mount Olympus
highest mountain in Greece; home of the gods
fleet-footed messenger of gods; traveled on a rainbow
goddess of the hearth; daughter of Cronus
1. Tended by gently nymphs: _________________________________________________
2. An impenetrable breastplate: _______________________________________________
3. Goddess of prudence: _____________________________________________________
4. Cunningly tricked him: _____________________________________________________
5. The herb would make him unconquerable: ____________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
6. Frothing waves stood mountain high: _________________________________________
7. Venom dripped from his evil eyes: ___________________________________________
8. Echidna, his hideous mate: _________________________________________________
9. She cowered (cower) in a cave: ______________________________________________
10. A gown of iridescent drops: _________________________________________________
Comprehension Questions:
1. What good advice did Metis give Zeus regarding Cronus?
2. List the allies of Zeus and describe how Metis helped Zeus acquire them.
3. Who were Prometheus and Epimeteus? Why did they join Zeus in the fight with the
4. What were the weapons the Cyclopes made for Zues and his brothers?
5. Describe the monsters, Typhon and Echidna.
6. Who built the palace for the gods? Describe it.
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 3
The Twelve Golden Thrones
(pg 22-23)
Facts to know
queen of gods
god of war
god of smiths and fire
goddess of love and beauty
herald of the gods; god of those living by wits
goddess of the harvest
lord of the sea
goddess of wisdom
goddess of the hunt
god of light and music
god of wine
1. The gleaming hall of the palace: _____________________________________________
2. Reigned (reign) over heaven and earth: _______________________________________
3. Herald of the gods: ________________________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
4. Goddess of the hearth:_____________________________________________________
5. The sacred fire in the hall: __________________________________________________
6. Every hearth …was her altar: _______________________________________________
7. Gloomy palace in the underworld: ___________________________________________
8. Divine ichor flowed in their veins:____________________________________________
9. Divine ichor flowed in their veins: ____________________________________________
10. There were violent quarrels:_________________________________________________
Comprehension questions
1. Name the gods and goddesses who sat on the Twelve Golden Thrones.
2. List the five gods on the thrones who were Zeus’ siblings.
3. Who sat on Demeter’s lap?
4. Who was the gentlest of all the Olympians? Explain her seat.
5. Who was the lord of the dead? Where did he reside?
6. Why could the gods and goddesses live forever?
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 4
Hera and hephaestus
(pg 24-29)
