Chapter 18








ferts add nutrients, pesticides get rid of annoying organisms grown in soil free of inorganic ferts for 3 years no hormones, no antibiotics, no pens Organic Food Production Act 1990; no genetically engineered organisms Can’t make enough, $$$ sugars 7.



cell resp amino acids; structure and enzymes, speed reactions up kills, slows down 10.

20 11.

lipids 12.

vitamins are organic, minerals are not 13.

3000 for men, 2200 for women 14.

under-no enough, mal-poor diet 15.

Marasmus; Kwashiorkor; overnourished 16.

drought, flood, war, corruption 17.

world grain carryover stocks 18.

bad weather conditions (too hot and drought) and people eating more livestock 19.

osteoporosis, kidney stones, heart disease, stroke 20.

pros-high yield, little space, cons-soil degradation, uses lots of fossil fuels, increased resistance to pesticides by pests 21.

a few pests have a beneficial mutation and the population and gene pool shifts in their favor 22.

subsistence supports a family…slash and burn is bad b/c tracts of rain forest are cleared, the soil is not fertile so it only lasts a little and then farmers move and do it again, destroying large tracts of land. 23.

intercropping is strip cropping and is better than monoculture b/c different crops fill different niches and therefore don’t compete with each other 24.

domesticated is specifically bred 25.

new disease strains can decimate a population 26.

opinion 27.

choosing crops and animals with desirable properties and then breeding them. It has decreased genetic diversity 28.

use of technology, ferts and pesticides to increase crop yield. Borlaug 29.

plentiful food; high energy costs, soil degradation, pesticide resistant organism, $ for equipment, dams, irrigation, etc. 30.

$$$ 31.

dairy, levels are higher, threshold is the minimum levels that an effect of a toxicant will be seen 32.

not good b/c leads to antibiotic resistant bacteria 33.

illness caused by food;





E. coli in spinach, mad cow disease, salmonella 35.


enzymes in bacteria slow down… 37.

taste, appearance, preservation 38.

preserve food, but can cause cancer.


effect is greater than sum of effects…so many food additives 40.

so many additives that testing and “ruling out” would be nearly impossible 41.

additive means effects seen are sum of all, antagonistic effects are less than would be expected 42.

naturally occurring poisons in food are more harmful than food additives 43.

agriculture makes most pollution of surface waters. Pesticides, animal waste, fertilizers (lesser extent for surface water…burning of fossil fuels) 44.

water-runoff from farming, soils-conventional tillage, poor irrigation, forests slash and burn, wetland-building on 45.

predator-prey relationships are used rather than pesticides, crop selection selects crops that are less prone to pests in a particular region 46.

crop rotation, conservation tillage, strip cropping, terracing, etc. 47.

putting genes from one organism into another 48.

mating desirable organisms to get the best. Dogs, horses 49.

can add genes for specific nutrients, resistance to infections and ability to grow in “poor” conditions. 50.

Latin America has acidic soil which allow aluminum to dissolve and thus be taken in by plants. Aluminum is a toxicant 51.

Genetically modified 52.

guidelines for appropriate handling of GM crops. Probably not effective. Survival of the fittest…. 53.

genes may jump to weeds and create super weeds (unlikely b/c genes have not been know to jump species except in rare and specific cases); possible hazard to human health (also not likely b/c we were eating these same genes in other organisms anyway) 54.

cost of vaccines, access to clean needles/trained personnel to deliver vaccines, storage of vaccines 55.

ALL fishes are caught so no longer sustainable, and lots of other species than that being sought are also caught 56.

Long lines, purse seine, trawl nets, drift nets. Drift are outlawed 57.

unwanted catch that usually dies anyway 58.

Countries have jurisdiction of seas within 320km of their land 59.

Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Act; out of 128 depleted fish species studied, 125 can recover 60.

runoff from cities, farms and roads 61.

raising fish, either in estuaries, inland or coastal regions but always in an enclosure. Tight quarter and limited flow of water lead to worms and parasites.