Citing references in the body of a paper using APA style:

Using APA style for referencing (an author/date system)
Citing references in the body of a paper:
If the reference has 1-2 authors:
Use the one or both authors every time, with date:
Pate (1995) OR (Pate, 1995)
Smith and Jones (1999) OR (Smith and Jones, 1999)
If the reference has 3-5 authors:
Use all names the first time you cite it in the paper:
Smith, Jones, Green, and Black (2001) OR
(Smith, Jones, Green, and Black, 2001)
Every time after that use the shortened form with "et al.":
Smith et al. (2001) OR (Smith et al., 2001)
If the reference has 6 or more authors:
Use the shortened form every time:
Jones et al. (2002) OR (Jones et al., 2002)
Within a paragraph in which you cite the same reference several times, you only need to give the
date once, unless readers could get confused.
Preparing the reference list:
Below is a sample to follow. Note its title. See also the link to Son of Citation Machine in the
Writing Resources.
Hong, Y., Li, J.X., & Robinson, P.D. (2000). Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory
fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 34, 29-34.
Nnodim, J.O., Strasburg, D., Nabozny, M., Nyquist, L., Galecki, A., Chen, S., & Alexander,
N.B. (2006). Dynamic balance and stepping versus tai chi training to improve balance and
stepping in at-risk older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 54, 1825-1831.
Thornton, E.W., Sykes, K.S., & Tang, W.K. (2004). Health benefits of Tai Chi exercise:
Improved balance and blood pressure in middle-aged women. Health Promotion
International, 19(1), 33-38.