Facts to know
Garden of Hesperides
Hera’s secret garden in the west
Zeus’ bride; he turned her into a white cow
Hera’s watchman with 100 eyes
reminder of Argus with 100 eyes on her tail
cow ford
country where Io was worshipped as Queen
god of smiths and fire; Aphrodite’s husband
island Hephaestus landed on
sea-goddess; nursed Hephaestus to health
metal smiths; Hephaestus’ helpers
1. Golden apples of immortality: ______________________________________________
2. Pursued by the gadfly: ____________________________________________________
3. Escape from its tormenting sting: ____________________________________________
4. Jumped across the strait:__________________________________________________
5. The cow ford: ___________________________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
6. Had not at all been in vain: ________________________________________________
7. God of smiths and fire:____________________________________________________
8. Forges inside volcanoes: ___________________________________________________
9. They worked his bellows:___________________________________________________
10. The din of the hammers: ___________________________________________________
Comprehension questions
1. Describe Hera.
2. What gift did Mother Earth give Hera as a wedding gift? Where did she keep the gift?
3. Describe Argus.
4. What did Hermes do to rescue Io?
5. Why is the strait between Asia Minor and Europe called the “cow ford”?
6. Describe Hephaestus. Why did he walk like a “flickering flame”?
7. Describe Hephaestus’ work.
8. Describe Hephaestus’ workshop and its location. How can one tell if he is working?
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 5
Aphrodite, ares & athena
(pg 30-37)
Facts to know
goddess of love and beauty
flowering island home of Aphrodite
Three Graces
goddesses of beauty; attendants of Aphrodite
Aphrodite’s son, also known as Cupid
god of war
Golden Apple of Discord
caused war when thrown by Eris
goddess of wisdom, defensive war, arts and crafts
mother of Athena; goddess of prudence
spirit of victory
turned into a spider for boasting and irreverence
Athena’s favorite city, famous for arts and crafts
1. Bedecked (bedeck) her with sparking jewels:___________________________________
2. The most lavish jewels: ____________________________________________________
3. Wove magic into the filigree work:____________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
4. Eris was sinister and mean:_________________________________________________
5. Pain, panic, famine, and oblivion:_____________________________________________
6. Pain, panic, famine, and oblivion:_____________________________________________
7. She loathed (loathe) his vain strutting:________________________________________
8. Wonderfully skilled at the loom:_____________________________________________
9. An irreverent scene making fun of Zeus:_______________________________________
10. Vainglorious girl: _________________________________________________________
Comprehension questions
1. Since Aphrodite had no mother or father, how did she come to be?
2. Why was Zeus eager to find Aphrodite a husband? Whom did he choose and why?
3. What happened to a person stung by Cupid’s arrows?
4. How did Athena come to be?
5. Contrast Ares and Athena.
6. What four things always follow war?
7. Why was Arachne turned into a spider?
8. Detail the gifts Athena and Poseidon gave to Athens; explain why Athena’s was selected.
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 8
Hades & persephone
(pg 56-63)
Facts to know
lord of the dead
River Styx
river that flows around the underworld
ferryman of the dead
watchdog at the gates of the underworld
queen of the underworld; daughter of Demeter
goddess of the harvest
judge of the dead
food of the dead
Elysian Fields
where heroes were sent after death
1. his desolate underground realm:____________________________________________
2. the brink of the river Styx: _________________________________________________
3. a murky, stagnant river: __________________________________________________
4. the pauper’s entrance to Hades:_____________________________________________
5. consent to part with her:_____________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
6. a little swineherd:_______________________________________________________
7. her golden-tressed mother:________________________________________________
8. bidding him to let Persephone go:___________________________________________
9. a radiant goddess:________________________________________________________
10. the flowers bloomed anew: ________________________________________________
Comprehension questions
1. What were two of the nicknames for Hades? Explain each.
2. Why did a relative put a gold coin under the tongue of the deceased?
3. Describe the underworld. Include as many details as you can.
4. How did Demeter find out what happened to her daughter?
5. After Zeus ordered Persephone’s release, why did she have to return to Hades?
6. Persephone’s trips to the underworld correspond with what changes on earth?
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 10
Prometheus (minor god)
(pg 70-73)
Facts to know
Three Fates
goddesses of destiny; decide how long mortals should live
Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos
name of each of the Three Fates
saw to it that evil and good were repaid
man’s creator and best friend
creator of animals; Prometheus’ brother
Caucasus Mountains
where Prometheus was eternally punished
1. Repopulating (repopulate) the earth: ___________________________________
2. Gifts to bestow: ________________________________________________________
3. Lavished (lavish) the good gifts:____________________________________________
4. A hollow stalk of fennel:____________________________________________________
5. He was appeased (appease):________________________________________________
6. Food of ambrosia and nectar:_______________________________________________
7. Food of ambrosia and nectar:______________________________________________
8. Hidden under sinews and bones:_____________________________________________
9. He resolved (resolve) to punish:_____________________________________________
10. More subtle way to punish: ________________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Comprehension questions
