African American Activist Debate Title: African American Activist Debate Author: Sarah White Grade Level: 9–12 Subject/Content: Social Studies (U.S. History, African American History, Civics) Summary of Lesson Students will research the views of various African American activists throughout history and take part in a town hall discussion/debate on the activists' methods. Focus Question How did African American leaders differ in their views on obtaining equality for African Americans? Databases: Student Resources in Context, Biography in Context Procedures: Steps/Activities by the teacher: Ask students to think about how various African American leaders differed in their approaches to obtaining equality. Explain to students that they will research African American leaders to understand their views on this issue. Divide students into six groups. Five groups of three people will represent the African American activists (W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and Louis Farrakhan) in a discussion/debate about the methods used by each leader. The other group will serve as audience members. The audience members will be responsible for formulating questions to ask the other groups during the discussion. Provide time for students to access the Student Resources in Context and Biography in Context databases. Give the groups representing the African American leaders copies of the African American Activist Worksheet [link]. Provide members of the audience with Audience Member Research Guide [link]. Allow groups time to plan their presentations. During this time, members of the audience should formulate questions to ask each of the leaders represented by the groups. Provide each group time to make their presentations to the audience. Allow time for audience members to ask questions of each activist. Grade these students on the depth of their questions and their participation in the discussion. When the discussion/debate is over, ask the audience members to decide which activist's methods were most effective in the fight for equal rights. Steps/Activities by student(s): Think about how various African American leaders differed in their approaches to obtaining equality. Your teacher will divide the class into six groups. Five groups will represent the African American activists (W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and Louis Farrakhan) in a discussion/debate about the methods used by each leader. The sixth group will represent the audience. The audience members will ask questions of each activist and determine which activist's methods were most effective in the fight for equal rights. If you're a member of the audience, you will need to read a little about each leader in order to formulate good questions for the discussion/debate. Use the Student Resources in Context and Biography in Context databases to research these African American leaders. If you're in a group that is representing one of the African American leaders you should follow the African American Activist Worksheet as you complete your research and plan your presentation to the class. If you are an audience member you should use the Audience Member Research Guide to help you complete your research and formulate your questions. All students will participate in the debate/discussion. Once all the activist groups have had an opportunity to present, the audience members will decide which activist's methods were most effective in the fight for equal rights. Outcome: Students will compare and contrast the views of African American leaders on obtaining equality for African Americans. Related Activities: This activity can be easily integrated with the activities suggested. English Students may write a follow-up essay that evaluates which activist's methods they feel have been most effective and explain why. Learning Expectation: Students will analyze different points of view to understand how and why African American leaders used a variety of approaches in their struggle for equal rights. National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies High School II. Time, Continuity, and Change Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the past and its legacy. Learners will be able to: A. Formulate research questions to investigate topics in history, identify possible answers, and use historical methods of inquiry and literacy skills to select, organize, analyze, synthesize, and interpret sources, and present findings. C. Evaluate the impact of institutions, values, and beliefs of people in the past on important historical decisions and developments, and compare different interpretations of the causes and consequences of these decisions and developments. X. Civic Ideals and Practices Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic. Learners will be able to: F. Identify, seek, describe, and evaluate multiple points of view about selected issues, noting the strengths, weaknesses, and consequences associated with holding each position. Standard Source: NCSS 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects: Grades 11–12 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually and quantitatively as well as in words) to address a question or solve a problem. Standard Source: NGA Center and CCSSO, 2010 ISTE NETS for Students 1. Creativity and Innovation Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. Students: B. create original works as a means of personal or group expression. 2. Communication and Collaboration Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students: A. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media. D. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems. 3. Research and Information Fluency Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students: B. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media. C. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks. D. process data and report results. Standard Source: ISTE NETS for Students, 2007 Information Power; Information Literacy Standards: Standard 1: The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively. Standard 2: The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently. Standard 3: The student who is information literate uses information accurately and creatively. Standard 9: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information. Standard Source: American Library Association, 1998 African American Activist Research Guide Our Group's Assigned Activist: W.E.B. DuBois Booker T. Washington Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm X Louis Farrakhan Who will fulfill each role in your group during the Town Hall Discussion? Activist (speaks for the activist during the discussion): __________________________ Introduction (provides introduction at the beginning of the meeting and a summary at the end): __________________________ Note Checker (helps provide facts and answers questions from audience): __________________________ The Research Your group will work together to compile research using the Student Resources in Context and Biography in Context databases. Each person will turn in individual research notes. Look for information to answer the questions below: What was this activist's early life like? What were some important events in his personal life? What were some of his major accomplishments? How did he believe African Americans should go about obtaining equality? How did he affect/change the fight for equal rights? The Town Hall Discussion It is the job of each group member to take an active role in the town hall discussion. Throughout the discussion you must represent your activist based on your research. The discussion will follow this format: 1. Each activist will be introduced. 2. Each activist will provide a brief overview and explanation of his philosophy on achieving equality. 3. Each activist will be asked questions by the audience and will answer with the help of the note checker. 4. The person handling the introduction will provide a short summary of his or her activist's views to close the discussion. African American Audience Member Research Guide You will be responsible for asking stimulating and challenging questions to help the Town Hall Discussion. To do this you will read about each of the five activists on the panel and prepare questions ahead of time. These are the activists: W.E.B. DuBois Booker T. Washington Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm X Louis Farrakhan In your research you will write two questions for each activist. These questions should be about their philosophy and should not allow for a simple, fact-based answer. For example: Do NOT ask "Where were you born?" Instead ask "How did your childhood experiences in Alabama influence your ideas as an African American leader?" You will need to read about each activist in order to formulate good questions. Use the Student Resources in Context and Biography in Context databases to locate information about each leader. You will be graded on your questions and your participation in the debate.