Reduction of nutrient discharges project

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E1184
v. 2
Reduction of Nutrient Discharges Project
DDNP Component
GEF # TF 051 289
Environmental Status Report (Environmental Assessment)
Social Impact Assessment (Public Consultation)
Final Report
VITUKI, Environmental and Water Management Research Centre
VTK Innosystem Ltd
List of acronyms
CTI
County Traffic Inspectorate
DEIA
Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment
DDNP
Duna Dráva National Park
DTM
Digital Terrain Model
EPNCWMI
Environmental Protection, Nature Conservation and Water Management
Inspectorate
EPWMD
Environmental Protection and Water Management Directorate
FAVI
Environmental Register of Subsurface Waters and Geological Media
PHA
Public Health Authority
PHSCS
Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station
RA
Recommended Alternative
KAR
Basic Environmental Register
KÁRINFO
Damage Elimination Information System
KBIR
Information System of Environmental Safety
KÖFE
Environmental Inspectorate
KÖVIZIG
Environmental, Nature Protection and Water Management Directorate
KSH
Central Bureau of Statistics
KvVM
Ministry for the Environment and Water Management
MAHAB
Hungarian Hydrological Database
NGO
Non-Governmental Organization
NPI
National Park Directorate
OKIR
National Environmental Information System
OKKP
National Environmental Damage Elimination Programme
OTAR
Basic Data and Object Handling System
PEIA
Preliminarily Environmental Impact Assessment
SATIR
Hydrological Data Processing, Storage and Information System
SFSRD
State Forestry Service Regional Directorate
VIFE
Inspectorate for Water
VIFIR
Hydrogeological Information System
VIKÁR
Information for Water Quality Damage-fighting
VIR
Damage-fighting Information System
VIZIR
Information System for Water Management
VM
Water Quality Database
WFD
Water Framework Directive
Contents
1.
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 7
2.
Description of the Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa regions .............................................. 10
2.1
2.1.1
Topography and geology .................................................................................. 10
2.1.2
Surface water hydrology .................................................................................. 13
2.1.3
Surface water quality ........................................................................................ 17
2.1.4
Sources of nutrients .......................................................................................... 20
2.2
Biotic environment ................................................................................................... 24
2.2.1
Terrestrial Flora ................................................................................................ 25
2.2.2
Terrestrial Fauna .............................................................................................. 26
2.2.3
Aquatic flora ..................................................................................................... 28
2.2.4
Aquatic fauna ................................................................................................... 30
2.2.5
Conclusions ...................................................................................................... 34
2.3
Socio-economic environment ................................................................................... 34
2.3.1
Legal framework .............................................................................................. 35
2.3.2
Water management ........................................................................................... 36
2.3.3
Environmental management ............................................................................. 36
2.3.4
Nature conservation .......................................................................................... 36
2.3.5
Local Governments .......................................................................................... 37
2.3.6
Economic activities .......................................................................................... 38
2.3.7
Recreation and tourism..................................................................................... 39
2.4
3.
Abiotic environment ................................................................................................. 10
Review of pressures and problems ........................................................................... 42
2.4.1
Environmental pressures and impacts .............................................................. 42
2.4.2
Socio-economic pressures and impacts ............................................................ 42
Preliminary assessment of environmental impacts .......................................................... 57
3.1
Veránka – Rezéti-Duna ............................................................................................ 58
3.2
Buvat ........................................................................................................................ 59
3.3
Béda-Karapancsa ...................................................................................................... 60
3.4
Sió unit ..................................................................................................................... 60
3.5
Gemenc..................................................................................................................... 61
3.6
Báta-Duna................................................................................................................. 61
4.
3.7
Fekete erdő, Grébeci-Duna....................................................................................... 64
3.8
Kerülő-Duna ............................................................................................................. 65
3.9
Báli ........................................................................................................................... 66
3.10
Móric-Duna .............................................................................................................. 67
3.11
Nagy-Pandúr............................................................................................................. 68
3.12
Qualitative investigation of dredging masses ........................................................... 68
3.13
Calculation of nutrient load reduction ...................................................................... 74
Preliminary assessment of socio-economic impacts ........................................................ 78
4.1
Veránka – Rezéti-Duna ............................................................................................ 79
4.2
Buvat ........................................................................................................................ 80
4.3
Béda-Karapancsa ...................................................................................................... 80
4.4
Sió unit ..................................................................................................................... 81
4.5
Gemenc..................................................................................................................... 82
4.6
Bátai-Duna ............................................................................................................... 82
4.7
Fekete-erdő – Grébeci-Duna .................................................................................... 83
4.8
Kerülő-Duna ............................................................................................................. 84
4.9
Báli ........................................................................................................................... 85
4.10
Móric-Duna .............................................................................................................. 85
4.11
Nagy-Pandúr............................................................................................................. 86
5.
Comparative evaluation.................................................................................................... 88
6.
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) ........................................................................ 92
7.
6.1
Construction phase plan ........................................................................................... 92
6.2
Implementation of mitigation measures ................................................................... 95
6.3
Monitoring requirements .......................................................................................... 98
6.4
Cost of environmental management plan ................................................................. 99
6.5
Institutional arrangements ........................................................................................ 99
Proposal for the development of the monitoring programme ........................................ 100
7.1
The present Hungarian practice of monitoring....................................................... 100
7.1.1
Quantitative monitoring of surface and subsurface waters ............................ 100
7.1.2
Data bases of pollution sources and dischargers ............................................ 101
7.2
The expectable future regulation, the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) 101
7.3
Local characteristics ............................................................................................... 104
7.4
Review of deficiencies and needs .......................................................................... 104
7.5
Proposals ................................................................................................................ 105
References .............................................................................................................................. 108
Appendix I Protected plant species described from Gemenc ................................................. 113
Appendix II Waterfowl counting 2002-2003 winter, Baja – country border ......................... 114
Appendix III. The observed numbers of waterfowl species BAJA - country border, 20022003 winter ............................................................................................................................. 116
Appendix IV. Analysis of nesting data of White-tailed Eagles ............................................. 118
Appendix V. Grouping of bat species according to their frequencies................................... 119
Appendix VI. The serial number of sampling sites on the Vén-Duna (1-4) and the Danube
River (6) – 5 and 7 shows localities in the vicinity (downstream) of the reopened rock fill . 120
Appendix VII. Characteristic macroinvertebrate species in the Gemenc region (VITUKI 19922000)....................................................................................................................................... 121
Appendix VIII. ....................................................................................................................... 123
Appendix IX. .......................................................................................................................... 125
Related legal regulation ...................................................................................................... 125
Affected international conventions .................................................................................... 130
Appendix X. ........................................................................................................................... 131
Appendix XI. MEMO of the forum held on the project „Reduction of nutrient load (DDNP)”
(TF #051289).......................................................................................................................... 143
Appendix XII. List of endangered species ............................................................................. 147
1. Introduction
In planning the management of water-environmental systems one of the most challenging
tasks of our era is the trying to find the solution of multi-objective, multi criteria management
problems. This task becomes even more challenging when the multiple functions (“pressures
and impacts”) of large river basins must be considered. This challenge reaches critical levels
when large and highly complex aquatic ecosystems are (or should be) the main actors in this
management scheme, and especially, when these ecosystems are highly valuable ones, locally
and globally, as the last representatives of their kind, before final extinction. In these critically
challenging situation the only solution that could help is a relatively novel approach called
“ecohydrology”, in its best holistic and integrated sense.
Reading the objectives of the project, and especially the 2 partial texts cited below, the Project
Manager had the strong feeling that the specialist formulating the objectives must have had a
special desire for ecohydrological solution, even if He/She has not mentioned it:
“Through the increase of the nutrient reduction capacity of floodland areas
the overall objective of the project could be accomplished. Hence, the
project has an environmental primary focus (i), but because nutrient
removal can be done only by directing water together with the nutrients
from the main bed out onto the floodland, in such respect, the project is
also: water utilisation with a particular scope (ii). Water utilisation does
not serve traditional agricultural or recreational objectives, but instead an
ecological one, as nutrients in the water bodies are used in a biological
way: by enriching the wildlife of water bodies, increasing their biodiversity
in zoological, ichtyofaunal, botanical and dendrological sense.”
‘As a prerequisite, it has to be reserved that, in the environmental analyses
to be performed, the aim of removing and absorbing nutrients should be
considered as a special water purification treatment (iv), done for the
benefit of the Black Sea, operating as a special biological reactor”
Namely, the only way to achieve the dual objectives of environmental (ecological)
primary focus and the removal of nutrient is to apply ecohydrological techniques.
Actually this duality is one of the (many) definitions of ecohydrology; that is to enhance the
ecological structure and functioning of the aquatic ecosystem by appropriately tailoring the
supply (fluxes) of water and nutrients by the hydrological (water- or environmental
engineering) means and gain, in turn, the improvement of chemical and biological quality of
the river system.
Nevertheless if one casts a closer look into the holistic and integrated principles of
ecohydrology (UNESCO-IHP, 1996 Zalewski et al.,), which is at the same time the integrated
catchment management approach, one immediately recognizes, that the catchment as a whole
should be considered in every relevant studies. In the original UNESCO-IHP-V plan,
launching the ecohydrological projects, this was formulated as follows:
“i,
To develop a methodological framework, through experimental research
to describe and quantify flow paths of water, sediments, nutrients and
pollutants through the surficial ecohydrological system of different
7
temporal and spatial scales under different climatic and geographic
conditions;
ii,
To develop an integrated approach for managing the surficial ecohydrological environment including the non-structural measures;”
Thus in the integrated and holistic ecohydrological approach to the floodplain ecosystems
(wetlands) of the Danube-Drava National Park one should be aware of the fact that the waterflow and nutrient-load to these floodplains are the results of all natural and anthropogenic
processes and their impacts of the Danube catchment upstream of river kilometre 1497 of the
Danube (the mouth of the Sió Canal), expanding to the Black Forest in Germany. This also
means that tailoring these water flows and loads locally would and could concern only a small
(but important) fragment of the entire flows and loads of the Danube catchment (upstream and
downstream). (This we will numerically assess in this project).
This also means that the very professionally and wisely formulated objectives and activities of
this project can only lead to the achievement of the desired overall load reduction objectives
(of the Black Sea), if similar projects on the reduction of all point and non-point source input
loads will be carried out over the entire catchment of the River Danube by the dozens or
rather by the hundreds. But I think and strongly believe that this was the primary aim of those
who launched the project.
At this point it must be mentioned that we have learned during the course of several similar
projects of large catchments (Most recently from the Tisza River Project, being a subcatchment of 157,000 sqkm area of the Danube) that far the larger part of the total
nutrient loads originate from diffuse (or rather non-identified, non-recorded) sources.
This has two important bearings on this present Project:

This fact underlines the importance of this and similar ecohydrological projects, as one
of the major means of reducing diffuse (non-identified) loads;

Points to a consequence that such projects has to focus on reduction of locally
important sources of pollution (of the immediate or direct catchments of such aquatic
ecosystems)
There is another important aspect to be considered in any Danube related projects and
especially those relating to floodplain ecosystems: All Danube countries have signed the
UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). This document obliges nations not only to
protect, but also to enhance biological diversity wherever possible, and to save from further
deterioration landscape units with a still high quality regarding biological elements. Certainly
wetlands of the quality found along the rivers of the Danube catchment are subject to the
intentions born in the CBD. Therefore, the aspect of biodiversity within the scope of this
project is more than just a matter of conservation or protection in legislature and practice: it is
a prime issue of any modern concept of landscape development and land use change. And
certainly it must be considered in strategies of floodplain management, which are foreseen in
this project.
A major consequence of the above specified need (rather a must) to preserve biological
diversity is that one should be very careful with human intervention, the application of
engineering means of providing altered inflows and thus altered sediment and nutrient supply
conditions. Again the lessons learned during several earlier projects also include some
important warnings:
8