1. What was the job of each of the Three Fates?
2. What good gifts did animals get when Epimetheus modeled them?
3. What did Prometheus do for men to compensate for their lack of gifts?
4. What happened to men after they received Prometheus’ gift?
5. How did Prometheus offend Zeus?
6. What was Prometheus’ punishment?
7. How did Zeus punish the mortals?
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 11
Pandora, deucalion
(pg 74-79)
Facts to know
curiosity led her to release miseries from her jar
Prometheus’ son, father of a new race of men
Deucalion’s virtuous wife
Deucalion’s Race
a stronger race of mortals; better able endure miseries
keeper of winds; Deaucalion’s grandson
the North Wind; icy and wild
the South Wind; foggy and heavy
the West Wind; gentle and pleasant
the East Wind; least important
1. Insatiable curiosity :___________________________________
2. Awestruck by her wondrous beauty: __________________________________________
3. A horde of miseries:____________________________________________
4. the unleashed (unleash) miseries:___________________________________________
5. to build an ark:_____________________________________________
6. his virtuous wife:_____________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
7. lonesome and forlorn:________________________________________
8. lit it again with the embers:_____________________________________________
9. touched by their piety:_______________________________________
10. plague mankind: ________________________________________________
Comprehension questions
1. What gifts did Zeus give Pandora?
2. What escaped from Pandora’s box when she opened it? What was saved?
3. What problems did Pandora’s box create? How did Zeus resolve this?
4. How were Deucalion and Pyrrha able to escape the flood?
5. Zeus asked Deucalion to throw “bones of your mother.” What did he mean?
6. What was the new race of mortals called? How was this race better than the previous
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 13
Pan, echo, syrinx
(pg 90-95)
Facts to know
god of nature
old satyrs
nymph who fell in love with Narcissus
loved himself so much he died
Pan’s first instrument
nymph; was turned into a laurel tree
river-god; Daphne’s father
Laurel wreath
highest honor a hero could receive
1. He cavorted through glades: ________________________________________________
2. A venomous water snake: __________________________________________
3. Echo detained her so long:____________________________________________
4. With idle chatter:___________________________________________
5. Spellbound by the handsome stranger:________________________________________
6. The realm of the dead:_____________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
7. Grieved and pined :________________________________________
8. A plaintive whistling sound:_____________________________________________
9. The melodious voice:_______________________________________
10. Beseeching her to stop: ________________________________________________
Comprehension questions
1. Describe Pan. How could one tell what mood he was in?
2. What were some of the punishments nymphs dealt if disrespected?
3. Why and how was Echo punished by Hera?
4. Describe Narcissus and how he died.
5. What happened to Echo?
6. Describe the nymph that Apollo loved.
7. Why was Daphne turned into a laurel tree?
8. What was the greatest honor an artist, athlete, or here could be given?
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
Lesson 21
(pg 148-157)
Facts to know
King Minos
King of Crete; son of Zeus and Europa
young hero from Troezan; defeated he Cretan Minotaur
Queen of Crete; daughter of Helios
creature that is half man, half bull
King of Athens; father of Theseus
famous architect; built palace of Cnossus
King Minos’ daughter; wife of Dionysus
son of Daedalus
Theseus’ best friend; king of the Lapith people.
1. Surrounded by his domain :___________________________________
2. A labyrinth under the palace: ______________________________________
3. Proclaimed Theseus:____________________________________________
4. They hoisted their sail:___________________________________________
5. Scalded him to death:_____________________________________________
6. His inseparable friend:_____________________________________________
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
Block: _______
7. They became boisterous and rowdy:________________________________________
8. He became a widower:_____________________________________________
9. Tried vainly to get up:_______________________________________________
10. Shown too great irreverence: ______________________________________________
Comprehension questions
11. Describe the Palace of Cnossus.
12. Describe the Cretan Minotaur.
13. Why was Athens forced to send seven maidens and seven youths to Crete every
14. How did Theseus kill the Minotaur? Who helped him?
15. What tragic mistake did Theseus make upon his return to Athens?
16. Why was Daedalus in prison and how did he escape? What happened to Icarus?
17. How was Theseus remembered by history?
18. Describe Pirithous’ friendship with Theseus.
Name: ________________________
Date: _________
19. According to the myth, why do Athenians have lean legs?
Block: _______
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