SECTION 622 PILING 622.01 GENERAL This work consists of furnishing and driving piles. 622.02 EQUIPMENT Reserved 622.03 MATERIALS Item Portland Cement Concrete Reinforcing Steel Steel Piling Steel-Encased Concrete Piling Steel Sheet Piling Corrugated Steel Sheet Piling Paint Galvanizing Section 802 836 840.01 A 840.01 B 840.03 A 840.03 B 852 854 622.04 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS A. Pile Formulas The Engineer will apply the formulas shown when computing the bearing value by pile penetration for all piles. The Engineer will not make penetration measurements to determine pile bearing values immediately after inserting fresh cushioning material over the head of the pile or when pile heads are damaged by burring, corrugating, or crushing. If water jets are used with the driving, the Engineer will determine the bearing value by the formulas from the results of driving after the jets have been withdrawn. The Engineer will make a reduction in the rated energy of an open top diesel hammer if the hammer does not maintain the minimum measured stroke. This reduction will be based on the percentage of the reduced stroke. B. Pile Driving 1. General Give at least 24 hours advance notice of any pile driving operations. Drive piling in the presence of the Engineer. Drive pile without using followers. Do not drive pile within 80 feet of concrete which has cured less than 3 days. For all types of hammers use pile driver leads that allow free movement of the hammer and rigidly hold the pile in correct alignment during the driving operation. If a pile is damaged, the Engineer will determine if the pile must be replaced or can be repaired. Remove any section of piling that is drilled or burned and do not incorporate it into the structure. After pile driving is completed backfill and compact excess excavation and voids to the bottom of the footing elevation with foundation fill, at no additional cost to the Department. a. Foundation Piles Before driving foundation piles, complete the excavation to the bottom of the footing elevation. Drive foundation piling as follows: Limit deviation from the vertical or from the specified batter to less than 1/2 inch per foot of pile length; and Keep the center of the pile at the cutoff within 6 inches of the specified location. 2. Special Requirements for Steel Encased Concrete Piles Drive steel encased concrete piles using a steel combination driving head and pilot of the proper size that distributes hammer blows on the pile shells. Do not allow clearance between the pilot ring and the pile shell to exceed 1/4 inches. Use a timber cushion block between the hammer and the driving head. Use an end enclosure plate that is: Circular; 3/4 inches thick or more; and The Diameter of the pile shells outside diameter or less. Temporarily seal the tops of pile shells after driving and until concrete placement. Completely drive all pile shells for any one bent, pier, or abutment before any concrete is placed in the pile shells. If this is not practical, allow concrete placed in a pile shell to attain a compressive strength of 2,000 psi before driving additional piling in the same bent, pier, or abutment. The Engineer will not consider the pile driving operations complete until all heaved piles have been re-driven. . C. Bearing Value Drive piling to minimum bearing value determined by the Engineer. The Engineer will determine the bearing value by the formula specified which is applicable to the type of hammer used. If the Engineer determines that it is necessary to drive piles through thin layers of hard material under-laid with soft material, the pile driving forces through the thin layers may exceed the anticipated driving forces needed to obtain the specified bearing. D. Cutoff and Treatment of Pile Heads 1. Steel Piling and Steel-Encased Concrete Piling Cut off steel piles at the specified elevation at approximately 90 degrees to the axis of the pile. E. Extensions 1. Steel Piling and Steel Encased Concrete Piling Construct splices to provide and maintain true alignment and position of the component parts of the pile. On our standard construct watertight splices in steel pile shells to develop the full strength of the shell. Do not splice lengths of pile less than 10 feet. The Engineer will allow a shorter length to make the last splice below cutoff. If splicing steel piling sections together do not exceed the following variation in straightness in inches: 1 (8 Inch × Number of Feet of Total Length) 10 F. Welders Weld as specified in the latest AASHTO/AWS D 1.5 Bridge Welding Code. Welders shall have the listed AWS certifications when performing the types of welding listed below: 1. Horizontal Welding Welders shall be qualified for 3G and 4F positions. 