A badly designed reconnection (termed “reconnectance” by the specialist of the
Institute of Ecology and Hydrology an earlier project Partner from the UK) of the side
arms with the main rivers might result finally in the complete loss of the biodiversity
of the wetlands, turning them to riverine ecosystem equalling that of the main river
channel;

The strategy of providing “refreshing” flows from the main river may have some
advantage (halting the drying process, supplying nutrient rich sediment to the ecotones
etc.), but may result in excessive inputs of nutrients to the water system (stemming
from high nutrient concentrations of the main river). This then may even accelerate
eutrophication (as was also indicated by our earlier model results). This strategy may
be effective only in the case of a full cleaning up of the nutrient sources of the whole
basin, a likely very long-lasting procedure;

Ecologically sensitive dredging (as termed by Prof. G. Januaer of the University of
Wien, Pers. Com.) may have a favourable impact, but the recovery or build-up of
bottom sediment and its nutrient content will be a likely rapid process (as also
indicated by our model results), in the flood-plain oxbows, subjected to frequent
flooding (of high nutrient concentrations);
Summarizing, the revitalisation and coupled nutrient reduction actions (plans) of the Project
must be planned with extreme care. Actually these actions should (in principle) based on,
supported by, very complex ecohydrological models. However, this is prevented by both the
lack of time but even more by the lack of appropriate records of hydrological,
geomorphologic, chemical and ecological state variables against whose the models could be
calibrated.
Consequently the evaluation of the impact of the planned (ecohydrological) management
strategies must be based on rough water and nutrient budget calculations (models?) but
mainly on the best possible environmental-engineering judgement of the specialists involved.
In this context the Project Manager called the attention of the team leaders of this Project to
make the best use of the local knowledge, that is to involve the local (hydrological,
environmental and ecological) specialists as much as time and budget allows to do so.
9
2. Description of the Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa regions
2.1 Abiotic environment
2.1.1 Topography and geology
The Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa floodplain systems can be found along the lower reach of
the Hungarian Danube (Figure 1). The river is alluvial on this reach, which means that it has
cut its bed into its own alluvial sediment, which has been deposited throughout geo-historical
times.
Figure 1
Location of the Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa floodplain systems
The wide and flat valley of the Danube is bordered by plateaus on both sides (Figure 1).
Before regulation, the Danube used to be meandering in this flat valley (Figure 2). The
intensive meandering process kept on changing the bed continuously. The overdeveloped
meanders were often cut short resulting in characteristic oxbow lakes all over the floodplain
(Figure 3). Meanders were cut short artificially as well, during the regulation of the Danube.
The Grébec, Veránka (Rezéti) and Vén-Duna side branches (Figure 3) have come into being
as results of such meander shortcuts. The same applies to the Külső-Béda and Mocskos side
branches in the Béda-Karapancsa system. Regulation put an end to the meandering process.
The main channel has been stabilized by means of stone structures such as groins and parallel
lining structures.
10
Figure 2
Historical changes in the course of the Danube at the Gemenc floodplain
due to meandering and river training
Figure 3
Present state of the Gemenc floodplain
Due to former meandering processes, the surface of the floodplain is varying and uneven. The
highest areas are occupied by natural levees. These levees can be found along the concave
banks of the actual and former river channels. (Thus, natural levees can be found on the banks
of oxbows too.) Natural levees have been formed by deposition of coarse suspended sediment
(silt) during floods. The convex banks are covered by point bars that had been built by the
laterally moving river channel. Point bars thus consist mainly of sand and gravel. The deepest
parts of the floodplain are the remnants of former meanders of the Danube. Depending on the
degree of aggradation, side channels, oxbow lakes or aggraded flat depressions can be found
11
at these places. The degree of aggradation depends on the time of shortcut and also on the
position in relation to the river channel.
The entire floodplain surface is subjected to continuous clay sedimentation that takes place
during floods. As a consequence a thick clay layer has been built up on the surface of the
floodplain. This layer isolates the surface water system of the floodplain from the
groundwater to a great extend.
The oxbow lakes are often connected to river channels or to other oxbows by means of small
channels. The traditional Hungarian name of these channels is ‘fok’. During floods the system
of oxbow lakes are filled and drained through these fok-channels (Figure 4).
Figure 4.
Explanatory figure from the 18th Century about Danube riparian ‘fok’systems [Marsigli, 1726]
The natural topography of the Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa floodplain systems has been
modified by anthropogenic impacts as well. These impacts are related to the different
floodplain management, flood control and river training activities implemented throughout
historical times.
Anthropogenic factors have been impacting the floodplain since the Middle-Age. At the
beginning, local people introduced an essentially passive floodplain management practice,
where human activities were fully adapted to the flood regime of the river. The key of this
management was the system of fok-channels, which enabled productive fisheries as well as
extensive agricultural activities [Andrásfalvy, 1973]. The fok-channels were therefore
continuously maintained and wherever it was necessary new channels were dug. Due to the
increasing population, the pressure to replace passive floodplain management with intensive
agriculture increased. Intensive agriculture on the other hand required flood control dikes that
eliminate inundations. Construction of the river-wide, comprehensive dike system was
implemented at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, simultaneously with the river
regulation works. In general, dikes were built close to the straightened river channel in order
12
to gain as much area as possible. There was however a landlord having huge domains on the
floodplain, who did not join the Water Management Association (the board financing and
managing the works), so his lands were not defended by the dikes [PMMF et al., 1993]. This
is the reason why an about 5-6 km wide and 40 km long floodplain has remained between the
new dike and the left bank of the Danube which is now the Gemenc floodplain (Figure 3).
River training and dike construction marked the end of floodplain management, and people
definitely moved out of the remaining floodplains. The abandoned floodplain soon became
habitat for typical, rich alluvial ecosystems and today the Gemenc is one of the few valuable
nature reserve areas along the Danube.
2.1.2 Surface water hydrology
Hydrological conditions on the Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa floodplains are basically
determined by that of the Danube. The hydrological regime of the River Danube does not
follow strict annual patterns like that of the Rhine or the Nile. Floods and low flow periods
may occur anytime. Nevertheless, general rules, based on statistical analysis of long-term
hydrological time series, can be established. First of all the discharges of the river in autumn
and winter are considerably lower than in spring and summer (Figure 5). This is in harmony
with the within-year distribution of precipitation over the Danube basin. Floods tend to occur
in spring and summer thanks to the heavy rainfalls falling on the Danube basin in these
seasons. The relatively low mean discharges and the lack of extreme floods in February and
March1 indicate that snowmelt in the mountainous headwaters of the Danube does not
contribute significantly to the flow of the river.
Q (m3/s)
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12
months
Figure 5
Monthly mean discharges of the Danube at Baja
Like other big rivers in the temperate region, the range of flow of the Danube is not so
extreme. The mean values of annual minimum and maximum discharges at Baja are 1170 and
5000 m3/s respectively. Considering more extreme low and high waters results in a somewhat
higher range of discharge variation: the annual minimum discharge with 10% non-exceeding
probability is 840 m3/s, while the annual maximum discharge with 10% exceeding probability
1
The extreme flood in March 1956 was caused by ice jamming. The discharges were relatively low.
13
is 6500 m3/s. The ever recorded lowest and highest discharges of the Danube at Baja are 234
and 7790 m3/s respectively.
River regulation and flood control measures have had serious impacts on the hydrological
regime of the Danube. River training has shortened and narrowed the river channel resulting
in significantly increased water velocities. Higher velocities resulted in increased erosion
force, which finally led to the degradation of the riverbed. Because of degradation, the annual
minimum, mean and maximum water levels of the Danube at Baja have decreased with 1.30,
1.60 and 0.80 meters respectively, during the period 1901-1996 (Figure 6).
Figure 6
Linear trends of annual maximum, mean and minimum discharges of the
Danube at Baja
In contrast to water levels, the discharges time series of the Danube have proven to be trendfree [Keve, 1992]. It can thus be concluded that the reason of decreasing water levels is bed
degradation indeed, and not any kind of climate change.
Ecological consequences of the falling water levels are serious. Shorter inundation durations
and decreased groundwater levels triggered a desiccation process, in the course of which the
typical, alluvial wet flora has gradually been replaced by dry vegetation [PMMF et al., 1993].
Decreased river levels have also caused the shrinking of floodplain water bodies, which has
resulted in significant loss of habitat for aquatic flora and fauna [PMMF et al., 1993].
Furthermore, the duration of connection between the river and the floodplain lakes has also
been reduced which has worsened the conditions of lateral fish migration.
The decreased depth and reduced connectivity of water bodies, as well as the increased
nutrient content of the river water (which still enters the floodplain water bodies during high
floods) are responsible for the problem of eutrophication. In the Gemenc floodplain serious
planktonic eutrophication was observed in the side arms and occasionally in the oxbow lakes
too [Csányi et al., 1992].
River training has caused changes in the flood wave propagation process too. Nowadays,
individual flood waves are shorter; their amplitude and the rate of water level increase and
decrease are higher than before (Figure 7). These parameters are determined by the slope,
length, bed roughness and storage capacity of the river. A regulated river with a shortened and
uniformed river channel and without meanders, branches and large floodplains cannot
mitigate the peaky flood waves coming from the headwaters as efficiently as before. The
14
canalisation of the German and Austrian Danube reach enhanced further this problem since
the reservoirs behind the barrages are kept full, thus decreasing further the river’s storage
capacity.
Figure 7
Typical annual hydrographs of the Danube from the end of the 19th and
20th centuries
3rd degree polynomial trend analysis has proven that the maximum daily water level decreases
during the main spawning season (April-June) has been changed from 15 cm/d to 36 cm/d
during the last 122 years [Zsuffa, 2001]. The total change with respect to the pristine
conditions is probably even higher, since river training works had been started before the start
of hydrological monitoring on the Danube.
Thus, the slow seasonal floods of alluvial rivers have been replaced by a flashy flood regime
leading to the serious deterioration of the fish population. After detailed analysis Pintér [1992]
has come to the conclusion that the natural reproduction of the Danubian carp and pike is
successful in certain years only, because the quick decrease of water levels often result the
death of deposited eggs and hatched larvae on the stranded spawning grounds of the
floodplain.
Hydrological regime of the oxbow lakes is determined first of all by the Danube. With this
respect the fok-channels play a crucial role. Oxbow lakes are filled and drained through these
channels during flood periods. Above a certain elevation water begins to flow overland as
well, which intensifies the filling/draining process. The size of an oxbow varies with varying
water levels. Its maximum extend is defined by the surrounding natural and artificial barriers.
Lake Nyéki for example is delimited by the flood control dike from the West, by the railway
dike from the North and by forest roads built on natural levees from Southeast (see Figure 3).
The frequency of communication between the oxbow and the river depends on the level of the
flow threshold. The Báta oxbow for example has an intensive communication with the
Danube thanks to the deep fok-channel that connects it to the river from downstream (Figure
3, Figure 8).
As Figure 8 also indicates, the flashy water level fluctuation of the Danube dominates the
water regime of the Báta oxbow, at the expense of its fish community. At low water situations
however the oxbow gets disconnected to the Danube and the water level becomes stabilised
on a very low elevation. Due to the general process of desiccation, nowadays the water level
of the Báta oxbow tends to sink even below the gauge bar. This is the explanation of the gaps
in the recorded time series (Figure 8).
15
water level (cmaD)
8900
Danube, Baja
8800
Báta oxbow
8700
8600
8500
8400
8300
8200
95.04.11
Figure 8
95.06.30
95.09.18
95.12.07
96.02.25
96.05.15
date
96.08.03
Water level monitoring in the Báta oxbow lake
There are more isolated oxbow lakes as well. The Nyéki oxbow (Figure 3) for example
becomes connected to the Danube only in case of higher floods. Small flood waves cannot
flow into the lake due to high thresholds upstream and downstream (Figure 9). In this type of
lakes, the impact of meteorology plays a more significant role. That is to say, precipitation
and evaporation may result in considerable water level increases or decreases during the long
periods of isolation.
High flow thresholds keep the water of the lake on relatively high levels after floods. This
may imply that such thresholds counteract the desiccation problem within such lakes. High
thresholds however, result long isolation periods during which the stored water evaporates
and desiccation occurs. Hydrodynamic simulation revealed that the Nyéki oxbow dried out
completely in 1984 and 1990 for 58 and 17 days respectively [Zsuffa, 2001]. These results are
in agreement with the observations of local people. If the thresholds had been on a lower
level, probably no such dry-outs would have occurred because the smaller floods would have
been able to maintain a shallow but stable water level2.
2
The water regime of the Nyéki has already been revitalized with the help of flow and water level control
structures and fok-channel excavations. For more details the reader is referred to Zellei et al. [1998].
16
water level (cmaD)
8900
Danube, Baja
Lake Nyéki
8800
8700
8600
8500
8400
8300
8200
95.04.11
Figure 9
95.06.30
95.09.18
95.12.07
96.02.25
96.05.15
date
96.08.03
Water level monitoring in the Nyéki oxbow lake
2.1.3 Surface water quality
Identification of pressures and assessment of impacts in the area is the most important step in
this stage of the project. One of the most important pressures of the Gemenc region and in
large scale the Black Sea is the nutrient loading of surface waters. Excess nutrient load of
rivers are known as eutrophication which impacts freshwater and marine ecosystems trough
algae growth.
In case of nitrogen and phosphorous we have to analyse existing monitoring data for trends
and investigate possible range of concentration (load) that can reach the oxbow lakes by
conducting relationship of concentration and water level of the main cannel.
Water quality of the Danube
In the frame of the Reduction of Nutrient Discharges Project VITUKI team prepared water
quality assessment of the Danube River based on the data of National Surface Water Quality
Monitoring database and the result of Joint Danube Survey carried out in 2001.
The water quality of the Danube River at the selected cross-sections is summarized in Table
1. The assessed data for the period 1994-2003 originates from the VM national water quality
database.
We can state that in most cases the water quality of nutrient household compound is good,
except nitrate that indicates acceptable water quality and chlorophyll-a that indicates polluted
water quality. The same result can be seen in Figure 10 that shows the water quality map in
year 2001.
17
Table 1 Water quality of investigated monitoring points of Danube River near Gemenc
Components
Nagytétény Dunaföldvár Fajsz
Baja
Mohács
Hercegszántó
1629 rkmi
1560,6 rkm
1507,6 rkm
1480,2 rkm
1451,7 rkm
1433,0 rkm
n
WQC n
WQC n
WQC N
WQC n
WQC n
WQC
pH
260
3
259
3
259
3
104
3
259
3
346
2
Conductivity
260
1
259
1
259
1
104
1
259
1
346
1
Dissolved oxygen
260
1
257
1
259
1
103
1
259
1
346
1
BOD5
259
2
256
2
257
3
101
3
258
2
345
3
CODps
260
2
259
2
259
2
104
2
259
2
346
2
CODMn
260
2
259
3
259
2
104
2
259
2
346
2
Saprobic Index
260
3
259
3
259
3
104
3
259
3
346
3
Ammonium-N
260
2
259
2
259
2
104
1
259
2
346
2
Nitrite-N
260
3
259
3
259
3
104
3
259
3
346
3
Nitrate-N
260
2
259
2
259
2
104
2
259
2
346
2
Phosphate-P
260
2
259
2
259
2
104
2
259
2
346
2
Total-P
259
3
258
2
258
2
104
2
259
2
346
2
Chlorophyll-A
258
3
259
4
259
4
104
3
259
4
346
4
Figure 10. Water quality map
River Danube plays an important role in the life of the oxbow lakes. This is true during the
floods but also in the dry periods when the operators search the possibilities of providing
refreshing supplementary water inflow. The dynamics of the hydrological regime of the river
and the changes of water quality should be investigated in details for each case of water
supplementation.
To aid this investigation the relationship between water stage and water quality is analysed for
a number of important water quality parameters. This seasonal analysis allows the estimation
of the expectable water quality in flood flows and at the lower water levels. The period of
water supplementation of the oxbows in the point of view of nutrient reduction may be best
18
selected on the basis of this information. Results of the statistical analysis are shown in
Appendix X (Figure 46).
We carried out the statistical and trend analysis for three selected river stations (Fajsz –
upstream Gemenc, Baja – in Gemenc and Mohács – downstream Gemenc) for 1994-2003
time periods. Linear trend analyses based on least squares method show that there are some
significant trends in the concentration of the investigated nutrient household features. The
time series - both of nitrogen and phosphorous - show homogenous trends. Significant
downward trend was established for Ammonium-N (8-10%) and Nitrate-N (2-6%).
The assessment of saprobic index shows that the water of Danube is mainly betamezosaprobic in summer period while shows beta-alfa-mezosaprobic feature in the other
period of the year. There is no significant trend. The deviation of measured chlorophyll-a
values is high, but trend calculation shows that there is an improving tendency in water
quality. It can state, however, that sufficient amount of inorganic nutrients is available for
phytoplankton growth all around the year; the limiting factor of eutrofication is the
hydrometeorolgical condition (after Antal Schmidt)
The result of longitudinal profile measurement shows that there is no significant water quality
deterioration in the Hungarian Danube River stretch. The water quality was good during the
whole survey in July and August in 2001. The Organic Nitrogen and Total Phosphorous
concentration both in water and sediment show rise close to Gemenc region of the Danube.
List of figures indicate the results (Figure 47 in Appendix X).
Water quality of Sió Channel
By way of introduction we have to mention that the Sió canal is part of a very complex and
large water-system. Total watershed of it is 12403 km2, which is 13% of the country area,
therefore 13% of the Hungarian Danube watershed.
The water quality in the mouth section of Sió canal is determined by diffuse pollution, the
heavily polluted Séd-Nádor-Malom water-system that is recipient of industrial and fishpond
waste waters and the surplus water of lake Balaton. Detailed description of the system is not
part of this project, because there are measured data in sufficient quality and amount that can
be used for water quality and load analyses. On the other hand we have to bear this
background information as explanation of status and changes in mind.
The water quality of Sió canal is acceptable – polluted – heavily polluted in the case of the
most important oxygen and nutrient household features. This statement based on the water
quality assessment of the data series originates from VM national water quality database
according to the MSZ 12749 Hungarian Standard. Significant downward trend was
established for Ammonium-N and Nitrate-N (7 and 4%) but P forms and Chlorophyll-a show
water quality deterioration (1 and 10%) in the investigated period of time (1994-2003).
Water quality of oxbow lakes
In general, the monitoring of Hungarian oxbows is neglected. Data availability is limited in
most of the cases. There is no regular water quality monitoring in the oxbow lakes in Gemenc.
There are several – non-regular, campaign-like – measurements and research programs, which
give similar results to different type of monitoring. Data are not uniform and synchronized;
availability is limited in most of the cases. From these former studies we could conclude that
the water quality of oxbows is good considering nutrient household components, but the
19
duration and spatial distribution of the measurements was limited to give more detailed
description.
These facts and experience lead to the consequence that detailed, issue-specific measurements
are highly needed, and it is a burning issue.
8900
160
Danube, Baja
8800
Lake Nyéki
140
8700
Chlorophyll-A
in Nyéki
120
100
8600
80
Chlorophyll-A (mg/m3)
water level (cmaD)
Based on the data available we can state that there is a close correlation between the water
level and quality of these oxbow lakes. Figure 11 shows that eutrophication process speeds up
at low water level, while the “diluting” Danube water can reduce the eutrophic level of it.
This phenomena can be observed at almost all Hungarian oxbow lakes located in the
floodplain (in some cases we have very detailed monitoring that proves this statement),
therefore one can conclude that this process can be generalized in Gemenc as well.
8500
60
8400
40
8300
8200
34800
20
34880
34960
35040
35120
0
35280
35200
date
Figure 11. Water levels and Chlorophyll-A values measured in the Nyéki-Holt-Duna
(dots indicate Chlorophyll-A concentrations)
The water quality of oxbows depends on the level of connection to the Danube as well. The
oxbows having connection to the Danube only during floods can have very different water
quality. The water of oxbow “exchanging” via flood, but afterwards the separated oxbow
starts its own “life cycle” that results special water quality. The oxbows having frequent or
“best” connection to the Danube the water quality of the oxbow is closer to the water quality
of the main stream. To be able to describe water quality status and characteristics of the
investigated oxbows and to quantify the relation to the Danube we need a tailor-made
monitoring program on this issue.
2.1.4 Sources of nutrients
The most important issue in this early stage of the Environmental Assessment to investigate
the main nutrient pressures by conducting a source inventory qualifying and partly
quantifying the main nutrient sources that are the follows:

