Old Exam 1

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BLS 386
Exam 1
Fall 2000
NAME _______________________________
Note that all numbers must have units attached to them for full credit. Some information
that may be useful: 1 kg = 1000 grams; 1 metric ton (mt) = 1000 kg. Be sure to include
1)(10 pts) Complete the table below by calculating the population of the U.S. and Mexico in 20
years assuming the current growth rates stay constant.
Mexico
Nigeria
Current population
99.5 million
107 million
Population growth per year
1.8 %
3.0 %
Population in 20 years
2) (20 points) The population in China is currently 1.2 billion and growing at a rate of 1.0% per
year. China’s current per capita CO2 emissions are around 0.73 mtC/person and growing at 5.3%
per year. Using this data, complete the table below assuming all growth rates (%) remain
constant over the next 20 years. Be sure to include units on all answers.
China’s current total CO2
emissions
China’s Population in 2020
China’s per capita CO2 emissions
in 2020
China’s total CO2 emissions in
2020
% increase in China’s CO2
emissions compared with current
3)(10 points) Estimate the temperature and pressure at 9.0 km (about the height of a jet airplane)
given that the temperature at Seatac airport (near sea level) is 10oC. Give your answer in both oC
and oF. For this calculation, use the average atmospheric “lapse rate” of 6 oC per 1000 meters,
and the pressure equation P=e -Z/H
The temperature at 9.0 km is __________ oC or ________ o F and
the pressure at 9.0 km is ________________________ atmospheres.
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4)(10 points) Consider the global cycle for element X below (Note: 1 tg = 1 x 1012 grams):

Atmosphere (20 tg)
Land (50,000 tg)


Ocean (500 tg)
The values in parentheses give the total burden of element X in that reservoir. Assume the
system is in balance and that the fluxes: Ocean Atmosphere; AtmosphereLand; and
LandOcean and are all equal to 40 tg per year. Calculate the average residence time (in years)
for element X in each reservoir.
Residence time for element X:
Land
Ocean
Atmosphere
_____________ years
_____________ years
_____________ years
(5 pts each)
5) Describe the terms “fertility rate” and “natural population increase”.
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6) Describe at least two properties of CFC’s that explains why they deplete stratospheric ozone.
I.___________________________________________________________________________
II.__________________________________________________________________________
7) When were the ozone depleting compounds first regulated in the U.S., and what was the
problem with this earliest regulation?
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8) Two scientists, Sherry Rowland and Mario Molina, received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for
their theory of ozone depletion, yet in hindsight their understanding of ozone depletion was very
simplistic. What was wrong with the original “Rowland and Molina” theory? Be specific.
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9) Are any countries still manufacturing CFCs in large amounts? Which countries? Is this
allowed under the international regulations? Explain.
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10) Fossil fuel combustion produces large amounts of both carbon dioxide and water, both
important greenhouse gases. Yet we never hear much about water as a human produced green
house gas. Why not?
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11)(20 pts)Discuss the article “Before the next doubling”. Describe 4 or 5 of the key factors the
authors describe which will determine future population growth? In what way do the unmet