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1 BLS 386 Exam 1 Fall 2000 NAME _______________________________ Note that all numbers must have units attached to them for full credit. Some information that may be useful: 1 kg = 1000 grams; 1 metric ton (mt) = 1000 kg. Be sure to include units on all answers! 1)(10 pts) Complete the table below by calculating the population of the U.S. and Mexico in 20 years assuming the current growth rates stay constant. Mexico Nigeria Current population 99.5 million 107 million Population growth per year 1.8 % 3.0 % Population in 20 years 2) (20 points) The population in China is currently 1.2 billion and growing at a rate of 1.0% per year. China’s current per capita CO2 emissions are around 0.73 mtC/person and growing at 5.3% per year. Using this data, complete the table below assuming all growth rates (%) remain constant over the next 20 years. Be sure to include units on all answers. China’s current total CO2 emissions China’s Population in 2020 China’s per capita CO2 emissions in 2020 China’s total CO2 emissions in 2020 % increase in China’s CO2 emissions compared with current 3)(10 points) Estimate the temperature and pressure at 9.0 km (about the height of a jet airplane) given that the temperature at Seatac airport (near sea level) is 10oC. Give your answer in both oC and oF. For this calculation, use the average atmospheric “lapse rate” of 6 oC per 1000 meters, and the pressure equation P=e -Z/H The temperature at 9.0 km is __________ oC or ________ o F and the pressure at 9.0 km is ________________________ atmospheres. ***************************************** 2 4)(10 points) Consider the global cycle for element X below (Note: 1 tg = 1 x 1012 grams): Atmosphere (20 tg) Land (50,000 tg) Ocean (500 tg) The values in parentheses give the total burden of element X in that reservoir. Assume the system is in balance and that the fluxes: Ocean Atmosphere; AtmosphereLand; and LandOcean and are all equal to 40 tg per year. Calculate the average residence time (in years) for element X in each reservoir. Residence time for element X: Land Ocean Atmosphere _____________ years _____________ years _____________ years Answer the questions below. Be sure to read the question carefully and answer all parts! (5 pts each) 5) Describe the terms “fertility rate” and “natural population increase”. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6) Describe at least two properties of CFC’s that explains why they deplete stratospheric ozone. I.___________________________________________________________________________ II.__________________________________________________________________________ 7) When were the ozone depleting compounds first regulated in the U.S., and what was the problem with this earliest regulation? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3 8) Two scientists, Sherry Rowland and Mario Molina, received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for their theory of ozone depletion, yet in hindsight their understanding of ozone depletion was very simplistic. What was wrong with the original “Rowland and Molina” theory? Be specific. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 9) Are any countries still manufacturing CFCs in large amounts? Which countries? Is this allowed under the international regulations? Explain. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 10) Fossil fuel combustion produces large amounts of both carbon dioxide and water, both important greenhouse gases. Yet we never hear much about water as a human produced green house gas. Why not? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 11)(20 pts)Discuss the article “Before the next doubling”. Describe 4 or 5 of the key factors the authors describe which will determine future population growth? In what way do the unmet needs described in this article, impact the global environment? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________