Nutrient loads of the Danube and the Gemenc floodplain itself, as “internal” loads;

Nutrient loads of point sources (waste water discharges, animal husbandry), and
diffuse sources (nutrient losses of different land uses, atmospheric deposition) that
20
arrives from neighbouring areas via Sió and Szekszárd-Bátai Channels, as “external”
loads.
In this chapter – and in this preliminary Environmental Assessment – we couldn’t give an
exact load calculation based on different methodologies available (for oxbow lakes see in
chapter 3.12). Based on gathered data in the project period we could prepare an approximate
estimation, but source apportionment and retention of nutrient was not calculated. We have
long term time series for Danube and Sió Channel, therefore we could calculate the riverine
transport
Nutrient loads of the Danube River
Load calculation based on National Surface Water Quality Monitoring data. We calculated the
nutrient transport using a simply mass calculation (multiplying pairs of biweekly measured
concentration and flow).
We can state that there is no significant change in annual loads along the Danube River within
Gemenc in the time period 1994-2003. Most of the changes are the result of chemicalbiochemical processes take place in the riverbed.
The following figures show different representation of load calculation results. It is visible
that there are rather big differences in the annual average and 90% percentile loads.
12000
Danube - Baja
12000
Danube - Mohács
Danube - Fajsz
Sió - Szekszárd
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
-2000
Danube - Baja
Danube - Mohács
10000
PO4-P average load (t/year)
PO4-P load - 90% percentile (t/year)
Danube - Fajsz
Sió - Szekszárd
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
-2000
2003
1994
1995
1996
years
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
Figure 12. Yearly loads in the Danube reach of Gemenc
Loads of the Sió Canal
The load originates from Sió Channel is calculated from measured discharge and
concentration at Szekszárd-Palánk (13,4 rkm). The database (VM) and methodology used is
the same as in case of the load calculation of the Danube.
The load of the Sió is almost can be neglected comparing to the Danube. On the other hand it
is significant based on the area proportion mentioned above.
The water level and nutrient concentration, therefore the load of the Sió have been decreasing.
In the investigated period of time the average of 90% percentile annual load was: 5000 tonnes
of Inorganic Nitrogen, 600 tonnes of Total Phosphorous and 60 tonnes of Chlorophyll-a.
Results can be seen in Figure 13.
21
Sió Channel 13,4 rkm - Szekszárd-Palánk (04FF11)
10
400
8
300
6
200
4
100
400
concentration (mg/l)
500
250
2
600
6000
Sió Channel 13,4 rkm - Szekszárd-Palánk (04FF11)
200
Sió Channel 13,4 rkm - Szekszárd-Palánk (04FF11)
0
PO4-P
Total P
W ater level
Total P
500
5000
400
4000
300
3000
200
2000
100
0
concentration (ug/l)
NO3-N
Inorganic Nitrogen
300
12
Water level
Inorganic Nitrogen
water level (cm) / load (g/s)
500
Sió Channel 13,4 rkm - Szekszárd-Palánk (04FF11)
600
water level (cm)
600
1000
years
load (g/s)
load (g/s)
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
300
0
100
100
50
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
0
2003
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
150
200
0
0
1994
1994
1995
1996
1997
years
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
Figure 13 Calculated loads of the Sió canal at Szekszárd-Palánk
Loads form the Szekszárd-Bátai canal system
The watershed of the Szekszárd-Báta Channel-System with size of 39404,5 ha located south
from the Sió Channel, bordering with Gemenc. The Channel is an artificial tributary of the
Danube near Báta. The channel-system collects and transports exceed inland waters and
surface runoff waters to the main recipient, the Danube. Figure 14 shows the location of the
investigated area within the country.
There is no available water quality data on the Szekszárd-Bátai Channel therefore we tried to
estimate the loads originate from the watershed of this system. The main steps and
information are summarized below.
Figure 14. The watershed of Szekszárd-Báta channel system
VITUKI team used a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of a former research to determine the
shape and size of the watershed of these inland water channels. The result of it can be seen in
the Annex X.
Using the determined area we applied CORINE to get land use information on the watershed.
Figure 15 shows the location, size and shape of the different types.
22
Landuse in the watershed of Szekszárd-Báta canal
and Lajvér-creek
arable land,
szántóföld, nem
öntözött
deciduous forest,
erdő, lomblevelű
9,8%
9,6%
w ineyard,
szőlő
5,4%
2,5%
1,5%
mixed forest,
erdő, vegyes
1,5%
2,9%
0,8%
0,4%
0,2%
68,3%
settelment,
település
industrial area,
ipari terület
orchard,
gyümölcsös
pasture meadow ,
rét, legelő
coniferous forest,
erdő, tűlevelű
lake, reservoir,
állóvíz
Figure 15. Land use type of CORINE database and the percentile of different land uses
on the investigated watershed
Nutrient loads can originate from point and diffuse source on the watershed of SzekszárdBátai Channel-System. Table 14 in Appendix X. shows the potential source of pollution. This
list is the basis of the load identification. Data collection is still going on; therefore in the
Draft Report we introduce the state-of-art of the load calculation.
Source of point pollution:
There is only one waste water treatment plan located in Bátaszék, discharging Lajvér creek
that collects waste water of 7 settlements. Main features and the loads originated form treated
municipal waste water of the agglomeration is summarised in Table 15 (Appendix X). It is
visible that the approximated yearly load is 12 tonnes of Ammonium-N and 1 tonnes of Total
Phosphorous. We couldn’t calculate that what percent of this nutrient load can reach the main
recipient.
23
Sources of diffuse nutrient load:
1. The area is mainly used for agricultural purposes (~ 70% of the total area). There is hardly
any irrigation, but the agricultural area is drained, therefore the excess inland water with
agricultural diffuse source is collected within the channel system.
2. Vineyard areas can be important source of inorganic nutrients. They are mainly located on
slopes, where the erosion can be rather high.
3. Urban areas are significant source of nutrients. (Although there are only few and small
settlements on the area.)