2. Vertical Welding Reinforced Concrete Pile Shells and Vertical Steel H-Piling (without reinforcing plates) Welders shall be qualified for the 2G position 3. Vertical Welding Steel H-Piling (with reinforcing plates) Welders shall be qualified for the 2G, 3F and 4F positions. For base metals 3/4 inches or less, preheat the base metal so that the area within 3 inches of the spot where the weld metal is being deposited is at least 50°F at the time the weld is made. Do not preheat the surface to more than 400°F. Ensure the base metal is dry before welding. If the air temperature is 0°F or less, provide protection that maintains the air temperature around the work area above 0°F. Provide protection around the work area if wind speeds are 25 mph or greater. Use electrodes that meet the requirements of AWS-A5.1, Classification E6010, E6011, or E7018. Furnish a Certificate of Compliance for the electrodes that includes the results of the tests required in AWS-A5.1. Ensure the tests were for process qualification or quality control and performed less than one year before the manufacture of the furnished electrodes. Keep electrodes in a warm, dry, and weatherproof location when the electrodes are in the factory sealed package. Use electrodes within four hours of opening or store them at a minimum temperature of 250°F. Bake the electrodes for two hours at a temperature between 450°F and 500°F if the electrodes have been open or outside the temperature controlled storage for more than four hours. Bake electrodes only once. Do not use electrodes that have been wet. G. Steel Encased Concrete Piling 1. Filling with Concrete Do not place concrete in pile shells containing water or deleterious material. Fill the pile with Class AE concrete. Place the concrete in one continuous operation and avoid the formation of air pockets. Wait a minimum of 2 hours after filling the last pile in the pile group with concrete before placing the footing or cap. 2. Reinforcement Place reinforcement as specified in Section 612.04 “Construction Requirements.” Ensure the reinforcement is a rigidly tied cage. Place reinforcement at a clear distance of one inch from the face of the pile shell, use spacers to ensure the specified clearance for the bars. Place concrete in the shell to a point approximately two feet below the bottom elevation of the reinforcing steel assembly before placing the reinforcing steel assembly in the pile shell. H. Painting Paint parts of steel piles and steel encased concrete piles exposed to view in the finished structure as specified in Sections 631.02 “Equipment,” 631.03 “Materials,” and 631.04 “Construction Requirements.” Paint the portions of piles starting three feet below the final ground surface elevation. I. Steel and Corrugated Steel Sheet Piles Drive the sheet piles with a hammer of sufficient weight and driving capacity to overcome the inertia of the pile and the resistance of the soil, without peening or upsetting the pile ends. Use a driving cap made for the type of sheeting being driven. Repair damaged galvanized sheet piling surfaces by applying a paste of approved zinc powder and flux, using a minimum quantity of water. Heat the surface to be coated sufficiently with a torch so all metallics in the paste are melted when applied. 622.05 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT The Engineer will measure completed and in place as specified in Section 109.01 “Measurement of Quantities” and as follows: A. Steel Encased Piling The Engineer will not measure concrete and reinforcing steel used in Steel Encased Concrete Piling as separate items. B. Sheet Piles The Engineer will determine the area in square feet by multiplying the nominal width by the total length of the sheet piles remaining in place after the cutoff. C. Test Piles The Engineer will not measure the length of test piles, unless the Engineer directed an increase to the quantity above the amount included in the bid item list. 622.06 BASIS OF PAYMENT A. Steel or Steel Encased Concrete Piling Section 104.03 B.2 “Increase or Decrease Quantities” does not apply to steel H-pile or steel encased piling quantities. If the final in-place quantity of each size of Steel or Steel Encased Piling driven and accepted for payment varies from the original estimated quantity by more than 25 feet, the Department will pay for the difference in the two quantities as follows: 1. If the final piling quantity of each size underruns the Plan quantity, the Department will pay the Contractor 20 percent of the Contract Unit Price for the entire difference in quantities. The Department will pay the Contract Unit Price for the in-place and accepted piling. 2. If the final piling quantity of each size overruns the Plan quantity the Department will pay the Contractor the Contract Unit Price plus 10 percent for the excess over Plan quantity. The Department will pay for Plan quantity of the in-place piling at Contract Unit Price. B. Test Piles If it becomes necessary to drive timber test piles of greater length than is shown, the Department will pay for the additional length driven as specified in Section 109.03.C “Negotiated Price.” Such payment is full compensation for furnishing all materials, equipment, labor, and incidentals to complete the work as specified.