Periodic report
Publishable summary.
Summary of project objectives:
The main objectives of the work were to discover an array of (bio)chemicals that could lead
to the identification of markers of exposure and effect of wastewater effluents in fish.
Specifically the project objectives were to:
 To investigate changes in the fish blood plasma (xeno)metabolome arising from
exposure to wastewater effluents.
 To identify marker metabolites that could be used as signatures to monitor fish
exposure to toxic contaminants present in wastewater effluents.
An additional key objective was to enhance our understanding of how wastewater treatment
work effluents impact fish biochemistry with the potential to lead to deleterious effects on
health endpoints.
Description of work.
Fish exposure: In order to provide samples for analytical profiling work, sexually mature
roach (mixed sex) were exposed to either a treated effluent from a WwTWs (influent
primarily from domestic sources), or to clean water (control population). Fish were exposed
in triplicate tanks, and after 15 days they were terminally anaesthetized and the plasma and
tissues removed.
Sample extraction: Plasma samples were extracted using Phree plates (Phenomenex Ltd.,
Macclesfield, U.K) in order to remove phospholipids and proteins. Samples were then split
into two, and each sample was extracted using either Strata-X-C (cation exchange) or StrataX-AW (anion exchange) 96-well SPE plates (Phenomenex Ltd). The use of two SPE systems
ensured extraction of neutral, cationic and anionic compounds in the samples. Tissues were
extracted with solvent prior to SPE. Internal standards were added to the samples prior to
extraction in order to monitor sample recovery and enable chromatogram alignment.
Sample profiling and chemical analyses: Extracts were analysed in +ESI and –ESI MS modes
using a Xevo G2 ToF mass spectrometer (Waters Corporation, Milford, MA.) equipped with
a nanoAcquity UPLC system and a nanospray source. Peak alignment, ion deconvolution,
peak picking and chromatographic peak normalization were performed using TransOmics
software (Waters Co.). Datasets were exported to SIMCA software (Umetrics UK Ltd) for
multivariate analysis. Markers of effluent exposure were identified from mass accuracy,
isotopic fit, retention time, and, after collisional induced dissociation, comparison of
fragments with mass spectra from databases or from pure standards.
Description of main results.
Principal component analysis performed on the datasets revealed distinct separation from
control and exposed groups for plasma, gonads, kidney and liver samples, indicating
significant changes in the tissue chemistry The discriminatory chemicals responsible for class
separation were detected from an ‘S’-Plot analysis of the loading variables in orthogonal
partial least squares models (see Error! Reference source not found. below for example). .
Identified contaminants accumulating in tissues of effluent-exposed fish included endocrine
disruptors (EDs) and mixtures of many pharmaceuticals such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs),
benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, beta blockers, fibrates, and anticoagulants
(see Error! Reference source not found. for an example of contaminant mixtures
accumulating in plasma and testes).
Metabolite profiling revealed disturbances in eicosanoid, steroid, serotonin, bile acid,
carnitine and sphingosine pathways. Some of these metabolite disruptions can be linked to
the presence of types of key chemical stressors in the tissues. For instance, NSAIDs inhibit
cyclooxygenase activity and consequently prostaglandin (PG) synthesis; SSRIs modulate the
serotonin pathway and EDs can disrupt androgen biosynthesis. Metabolite disruption was
apparent although the plasma concentrations of these contaminants were 3-1000 fold below
human therapeutic levels indicating possible mixture effects. SSRIs, NSAIDs, and EDs were
all detected in the testes, and these classes of compounds are reported to cause endocrine
disrupting effects associated with the reproductive axis.
This work revealed that using sensitive nontargeted chemical profiling techniques enable
detection of contaminant mixtures and disruption of key metabolite pathways in fish tissues.
Effluent exposure resulted in disturbance of a number of fundamental signalling pathways in
fish; these include widespread reduction of prostaglandins in many tissues and these
mediators are important in ion transport, immune function and reproduction. In addition,
reduction in androgen and increases in serotonin metabolites were observed, indicating
potential effects on reproductive and neurological endpoints. This nontargeted approach
could be extremely informative for ecotoxicological investigations on the health effects and
associated contaminant mixtures in fish exposed to wastewater effluents.
Socio-economic impact and implications
This work provides the tools and techniques needed to investigate the impact of contaminated
environments on aquatic organisms. It has resulted in findings that indicate the fish in
effluent contaminated waters are highly vulnerable to exposure to a number of
pharmaceuticals affecting behavioural, immune and reproductive function. The work directly
contributes knowledge important for the risk assessment of contaminants in the aquatic
environment and is relevant to EU policy and legislation particularly in respect to the Water
Framework Directive.
Training activities.
A number of training activities were completed as follows:
Training at the University of Sussex included training in nanoflow/nanospray mass
spectrometry, and in multivariate analyses. Courses in Handling Pressure- a positive
approach, Vocal vitality- effective vocal skills and voice care, Publication without Pain
workshop, workshops on improving producing grant applications to EU and research
councils. I also attended workshops on bioinformatics and metabolomics at a Technology
Training Workshop in Cardiff, UK organised as part of the NERC Environmental ‘Omics
Synthesis conference in September 2013.
Figures and Tables.
Quality Control (n=7)
Female Control (n=13)
Male Control (n=10)
Female Exposed (n=16)
increased by effluent exposure
Male Exposed (n=11)
Metabolites decreased by
effluent exposure
Figure 1: Principal component analysis (a) and ‘S’ scatter plot analysis (b) of the chemical
profiles in plasma of roach exposed either to treated WwTW effluent or control water. The
samples were profiled in −ESI mode by nUPLC-nESI-TOFMS. Quality control samples
were used to monitor the analytical performance of the MS.
In the scores plot in a) clear separation was observed between the blood samples from fish
exposed to effluent contaminated water compared with fish exposed to clean water. In b) the
data from a) was further interrogated to detect the chemical contaminants taken up by fish
and also any changes in metabolite profiles as a result of chemical exposure.
Table 1: Chemical contaminants detected in effluent-exposed fish and disruption of
metabolite concentrations.
Class of chemicals
exposed fish
in Concentrations
Plasma Testes
(ng/ml) (ng/g)
NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, 0.5
mefenamic acid)
paroxetine, sertraline,
citalopram, venlafaxine)
EDs (bisphenol A, triclosan, chlorophene, 2.1
Other xenobiotics (nordiazepam, clozapine,
norclozapine, quetiapine, norquetiapine, 0.5
warfarin, carbamazepine, propranolol, 1.3
gemfibrozil, clopidogrel
detected in plasma/testes of
effluent-exposed fish
0.1 prostaglandin
5 fold increase in serotonin
0.7- 2.7
0.13 - 2-10 fold increases in bile
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