16 villages and 1 town of county rank
11850 inhabitants live in agglomeration of 7 villages with canalization and waste
water treatment
10965 inhabitants live in 7 villages without canalization
7026 inhabitants in 2 villages with canalization (Decs and Öcsény – no data available
on waste water collection and treatment)
Szekszárd city located on the watershed treated waste water of the city discharge the
Sió Channel. On the other hand surface runoff can cause diffuse nutrient load
Based on literature data and local information we can roughly value nutrient loads coming
from this area.
Table 16 (Appendix X) summarizes the area of land use types of the watershed of SzekszárBátai channel system originated from CORINE Database, the literature data and the
calculated rough loads for TP, TN and NO3-N components. As it is showed in the table the
estimated values originate from this area are the following: 36 tonnes of Total Phosphorous,
380 tonnes of Total Nitrogen and 170 tonnes of Nitrate-N.
There is no detailed data available on fertilizer use, number and type of animals, etc. on the
watershed scale. We could collect data county level that is shown on Table 17 in Appendix X.
There is no measured water quantity and quality data, the only fact we know that the nutrients
originate from this “artificial” watershed accumulate in the Szekszárd-Bátai Channel and after
chemical-biochemical processes load the Danube River directly.
2.2 Biotic environment
The Gemenc floodplain is one of the last large, still functioning inundation floodplain areas of
the River Danube with an area of 17800 ha. It is situated in southern Hungary between 1498
and 1468 river kms and forms part of the Danube-Drava National Park. A set of different
riverine water body types representing the different stages of hydro-morphological succession
from the main arm to the almost totally up filled oxbow lakes is one of the most important
natural values of the area. Although river regulation works, started mainly in the 19th century,
resulted in the isolation of floodplains from the main channel, the remaining fragments and
elements of the original Danubian floodplains have outstanding geological, botanical,
zoological and scenic values in Europe.
There are three distinct periods of the recent hydrobiological research carried out in this
region. The first one is characterised by several independent and rare publications concerning
very diverse taxonomic groups of the biota (KOL & VARGA 1960, RICHNOVSZKY 1963,
KERTÉSZ 1963, 1967, DUDICH 1967, TÓTH 1968, 1973, RÁTH 1978-79, BOTHÁR 1981)
24
The second period of the hydrobiological research in Gemenc is characterised by the Dutch
contribution. This research activity sponsored by the RIZA (Institute for Inland Water
Management and Waste Water Treatment of the Netherlands) accelerated the ecological
studies in this area. The detailed survey of the Rezéti-Duna, Vén-Duna, Nyéki-Duna and
some special isolated water bodies in the floodplain (Káposztás-Duna, Kis-Rezéti-Duna) were
carried out by CSÁNYI et. al (1992) and the VITUKI (1994).
There was another series of side arm research later sponsored by the RIZA again: the
hydrological and hydrobiological monitoring of the Vén-Duna between 1997 and 2000 carried
out by the Technical Faculty of the Eötvös József College (hydrological measurements) and
the VITUKI (VITUKI 1998a, 1998b, 1999, 2000, CSÁNYI & RÁKÓCZI 2001).
The increasing contribution of the Hungarian Danube Research Station in the hydrobiological
survey has to be mentioned from the second half of the 1990-s. Several authors published
valuable data referring to the different aquatic communities existing in the diverse water
bodies of the Gemenc Protected Landscape Area (DINKA 2003, PUKY 2000, 2003, 2004,
PUKY & FODOR 2002, SCHOLL 2003, 2004, STETÁK 2000a, 2000b, TATÁR 1997,
1998).
However, the local authorities and NGO's supported by several enthusiastic experts give the
most divers floristic and faunistic research dealing with the nature conservation values of the
region until now. The concluding summary of this activity was given in a Round-Table
Conference held at Érsekcsanád in 2003 illustrating the sate-of-the-art in nature conservation
of Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa, as well (SZARVAS 2003).
In this chapter an overview is given of the most important elements of the aquatic flora and
fauna which have been studied so far.
2.2.1 Terrestrial Flora
Gemenc belongs to the Great Plain floristic region (Eupannonicum) within the Pannonian
floristic province (Pannonicum). The Gemenc floodplain forms a transitional zone between
the floristic districts of Mezőföld and Solt lowlands (Colocense) and the Southern Great Plain
(Titelicum), which is manifested in the strengthening sub-Mediterranean character of the area
southwards. It has a continental climate and is located in the forest steppe climate zone.
Owing to its position and climatic features the vegetation has some sub-Mediterranean
character, it is poor in submontane species and hosts only few demontane-adventive elements
that move down along the Danube (SZARVAS, 2003).
The vegetation of Gemenc was primarily determined by, beside its climate and geographical
location, regular floods and the related sediment depositioning. Consequently, wet, damp,
eutrophic sites were dominant. However, these features are highly modified by various human
interventions (LÁJER, 2003).
The natural vegetation of the Gemenc floodplain is represented by riverine willow scrubs,
riverine willow-poplar woodlands, riverine oak-elm-ash woodlands to a lesser extent, and
wetland communities. The nature conservation value of the flora is also high: 30 rare,
protected species have been described from the region so far (see Appendix I.).
The early floristic surveys started in the 19th century and are summarised by Kevey in their
recent article (KEVEY et al., 1992). Within the framework of the RIZA project
(RADEMAKERS, 1992) the ecological, botanical and pedological surveys of natural and
semi-natural sections of 15 Danubian side and dead arms, and the survey of the whole Pál
25
Tanya Island, representative of the successional characteristics of the area, were carried out in
1990.
The project focused on the morphological and hydrological changes that have formed the
riparian and terrestrial vegetation of the side and dead arms, and also on successional
processes. In addition, botanical surveys were made in 9 cross-section profiles of the side and
dead arm system, in altogether 145 sample sites. The structure and the species composition of
the vegetation were described by the frequency and cover values of the dominant and
characteristic species at various hierarchical levels of plant community types. Based on these
data 9 major and 20 minor vegetation types were defined (RADEMAKERS, 1992, p.15). The
examined 15 Danubian side and dead arms were categorised into 5 water body types based on
the type of flood and vegetation (RADEMAKERS, 1992, p.17).
Detailed plant coenological examinations were carried out on the lowland oak-hornbeam
(KEVEY-TÓTH, 1992) and riverine oak-elm-ash woodlands (BORHIDI-KEVEY, 1996) of
the Béda-Karapancsa region, and through the botanical surveys of the Hungarian Flora
Mapping Programme and the Hungarian Coenological Database (LÁJER, 2003).
The most natural vegetation types of the Gemenc region are wetland euhydrophyte, reed,
Typha and sedge communities. All woodlands are managed in the area. Potential sites of
riverine willow-poplar woodlands are partly occupied by hybrid and native poplar plantations.
Most riverine oak-elm-ash forests are also managed, although some older stands are in a seminatural state. Besides the plant species of fresh or riverine woodlands a great number of
orchid species are found: Platanthera clorantha, Platanthera bifolia, Listera ovata, Epipactis
helleborine, Epipactis microphylla, Cephalanthera damasonium, Cephalanthera longifolium,
Orchis purpurea, together with other protected species of the oak-elm-ash woodlands: Carex
strigosa, Ophiglossum vulgatum, Fritillaria meleagris and Vitis sylvestris. Extended stock of
Crategus nigra is mentioned, as well. Lowland oak-hornbeam stands are partly natural, partly
managed (LÁJER, 2003).
2.2.2 Terrestrial Fauna
The water bodies of the Lower Hungarian Danube stretch including Gemenc and BédaKarapancsa are outstanding objects of different ornithological observations. Regular counting
of waterfowl species is carried out on the Danube reach between the Sió confluence and the
southern country border since the establishment of the Gemenc Landscape Protection Area
(1977), along the Danube District of the present Danube-Drava National Park (KALOCSA &
TAMÁS, 2003). An overview of waterfowl counting during the winter of 2002-2003 between
Baja and the country border is given (see Appendix II), with regard to the occurrence and the
numbers of the most characteristic and the most interesting species. The protection of the
Danube-reach is very important in order to provide disturbance-free wintering grounds for
thousands of ducks, geese and other species, among them around a hundred White-tailed
Eagles every year.
The observed numbers of several species of waterfowls are illustrated in Appendix III,
indicating a winter maximum value in all cases.
Population changes of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) were followed in the lower
Hungarian Danube-valley between 1987-2003 in the Gemenc region. Within the frame of the
White-tailed Eagle Conservation Programme of the Hungarian Ornithological and Nature
Protection Society investigations were performed since 1987 in the study area (DEME et al.,
2003, DEME, 2003). Both the Gemenc region and the Béda-Karapancsa section were
26
included in the studies (Appendix IV). The study area covers the Danube stretch between
Dunaföldvár and the southern country border, the Danube valley from Fajsz to the southern
country border, the Danube regions of the Danube-Drava National Park and, it contains the
south-westernmost parts of the Kiskunsági National Park area.
Mapping of natural values was performed thorough field excursions all year around. The nests
of raptors and Black storks were investigated from autumn to spring. From the analysis of
nesting data the extreme site fidelity of White-tailed Eagles can clearly be seen. The most
threatening factor from the viewpoint of nesting is evidently the forestry. The nesting of
Sakers (Falco cherrug) was described in nine reviers of White-tailed Eagles so far. Apart from
nesting threats high voltage electric poles can be considered as the most important affecting
factor. As a conclusion of the analysis of the collected data it can be stated that the population
is stable, the number of breeding pairs is increasing.
There is an extraordinary importance of co-operation with the neighbouring countries in this
respect. As White-tailed Eagles evidently prove that the Danube valley as habitat does not end
at the country border, their protection is a task that can only be fulfilled with a long-term
international co-operation based on unified attitudes and methodology.
Altogether 198 bird species were detected in the Béda- Karapancsa region that is 52 % of the
total number of 377 species described in Hungary until now. The number of nestling ones is
124 in this area that is 62 % of the number of total nestling species. 40 % of the strictly
protected species occurs here in the Lower Danube stretch, according to the ornithological
observations (DEME, 2003).
The survey of the populations of the strictly protected otter (Lutra lutra) was started in 1997 in
the lower Hungarian Danube Valley. Observations were carried out in the Gemenc Area of
the Danube-Drava National Park, on Margitta-island, that is situated south of the town of
Baja, as well as in the Béda-Karapancsa Region of the DDNP, and some other rivers,
channels, dead branches and lakes too (MÓROCZ 2003).
Because of the shy lifestyle of the otter an indirect method was chosen for the survey. Signs
of otters (droppings, footprints, etc.) were looked for, and contacts were taken with the people
working in the field, as well as fishermen. Based on the survey carried out for more years, one
can conclude that the population of otters can be considered as stable in the area investigated.
There is no information of direct threats.
Valuable data on the distribution of bat species are given by significant faunistic research
carried out in the Gemenc region (DOMBI 2003). The results indicate that 57 % of the total
Hungarian bat fauna is occurring and known in the Gemenc region. The most important
conservation measures for the bat protection are listed by the author as follows: protecting the
threatened forests, emphasising the importance of old and aged tree specimens, starting the
research on the development of quality assessment system for evaluating habitats of bats,
cooperation with competent authorities to regulate licensing processes, creating appropriate
conditions for bat colonies (Appendix V).
According to the results the number of specialized and rare species is much larger than that of
the generalist species in the Gemenc region. This invocates the outstanding nature
conservation importance of the whole floodplain area.
The repatriation of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in the side arm system of the Lower
Danube region was successful in the middle of 90-ies (BOZSÉR, 2003). This mammal found
its excellent habitat in the flood plain feeding on the available young tree species of the
gallery forest (willow, poplar and elm species mainly) along the side arms.
27
2.2.3 Aquatic flora
The earliest detailed algal community analysis is given by UHERKOVICH (1956).
SCHMIDT and VÖRÖS (1981) described the phytoplankton of the Lower Hungarian Danube
stretch in the 70-ies. Regular phytoplankton analysis is carried out in the Lower Danube and
some side arms by the Regional Environmental Inspectorate at Baja (SCHMIDT 1994). These
data always indicated the large diversity of the algal assemblages. An interesting algae-free,
clear water period is described by SCHMIDT (2003) in the Lower Danube during 2003 when
he compares the results of the seasonal changes to the situation measured in 1994 (Figure 16).
However, there is no evident answer found to this phenomenon.
Figure 16 Time series of chlorophyll-a at Baja in 1994 and 2003 (SCHMIDT 2003)
The main taxonomic groups of algae are illustrated in the River Danube and the Vén-Duna
side arm in April and July 1998 (just prior to the reopening of the side arm) in Figure 17.
There was a very low water level in April, therefore site 6, the main Danube had very similar
algal community structure to site 1 (the upstream, inlet end of the Vén-Duna). During low
water discharge the biomass values in the Danube and at site 1 exceeded 5000 μg/l. Centrales
were the predominant algal groups at both sites. Sites 2 and 4 situated below the isolating rock
dam showed sharply different phytoplankton structure, as it is seen on the diagram. Biomass
values were lower and their groups were detected in the isolated Vén-Duna, as well.
However, there was a flooding period in July resulting in very intensive through flow
situation. This is the explanation of the highly similar phytoplankton pattern of the different
sampling sites although the reopening was not taken yet. Biomass values did not reach 2000
μg/l but the Centrales were the most abundant group again that is very characteristic to the
Danube River along the whole Hungarian section.
28
70000
60000
SUM others
SUM Flagellatae
ug/l
50000
SUM Chlorococcales
40000
SUM Pennales
30000
SUM Centrales
20000
SUM Dinophyceae
SUM Chrysophyceae
SUM Cryptophyceae
10000
SUM Euglenophyta
SUM Cyanophyta
4 (July)
3 (July)
2 (July)
1 (July)
6 (July)
4 (Apr)
2 (Apr)
1 (Apr)
6 (Apr)
0
Figure 17 Spatial and temporal changes in phytoplankton biomass measured in the
River Danube (6) and the Vén-Duna side arm (1-4) in April and July 1998
All of these data shows clearly the principal importance of the actual Danubian discharge
conditions in the development of the algal community in the different side arms of the Lower
Hungarian Danube (CSÁNYI et al. 1994)
The analysis of physical and chemical data (on-site horizontal and vertical measurements) led
to the same conclusions few years later described by the Danube Research Station of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences (DINKA, 2003). The Danubian discharge determines the
water quality in several side arms of the Protected Landscape Area (Vén-Duna, Rezéti-HoltDuna, Grébeci-Holt-Duna).
The first data on aquatic macrophytes date back to the first half of the XXth century (e.g.
BARTAL, 1910; HOLLÓS, 1911) and some data on nearby channels and dead arms are
available (e.g. KÁRPÁTI, 1963; RÁTH 1978, 1978-79). Detailed phytocoenological surveys
with consistent methodology have been carried out only from the second half of the 1990-s in
the framework of the surveys of the Hungarian Danube Research Station (see TATÁR, 1997,
1998, STETÁK, 2000 a, b; 2003). Altogether more than 30, permanent or temporary water
bodies of the Gemenc floodplain was investigated from the most significant para, plesio, and
parapotamic side arms (e.g. Nyéki-Holt-Duna, Cserta, Decsi-Nagy-Holt-Duna etc) to some
really astatic waters such as water in wheel-tracks (STETÁK, 2000b, 2003). Altogether 7
Charophyte species were found in the area as follows (STETÁK, 2003): Chara vulgaris,
Chara braunii, Nitella capillaris, Nitella gracilis, Nitella macronata, Nitella syncarpa,
Tolypella intricata. The paper of STETÁK (2000b) summarizes the higher macrophytes
species, which were found in the Gemenc floodplain, two (+) of which cannot be proved by
recent surveys: Azolla filiculoides, Cabomba caroliniana, Callitriche cophocarpa, Callitriche
palustris, Ceratophyllum submersum, Elodea canadensis, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna
minor, Lemna trisulca, + Marsilea quadrifolia, Myriophyllum spicatum, Myriophyllum
verticillatum, Najas minor, Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea alba, Nymphoides peltata, Polygonum
amphibium, Potamogeton x angustifolius, Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton crispus,
Potamogeton gramineus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton nodosus, Potamogeton
panormitanus, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton trichoides, + Ranunculus aquatilis,
Ranunculus circinatus, Ranunculus rionii, Ranunculus trichophyllus, Salvinia natans,
Spirodela polyrhiza, Stratiotes aloides, Trapa natans, Utricularia vulgaris. Of these M.
quadrifolia, N. alba, N. peltata, S. natans and T. natans are protected in Hungary. Further,
among the macrophyte communities described in Hungary the followings were found by
29
STETÁK (2003): Lemno minoris-Spirodeletum, Salvinio-Spirodeletum, Ceratophylletum
demersi, Elodeetum canadensis, Potametum lucentis, Myriophylletum spicati, Myriophyllo
verticillati-Nupharetum luteae, Ceratophyllo-Nymphaeetum albae, Nymphoidetum peltatae,
Trapetum natantis and Ranunculo-Callitrichetum polymorphae.
Aquatic macrophyte species found in the Gemenc floodplain are typical for standing, mainly
shallow, eutrophic waters with silty sediment. Some of them prefer either permanent or
temporary waters while the others do not differentiate between these water types. The
occurrence of organic matter sensitive species indicates that this area is free of or receives low
amount of organic pollution (STETÁK 2000b).
2.2.4 Aquatic fauna
Data about a diverse array of aquatic animal communities (from Rotatoria plankton to fish
assemblages) are available in this section of the Danube including the Gemenc floodplain and
the Béda-Karapancsa. A general discussion illustrates that the research on the hydrobiological
issue in this area could be divided to three identical periods: 1). Sporadic investigations before
the early 90-ies indicated by the relatively low number of publications; 2). Beginning of an
intensive survey initiated by the Dutch interest. The RIZA sponsored the Hungarian
hydrobiological research in order to describe the ecological status of the extended side arm
system. They intended to use the Hungarian data for ecological rehabilitation of their highly
regulated lowland river sections in the Netherlands; 3). Independent Hungarian research
initiated by the nature conservation needs and values of the area recognised more and more
since the middle of the 90-ies.
Invertebrate fauna
Early detailed survey of Rotatoria plankton in the Hungarian Danube was carried out by
KERTÉSZ (1963 1967). In the southern stretch of the Danube and the side arm systems only
a few studies have been done on the Rotatoria and Crustacea plankton assemblages (e.g. KOL
& VARGA 1960; BOTHÁR 1981).
There are relatively few published data on the macroinvertebrate fauna of the region.
Malacological studies of RICHNOVSZKY (1963) dealing with different types of water
around Baja, including the floodplain, revealed the occurrence of 34 aquatic mollusc species
in this region.
Detailed seasonal data collection of chemical and physical variables, as well as biological
components took place in the framework of a Dutch-Hungarian scientific cooperation
(sponsored by the RIZA) during 1991 in the different water bodies of the Gemenc Protected
Landscape Area (CSÁNYI et al. 1991, 1994). Their central interest was to describe the
seasonal alterations of the variables in the Danube and the side arms in order to highlight the
possibilities of the ecological rehabilitation. The principle influence of the Danubian
discharge conditions on the water chemical composition and the plankton communities of the
side channels was clearly demonstrated.
Altogether 88 species of Rotatoria, Cladocera and Copepoda was found (CSÁNYI et al.
1994). Most of these species are characteristic of eutrophic, lentic or stagnant waters. Large
degree of individualization of the phyto- and zooplankton took place during low water
discharge both in the Rezéti-Duna and Vén-Duna, respectively. It was concluded that the
hydrobiological status of the Danube and its side arms is determined principally by the
hydrological regime. Periods of high water discharge and inundation were always
characterised by low algal and zooplankton abundance and low taxon richness, as well. The
30
reduction or the total elimination of lotic conditions in the side arms due to low water level
and stopping the through flow situation leads to unpredictable structural changes in the
plankton community going together with biomass increase (algal blooms, zooplankton mass
production).
The same conclusion was supported by SCHOLL (2003, 2004a, 2004b) who found that the
species composition of Rotifer assemblages depended more on the date of sampling than the
sampling site. The dominant zooplankton species for this section of the Danube proved to be
Rotifers (CSÁNYI et al. 1994). This taxonomic group could be classified into three identical
subgroups (SCHÖLL 2003, 2004a, 2004b):
4. Rare species and forms with low abundance (e.g. Asplanchna girodi, Brachionus
falcatus, Kellicottia longispina);
5. Rare species and forms with high abundance (Filinia longiseta, Keratella tropica,
Brachionus budapestiensis f. budapestiensis);
Frequent species and forms with high abundance (Brachionus angularis bidens, Keratella
cochlearis tecta, Keratella cochlearis cochlearis)
A second Dutch-Hungarian project dealing with the revitalization of the Gemenc side arm
system provided the possibility of intervention in the Vén-Duna. The project lasting four
years (1997-2000) was financed by the Dutch RIZA again. Same conclusions were given as
previously: the individualization of the side arm in terms of physico-chemical and plankton
compounds was caused by low Danube discharge conditions due to the lacking flow through
situation and nutrient rich water.
The rock fill dam was dredged away reopening the side arm in 1998 (see the map in Appendix
VI). The result of the reopening was studied during an altogether 4 years monitoring program.
Morphological, physico-chemical and biological components were regularly measured
between 1997 and 2000 in order to follow the most important features along the watercourse.
The individualization of different sections of the Vén-Duna was observed during low
Danubian water discharge periods (see the results of the phytoplankton, Figure 17). Water
quality problems were registered in that time caused by stagnant and stratified water body
characterized by oxygen deficit. It was proved that the reopening had an evident benefit for
the Gemenc flood plain.
The fast revitalization took place via re-colonization of several rheophilous species from the
Danube biota. Water transport is achieved during low water discharge periods, as well. There
are some interesting morphological changes in the side arm especially downstream the
reopened rock dam and its immediate neighbourhood. The community structure of planktonic,
nektonic and benthonic assemblages highly resemble to the Danubian Flora and Fauna.
As a result of the three years monitoring program of the macroinvertebrates it can be
concluded that after the reopening several rheophilic taxa recolonized the Vén-Duna side arm
from the Danube River. Typical rheophilic taxa are the Valvata naticina, Lithoglyphus
naticoides aquatic snails and the Sphaerium corneum, S. rivicola mussel species from the
group of the Danubian molluscs. They were detected in the Vén-Duna, too, from the
beginning of 1999, half year after the reopening works were finished. Similar occurrence of
the Danubian Crustacea –Malacostraca species was detected because the Dikerogammarus
villosus, Obesogammarus obesus and Corophium curvispinum became common species in the
side arm also. From the group of insects four species can be mentioned in this respect:
Platycnemis pennipes, Gomphus flavipes, Hydropsyche bulgaromanorum, H.contubernalis all
31
are typical rheophilic taxa living in the main arm of the Danube River and in the Vén-Duna
since the reopening situation exists.
A very illustrative element of the recolonization was found accidentally in 1999 during the
regular sampling program. Two new Mollusc species for the Hungarian fauna were detected
in the Vén-Duna. The invading Corbicula fluminea and C. fluminalis originate from the River
Rhine system but they are native in Southeast Asia. At first juveniles of these species
occurred in the samples collected in June at the sampling site VD1, in the middle of the side
arm. The depth of the water exceeded 12 m where an Ekman grab was used for the
quantitative sampling of the benthic community.
Another location was registered in September: the side arm of the island situated below the
reopened rock dam proved to be the second point of these species from which adults were
observed also colonizing the river bed along the Vén-Duna arm. The first Danubian record
came from the October sampling when only the Corbicula fluminea was detected at the 1483
river km section on the right bank (CSÁNYI 1998-1999). Finally both species were found at
the same site in November at extreme low water level. At that time VD2 and VD3 proved to
be new locations for these mussels in the Vén-Duna. These data are the first Corbicula records
in Hungary indicating that less than a half-year was enough for these mussels to distribute the
riverbed along almost the whole side arm section due to the permanently flowing conditions.
As a faunal result of the Vén-Duna monitoring program the first Hungarian record of
Theodoxus fluviatilis is presented among the results of the October and November sampling
period in 1999. The lowest point of the distribution of this species was described in the
section of Paks, at 1526 river km by CSÁNYI (1996). Now its occurrence is known from the
section of Baja (1483 river km), as well.
Large species number of mussels generally characterizes the main arm of the Lower
Hungarian Danube section and the Hungarian side arms, respectively. During the monitoring
carried out between 1997 and 2000 most of the mussel species were common in the River
Danube and the Vén-Duna side arm also. Figures illustrate the most common snail species;
others show the two invading species of mussels (Corbicula fluminea and C. fluminalis) in the
Hungarian Fauna, which were detected first time in the Hungarian Danube during the last
three years (CSÁNYI 1998-1999, Appendix VII).
REOPENING
30
Numbe r o f s pe c ie s
25
20
15
10
5
0
1997
1 998
1999
2000
Ye a rs
Ga s tropoda
Biva lvia
Worms
Ma la co s tra ca
Ins e cta
Sum of s pe cie s
Figure 18 Number of macroinvertebrate taxa collected in the Vén-Duna during the
monitoring program (CSÁNYI & RÁKÓCZI 2001)
32
The analysis of aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna in the Makkos water system connected to the
Sió confluence region indicated that the frequent drying up processes and the lack of the
appropriate water supply of these water bodies result in a relatively poor community
(CSABAI et al. 2003). Their conclusions are as follows:
1. There are lacking species from the poor fauna;
2. The area is not representing special nature conservation value in the present status;
3. Ecological reconstruction is necessary in the area together with a monitoring program
in order to detect the immediate effects of the treatment (CSABAI et al., 2003).
Vertebrate fauna
A comprehensive three-year herpetological survey and the following monitoring activities
recorded valuable fauna in the Gemenc Region (PUKY, 2000; 2003). Altogether 11
amphibian (Triturus vulgaris, Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Bufo bufo, Bufo
viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina, Rana lessonae, Rana esculenta, Rana
ridibunda) and 8 reptile (Anguis fragilis, Elaphe longissima, Emy orbicularis, Lacerta agilis,
Lacerta viridis, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessalata, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe longissima) taxa
were recorded.
Consequently, all typical Hungarian lowland amphibians are present in the region. Three
„International Red Data Book” – amphibians live in the area (T. dobrogicus, B. bombina, H.
arborea) and the most important species is T. dobrogicus. A three-year herpetological
monitoring showed that under different environmental conditions the amphibian community
size of the Gemenc District can fluctuate between sixteen and two-hundred-thirty-eight
million individuals (PUKY, 2000). Although Gemenc serves as one of the most important
natural habitat for amphibians in Hungary, it is interesting to note that mass occurrence of
amphibian deformities was also detected in 1999, the reason of which is unknown, however
(PUKY et al., 2002). The presence and population size of NATURA 2000 species make the
Gemenc District of the Duna -Dráva National Park to be an important herpetological reserve
in the European nature conservation network (PUKY, 2003, 2004).
The history of the fish fauna surveys of the Danube in the Gemenc floodplain goes back to the
end of the 1950s. There are 30 fish species in the collection of the Hungarian Natural History
Museum that were gathered in the Gemenc region between 1957 and 1960 (BERINKEY,
1972). Observations of amateur icthyologists resulted in a list of 47 species in the area from
1970 to 1995 (KALOCSA & SCHMIDT, 1996), while the surveys of the Hungarian Danube
Research Station recorded 44 species since 1994. According to historical and recent data,
occurrence of 56 fish species was recorded in this Danube section (GUTI, 2001) (see
Appendix VIII.). Most of the original fauna is still present, only large migratory sturgeons
(Huso huso, Acipenser gueldenstadti, A. stellatus, A. nudiventris) have disappeared due to
overfishing, and the blocking of their migratory route. The presence of Umbra krameri was
not confirmed during the recent investigations (GUTI, 2001). However, a specimen collected
in 1957 (BERINKEY, 1972) documents its previous occurrence.
It has to be mentioned however that in the work of DEME (2003) other species are also
mentioned. DEME (2003) carried out fish faunistic investigations in the southernmost part of
the Hungarian Danube section at Béda-Karapancsa (Duna-Dráva National Park) and also
collected information on the occurrence of fish species from fishermen, anglers, and rangers
of the national park. He could prove altogether 51 species from the Béda-Karapancsa district
and in his work he notes that the occurrence of Gasterostus aculeatus, and Salmo trutta m.
fario was proved from the vicinity of Baja. He also described Leucaspius delineatus from the
33
region. Consequently, the fish fauna of the Gemenc region is rich and more or less preserves
the natural fish assemblages of the unmodified lowland Danubian hydrosystem. For example,
the fauna composition of the eupotamic arms is dominated by rheophilic species (Acipenser
ruthenus, Barbus barbus, Leuciscus idus, Chondrostoma nasus, Gobio albipinnatus etc) that
bound to the lotic part of the river. The connected side arms represent the parapotamic
functional set and their fauna contains several reophilic and eurytopic species. Species
grouped as eurytopic (e.g. Rutilus rutilus, Alburnus alburnus, Blicca bjoerkna etc.) occur in
all types of lotic and lenitc components of the river system.
Finally, the disconnected plesiopotamic or paleopotamic backwaters are populated with
eurytopic and limnophilic fishes (e.g Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Carassius carassius, Tinca
tinca, Misgurnus fossilis etc) that bound to the standing waters of the floodplain. However,
despite these values, very little is known about the spatial distribution and temporal variability
of fish assemblages in this region related to the diversity of hydro-morphological habitat
types. Further studies should be carried out for the establishment of the effective conservation
management of the fish fauna.
2.2.5 Conclusions
It is evident from this overview that Gemenc has an outstanding conservation value at the
landscape scale. Consequently, not only single habitats but the dynamic feature of this
fragment of the Danubian floodplain hydrosystem should be managed and conserve for
maintaining the diversity of plant and animal communities in the region.
2.3 Socio-economic environment
The nutrient removal by the wetland rehabilitation and floodplain restoration of the Gemenc
and Béda-Karapancsa regions can be achieved by a deliberate application of various
engineering means. The impact of these interventions is not restricted to the natural and
environmental elements, but also may have positive or negative effects on the human
activities practiced on the area of the design units, such as:

Administration activities
 public administration
 environmental and nature conservation administration

Business and management activities
 forestry
 game management and hunting
 fishery
 navigation
 agriculture and cattle breeding (to limited extent)

Recreation
 hiking tourism
 water tourism
 angling

Activities of civil organisations (NGOs)
34
In spite of the fact that most of the activities listed above have lower priority than the interests
of the nature conservation an effort for an optimal solution is justified.
The scope of this preliminary socio-economical assessment consists of two main elements.
The first is to identify these impacts and the stakeholders the impacts are imposed to. The
second element is to facilitate an appropriate forum where the stakeholders become aware of
the planned interventions and have an opportunity to express their standpoint.
The following chapters present the legal framework for the activities the identified
stakeholders in appropriate grouping and at the end a cross-reference table (Table 2) is
provided where the relations between the stakeholders and the different planning units are
given.
2.3.1 Legal framework
The Act No. LIII of the year 1996 “on the Protection of Nature” and the related regulations
(see Appendix IX) the guidelines related to the protected and increasingly protected natural
habitats. The natural parks are “ex lege” protected habitats, while the natural gird of the
natural park, the core area of the biosphere reserve, further the core area of the forest reserve
receive increased protected ranking, to which the related special guidelines should be included
into the nature conservation operational plan. In lack of the plan being under preparation the
most important regulatory frameworks related to the protected and increasing protected nature
areas are presented.
The Hungarian legal act determines the high level protection in relation of the natural values
and nature reserves. The protection extends to the landscape, the wild living organs, the
habitats and geological values.
Basic principles: The natural values and areas can be taken into utilization to such an extent
that their natural structures fundamental to their operation and their operational capacity be
maintained and the biodiversity be preserved.
Prohibitions: All forms of ground utilization are prohibited which would change the
characteristics of the area and its state in contrast to their nature protection objectives. It is
prohibited to operate such establishments which endanger the state of the area or disrupt their
composition. It is compulsory to maintain the nature conditions which necessary to the
biological diversity of the living communities.
Administrative means: The legal regulations grant especially great room to the protection
submitted by the licensing procedure. The licensing jurisdictions grant increased competence
for the nature protection authority.
The qualification assures the ranking of the areas according to their protective level, the
identification of the protective areas, respectively. The planning determines the tasks of the
protection and restoration on the basis of the National Nature Protection Base Plan.
Propriety relations: The caves, the botanic and fauna individuals are exclusively in the
propriety of the state, while the nature values and the areas are restrictedly free of trading. In
case of changing the ownership pre-emptive right is granted to the state or the local
government.
Economic incentives: The preservation of the protected values and areas are supported with
state funding, tax advantage and compensation.
35
2.3.2 Water management
On national level the water management is administrated by the Ministry for Environment and
Water. The operative direction and official duties of water management are performed by the
National Directorate for Environmental Protection, Nature Conservation and Water
Management and its 12 regional directorates under the minister’s control.
In this project 3 regional water directorates are concerned:

Lower Danube Valley Environmental Protection and Water Management Directorate
(headquarters in Baja)

South-Trans-Danubian Environmental Protection and Water Management Directorate
(headquarters in Pécs)

Central-Trans-Danubian Environmental Protection
Directorate (headquarters in Székesfehérvár)
and
Water
Management
Gemenc is administratively divided between Lower Danube Valley EPWMD and CentralTrans-Danubian EPWMD. The flood control dike system on the left bank, the Danube itself,
the Rezéti Oxbow and the Grébeci Oxbow belong to the area of operation of the Lower
Danube EPWMD. The dike system on the right bank as well as the lakes and oxbows close to
this dike system are controlled by the Central-Trans-Danubian EPWMD.
The part of Béda-Karapancsa planning unit located on the right side of the Danube riverbed
belongs to the South-Trans-Danubian EPWMD. The left side of the planning unit and the
Danube riverbed itself belong to the Lower Danube Valley EPWMD.
2.3.3 Environmental management
The same three directorates discussed in the Water Management Chapter controls the
environmental protection tasks in project area.
Besides the 3 directorates there are non-governmental environmental protection organizations,
which are active in this area:


Danube Environmental Protection Forum
Independent Environmental Protection Society
2.3.4 Nature conservation
The ten national parks in Hungary are operated under the control of the Minister of
Environmental Protection and Water Management.
In general, the aim of the national parks is to protect and preserve specific natural values
(flora, fauna, geology), to sustain biodiversity and to aid scientific research and education.
National parks can be founded only by the minister.
The 11 planning units of the project lay within the area of Duna-Dráva National Park
Directorate. The planning units belong to two landscape units, called Gemenc and BédaKarapancsa. Ten planning units out of 11 are part of the Gemenc landscape unit.
There are several nature conservation non-governmental organizations, which are active in the
two landscape units e.g.:
36









Tolna County Nature Conservation Foundation
Tolna County Group of Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society
Lower-Danubian Nature Conservation Foundation
Baranya County Group of Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society
Hungarian Ornithological Society Local Group No.7, workgroup of Baja
Baja Youth Nature Protection Society
Foundation for Natural Values of Baranya
Association for Báta
WWF Hungary
2.3.5 Local Governments
The area of the project belongs to three counties. These counties are called Baranya, BácsKiskun and Tolna. The planning units lay on the administrative areas of few towns and
villages including the city Szekszárd honoured by county rank. The list of the concerned local
governments is given below:













Baja
Báta
Bogyiszló
Decs
Érsekcsanád
Homorúd
Kölked
Mohács
Őcsény
Pörböly
Szekszárd
Szeremle
Tolna
The Hungarian Regional Development Office also should be mentioned in this chapter. The
office works under the control of the Government. The purpose of the office is to assist the
faster growth of underdeveloped regions of the country, in order to fall into line with
developed regions. The regional levels of the office are divided into EU regions, counties and
sub-regions.
In the project 3 offices are concerned on county level:



Baranya County Region-Developing Council
Bács-Kiskun County Region-Developing Council
Tolna County Region-Developing Council
There are about 120 000 residents living in the listed settlements. In large cities such as Baja,
Mohács and Szekszárd the number of inhabitants about 38.000, 19.000 and 39.000
respectively. The unemployment rate in this region is 12-14%, among the highest values in
the country.
37
2.3.6 Economic activities
Most of the economical activities taking place on the area of Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa
regions as part of the Danube-Drava National Park are related to forestry, game management,
hunting and fishery. The main stakeholders are the following:
Gemenc Forest and Game Co. Ltd. (6500 Baja, Szent Imre tér 2., Phone: (79)321-049)
The predecessor of the Gemenc Forest and Game Co. Ltd was established in 1968 on the
coherent flood plain of the Lower Danube. The firm is operating as PLC from 1993. Being
one of the largest flood plain in Europe, the company manages 33 000 hectares of state owned
and 70 000 hectares hunting forest fields. 20 000 hectares of flood areas constitute the Danube
section of the Danube-Drava National Park. 70% of the total turnover of the company comes
from the project area of approx. 11 000 ha.
Gemenc Co. Ltd. executes its work with five forest and game management units located in
Bátaszék, Szekszárd, Hajós, Baja and Pandúr. Two further forest management units are
engaged in activities supporting the foresting. One of these is the Loading, Shipping and
Railway Forest Management Unit performing the collection and transport of timber from the
floodplain by the State Gemenc Forest Railway and ships on the River Danube. The other is
the Loading and Timber Processing Unit located outside of the area of the project.
Gemenc Co. Ltd manages large stock of red deer, wild boar, roe and pheasant.
In order to examine certain forest stock’s scientific succession, there are three forest reserves
came to marking:



Buvat
South-Veránka
Veránka Island
There are no economic activities allowed on these areas
The hunting fields of 70 000 hectares managed by the company located in the Southern part
of the Danube flood plain from Dusnok to the border where the river leaves the country. The
hunting fields located on the two sides of the Danube, based on their characteristics, can be
divided into three areas: Gemenc, Béda-Karapancsa and Hajós-Baja. The hunting areas of
Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa are part of the Danube-Drava National Park.
Tolna Fish Trading Co-operative
(7130 Tolna Bajcsi-Zsilinszky 131., Phone: (74) 440-200)
Tolna Fish Trading Co-operative manages the fishing activities at the following water bodies:
 River Sió, from Sárszentlőrinc to the confluence with the River Danube
 Sárvíz, from Nagydorog to the confluence with the River Sió
 River Danube between sections 1520-1493 river km
Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and Service Ltd
(6500 Baja Kölcsey Ferenc utca 82, Phone: (79) 323-411)
Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and Service Ltd manages the fishing activities at the following water
bodies:
38
River Danube between sections 1455,7-1493 river km, from the northern border of the village
Bár up to the upper mouth of Grébeci-Duna















Móricz Duna;
Jámbli-tó;
Simon Duna;
Hágli Duna;
Sáros-Duna;
Bátai-főcsatorna;
Szekcsői Kis-Duna, Telelő;
Kenderáztató;
Falvai kis-Duna;
Vancsura hókony;
Rezéti Duna;
Grébeci Duna ág;
Herceg-gödör;
Bajai Vén-Duna;
Ferenc csatorna
Petőfi Fishery Co-operative Mohács
(7700 Mohács Kisfaludy K. u. 6. , Phone: (69) 322-123)
Petőfi Fishery Co-operative manages the fishing activities at the following water bodies:




River Danube between sections 1433,5-1456 river km, from the country border to the
northern border of village Bár;
Mocskos Duna;
Külső-Béda, Belső-Béda;
Kölkedi-Duna
Gemenc Fish Ltd (Érsekcsanád)
Gemenc Fish Ltd. manages the fishing activities at the following water bodies:




Danube section at Gemenc
Grébeci Holt-Duna
Rezéti Duna
Vén-Duna
Báta Agricultural Co-operative (Báta)
Cultivating lands around Bátai Holt-Duna
2.3.7 Recreation and tourism
Gemenc Forest and Game Co. Ltd. serves forest relaxation and recreation with five park and
excursion forests. State Gemenc Forest Railway carrying 80 000 passengers a year, the study
paths and bird lookouts are made available for tourists
The present line of the State Gemenc Forest Railway was built between 1955 and 1982. The
length of the main line is 30 km having one terminal at Pörböly and another 6 kilometres from
Szekszárd at the Bárányfok Recreation Centre. Most of its path goes within the Gemenc
39
Forest and the train stops at the most spectacular places, educational paths, and in the vicinity
of animal watch shelters and the lookout tower.
The water bodies of the area of Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa is very popular among anglers.
From angling point of view the water bodies listed in the previous chapter are handled by the
given fishing companies accordingly.
Furthermore there are angling associations on county and local level managing the fish stock
of smaller water bodies by planting of juvenile fish time to time. These associations are the
following:
Association of Angler Unions of Baranya County
(7621 Pécs, Teréz u. 11-13., Phone: (72) 326-775)
Association of Angler Unions of Tolna County
(7100 Szekszárd Rákóczi u. 46., Phone: (74) 511-577)
Managed water body: Keselyűsi Holt Sió
Association of Sport Anglers of Bács-Kiskun County
(6000 Kecskemét, Batthyány u. 19., Phone: (76) 481-893
Baja Sport Angler Union
(H-6500 Baja, Dunapart 2., Phone: (79) 324 120)
Managed water body: Sugovica
Angler Union of Workers of Mohács
Managed water body: Belső Bédai Holtág
Angler Union of Szeremle
Managed water body: Szeremlei Sugovica
Anglers Union of Szekszárd
Anglers Union of Báta
Anglers Union of Homorúd
Botond Anglers Union of Kölked
Tourist accommodation
At three locations in the Gemenc floodplain a few hundreds of small summer houses had been
built. The owners, mostly Hungarians, are living in the surrounding settlements. There is a
camping site on the Gemenc area with wooden cottages and place for tents having a capacity
for 600-700 persons.
Gemenc Co. Ltd. operates 10 hunting lodges on the area of the National Park with a total
capacity about 70-80 persons.
40
Table 2. Cross reference table of the stakeholders on the project area
Stakeholders Name of the Stakeholders
Gov. Org.
1.
2.
3.
Veránka Buvat Béda-Karapancsa
Lower Danube Valley EPWMD
x
South-Trans-Danubian EPWMD
x
Central-Trans-Danubian EPWMD
x
x
Duna-Dráva National Park Directorate
x
x
x
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Sió-canal Gemenc Bátai-Duna Fekete-erdei Kerülő-Duna Báli Móric-Duna Nagy-Pandúr
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Baja
L
o
c
a
l
Báta
g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t
Homorúd
x
Kölked
x
Mohács
x
x
Bogyiszló
x
Decs
Érsekcsanád
x
x
x
Őcsény
x
x
x
Szekszárd
x
Szeremle
x
x
Danube Environmental Protection Forum
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Independent Environmental Protection Society
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Tolna County Nature Conservation Foundation
x
x
x
x
x
Tolna County Group of Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Lower-Danubian Nature Conservation Foundation
x
Baranya County Group of Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society
Hungarian Ornithological Society Local Group No.7, workgroup of Baja
x
x
Baja Youth Nature Protection Society
x
Foundation for Natural Values of Baranya
x
Association for Báta
C
o
m
p
a
n
y
A
n
g
l
i
n
g
x
Pörböly
Tolna
N
G
O
s
x
x
x
WWF Hungary
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Gemenc Forest and Game Co. Ltd
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Tolna Fish Trading Co-operative
Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and Service Ltd
x
x
x
Petőfi Fishery Co-operative Mohács
Gemenc Fish Ltd (Érsekcsanád)
x
x
x
Báta Agricultural Co-operative (Báta)
x
Association of Angler Unions of Baranya County
x
Association of Angler Unions of Tolna County
x
Association of Sport Anglers of Bács-Kiskun County
x
x
x
x
Baja Sport Angler Union
x
Angler Union of Workers of Mohács
x
Angler Union of Szeremle
U
n
i
o
n
x
x
Anglers Union of Szekszárd
x
Anglers Union of Báta
x
Anglers Union of Homorúd
x
Botond Anglers Union of Kölked
x
41
2.4 Review of pressures and problems
2.4.1 Environmental pressures and impacts
The nutrient loads flowing in or through the Gemenc-Béda-Karapancsa systems are from the
following origins:
1. Danube
2. Sió tributary
3. Szekszárd-Bátai canal
4. Kölked, Vizslaki canals
The Sió and the Szekszárd-Bátai canal enter the Danube through the Gemenc floodplain
region. The Kölked and Vizslaki canals flow into the river via the Béda-Karapancsa
floodplain.
As far as the floodplain ecosystems are concerned the major problem is desiccation caused by
the degradation of the Danube bed. Desiccation has resulted in serious loss of wet alluvial
habitats; the characteristic alluvial biodiversity has also been decreased. Life conditions for
fish, amphibians and waders (like the famous black storks) have also been deteriorated. The
reproduction conditions for fish (and thus indirectly the feeding conditions of the waders)
have further been degraded by the intensified water level fluctuation of the Danube.
The decreased depths, as well as the increased nutrient contents of the inflowing waters have
resulted in serious eutrophication problems in the floodplain water bodies.
The continuous aggradation of the entire floodplain enhances further the desiccation problem
caused by the degrading river bed. The perspective is that all the side arms and oxbow lakes
will be isolated and fully aggraded, and the floodplain will become a flat and dry land with
poor biodiversity. This is not a ‘worst case’ scenario for the far future, this will happen within
few decades, unless we do intervene into the processes.
Above problems and pressures caused by changes in the hydrological and water quality
regimes, the direct anthropogenic impacts should also be taken into consideration. This
concerns first of all the disturbance caused by human activities on the floodplain. Certain
typical valuable species, like the black stork, or the white tailed eagle are very sensitive to
human disturbance. Thus, the restoration of their habitats is not just a hydrological question.
Human disturbance must be eliminated from the neighbourhood of these places.
2.4.2 Socio-economic pressures and impacts
The interventions aiming at reduction of nutrients make their socio-economical impacts
directly or indirectly through several different engineering activities. The aim of this chapter
is to look up these possible impacts in order to take them into consideration later on at the
evaluation of the proposed alternatives. When an impact proves to be negative, further
measures should be taken either by changing the planned intervention or by mitigating its
unfavourable consequences. From socio-economic point of view we have to take into account
not only the limitations suffered by different human activities, but also the difficulties of the
official processes such as licensing, and the possible resistance from the side of the concerned
stakeholders.
42
The proposed interventions may include:




Construction of water engineering works (locks, culverts, bottom sills, sediment traps)
and bridges
Reconstruction or maintenance of existing works
Channel control (channel bed correction, short cutting)
Dredging, disposal of dredged sediment
The interventions listed above are going to change the natural circumstances of the area to
certain extent and therefore may have impacts on the human activities related either to
economy or recreation and tourism. The possible changes are the followings:









Increase or decrease of water level or depth of water bodies (temporary or permanent)
Increase of surface area of water bodies, flooding areas (temporary or permanent)
Increase or decrease of average level of groundwater
Changing in tree species, forest area, and forest yield.
Changing in size of game stock due to the change in the in game feeding capacity of
the area
Changing in fish species, in size of fish stock due to change in the habitat conditions
of the water body
Changing in accessibility of certain areas in positive or negative manner.
Changing in navigation conditions
Changing in nature protection status of an area (e.g. becomes more restricted)
In the following chapter the specific potential impacts are detailed in groups formed along the
different types of stakeholders
Water Management and Environmental Protection
Any intervention going to be proposed is subject of very strict water and environmental
licensing procedure, in which – depending on the actual content of the application – several
professional authorities are involved. The licensing procedure is very time consuming even
under normal conditions, but nowadays, when the water and environmental authorities have
just been reorganized and consequently are much overloaded the multiplication of time need
can be expected.
The Water Directorates (VIZIGs) were performing their jobs until the end of 2003 in line with
Governmental Decree 234/1996. (XII:26.). As a result of the reorganisation that took place at
the end of 2003, the Directorates for Environment and Water (the KÖVIZIGs) using their new
names, have been working from 1st January 2004 already in accordance with KvVM Decree
26/2003. (XII.30.), and Governmental Decree 183/2003. (XI.5.). From that point onwards the
employees of KÖVIZIG do not have official (public authority) competence any longer, as a
consequence of splitting the water management branch. The Inspectorate for Water (VIFE) is
entitled to carry out the public authority tasks.
With the foundation of VIFE in January 2004, a substantial change took place in the activity
of serving professional opinion. On the request of VIFE, the Directorate will act as expert in
the official-public authority procedures within the base activity to be provided as a public
task, in line with Governmental Decree 183/2003. (XI.5.).
With its Governmental Decree 341/2004. (XII.22.), the Government has separated and
regulated the official and the asset management tasks in the areas of water management,
environmental protection and nature conservation; and has established the National
Inspectorate for Environment, Nature Conservation and Water, and the National Directorate
43
of Environment, Nature and Water in Hungary, as well as the environmental and the regional
bodies.
The National Inspectorate for Environment, Nature Preservation and Water (hereinafter
referred to as National Inspectorate) exercises among other the official and public authority
jurisdiction at the level of second instance, within the circle of the base activity to be provided
as an official task.
The National Directorate of Environment, Nature and Water in Hungary (hereinafter referred
to as National Directorate) controls among other the environmental and water directorates.
The regional tasks of environmental protection, nature conservation- and water management,
public service and asset management are performed by the
a)
b)
environmental and water directorates,
national park directorates.
The inspectorate for environment, nature conservation and water (hereinafter referred to as
Inspectorate) exercises the
a)
b)
c)
d)
environmental protection,
nature conservations,
landscape conservation,
water
public authority and professional public authority jurisdictions.
The directorate for environment and water (hereinafter referred to as Directorate) provides
among other for keeping the concurrence between development, maintenance and operation
of the water facilities of public-purposes, (state- and municipal), as well as of private
purposes.
The national park directorate (hereinafter referred to as NPI) provides for the local operative
and asset management tasks, within the circle of its base activity. NPI also acts as expert, as
an official task in the public authority and professional public authority procedures of nature
conservation, as well as in the professional public authority procedures of landscape
conservation – on the request of the Inspectorate.
The inspectorate for environment, nature conservation and water is a new organisation
established by the transformation of the inspectorate for environment; it is the general legal
successor of the national park directorates regarding the official tasks of nature conservation
and landscape conservation.
The charts from Figure 19 to Figure 23 on the next pages summarise the licensing procedures
by type of subjects, such as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Water utility investments
Dredging
Disposal of dredged sediment
Construction of water engineering works
Construction of bridge
Here are the abbreviations in the following charts:


EPNCWMI: Environmental Protection, Nature Conservation and Water Management
Inspectorate (KTVF)
PEIA: Preliminarily Environmental Impact Assessment (EKHT)
44





DEIA: Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment (RKHT)
PHA: Public Health Authority (ÁNTSZ)
PHSCS: Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station (NETÁ)
SFSRD: State Forestry Service Regional Directorate (ÁESZ)
CTI: County Traffic Inspectorate (MKF)
45
General licensing procedure for water utility investments in Hungary
Decision
Is Impact Assessment
required?
no
Preparation of
PEIA
Is forestry used?
Licenser:
Local government
Construction permit
yes
Professional Authorities:
PHA, EPNCWMI
Preparation of
construction permit
application
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Is DEIA needed?
Posting up
Professional Authorities: PHA, PHSCS,
Forestry, etc.
no
Planning
yes
no
yes
Preparation of
forestry use plan
Licenser:
SFSRD
Preparation of water
right permit application
for construction
Water right permit
application for
construction
Forestry Use
License
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Environmental
Protection License
Figure 19 General licensing procedure of water utility investments
46
Public Hearing
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Preparation of
DEIA
Professional Authorities
Professional Authorities
Professional Authorities
Preparation of
conceptual water right
permit application
General licensing procedure for dredging
Decision
Is Impact
Assessment
required?
no
Planning
yes
Preparation of
PEIA
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Is DEIA needed?
Posting up
yes
Professional Authorities: PHA, PHSCS,
Forestry, etc.
no
Is forestry used?
no
yes
Preparation of
forestry use plan
Licenser:
SFSRD
Preparation of water
right permit application
for construction
Water right permit
application for
construction
Forestry Use
License
Figure 20 General licensing procedure of dredging
47
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Public Hearing
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Preparation of
DEIA
Professional Authorities
Professional Authorities
Professional Authorities
Preparation of
conceptual water right
permit application
Environmental
Protection License
Iszapelhelyezésengedélyeztetési eljárása
Hatásvizsgálat
köteles?
nem
Erdőterület
igénybevétel?
EKHT készítés
Szakhatóságok: ÁNTSZ, Talajvédelmi
Szolgálat, Erdőgazdaság.
Iszapelhelyezési
engedély
igen
Engedélyező:
KTVF
Szakhatóságok: ÁNTSZ,
Önkormányzat
Iszapelhelyezési
engedélykérelem
elkészítése
Engedélyező:
KTVF
RKHT szükséges
Erdőterület
igénybevételi terv
készítés
nem
igen
nem
Tervezés
igen
Kifüggesztés
Döntés
Elvi vízjogi
engedély készítése
Vízjogi létesítési
engedély készítés
Vízjogi létesítési
engedély
Erdőterület
igénybevételi
engedély
Engedélyező:
KTVF
Környezetvédelmi
engedély
Figure 21 General licensing procedure of dredged sediment disposal
48
Közmeghallgatás
Engedélyező:
KTVF
Szakhatóságok
Szakhatóságok
Szakhatóságok
RKHT készítés
General licensing procedure for construction of water engineering works
Decision
Is Impact Assessment
required?
no
Preparation of
PEIA
Is forestry used?
Licenser:
Local government
Construction permit
yes
Professional Authorities:
PHA, EPNCWMI
Preparation of
construction permit
application
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Is DEIA needed?
Posting up
Professional Authorities: PHA, PHSCS,
Forestry, etc.
no
Planning
yes
no
yes
Preparation of
forestry use plan
Licenser:
SFSRD
Preparation of water
right permit application
for construction
Water right permit
application for
construction
Forestry Use
License
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Public Hearing
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Preparation of
DEIA
Professional Authorities
Professional Authorities
Professional Authorities
Preparation of
conceptual water right
permit application
Environmental
Protection License
Figure 22 General licensing procedure for construction of water engineering works
49
General licensing procedure for bridge construction investment
Decision
Is Impact Assessment
required?
no
Preparation of
PEIA
Is forestry used?
Licenser:
Local government
Construction permit
yes
Professional Authorities:
PHA, EPNCWMI, CTI
Preparation of
construction permit
application
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Is DEIA needed?
Posting up
Professional Authorities: PHA, PHSCS,
Forestry, etc.
no
Planning
yes
no
yes
Preparation of
forestry use plan
Licenser:
SFSRD
Preparation of water
right permit application
for construction
Water right permit
application for
construction
Forestry Use
License
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Environmental
Protection License
Figure 23 General licensing procedure for bridge construction
50
Public Hearing
Licenser:
EPNCWMI
Preparation of
DEIA
Professional Authorities
Professional Authorities
Professional Authorities
Preparation of
conceptual water right
permit application
Nature Conservation
One of our driving principles is that the proposed interventions should gain the support of the
Danube-Drava National Park Directorate. Beyond the fulfilment of the legal requirements the
proposed actions should meet the National Park’s long term plans and strategies; therefore the
regular consultation with the representatives of the NPD is essential.
Special attention should be paid to the civil organizations being active on the project area.
Their involvement in every phase of the preparation of the interventions may prevent any
unfounded resistance and debate. Of course, in general this is applicable for each stakeholders
of the project. Members of the local NGOs are involved in the preparation of the Feasibility
Study, therefore it may improve the situation.
The following maps (Figure 24 - Figure 26) show the nature conservation classification of the
land and water bodies on the project area based on the information provided by the DanubeDrava National Park.
51
Strictly protected area
Strictly protected area
Figure 24 Strictly protected nature conservation areas of Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa
52
Nature conservation
zone
Treated zone
Nature conservation
zone
Treated zone
Treated zone-water
Demonstration
zone
Treated zone-water
Demonstration
zone
Figure 25 Classification of nature conservation zones of Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa
53
Prohibited visiting
Restricted visiting
Visiting
Prohibited visiting
Restricted visiting
Visiting
Figure 26 Visiting rules of the water bodies of Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa
54
Local Governments
Local governments play major role in planning and control of the recreational facilities and
infrastructure. Municipalities will support interventions which




creates temporary or permanent jobs (during construction or operation)
increases the force of attraction of the region for the tourists and generates income
does not need the involvement significant municipal funds neither at present nor in the
future.
are in line with the regional and municipal development plans.
Forestry
It is difficult to predict the impacts of different water management interventions on forestry.
However it can be assumed that raising the water-level and regular flooding could have a
positive impact on forests and therefore on the forest management. This is because the area of
the project dried significantly in the past decades according to opinions of the regional
specialists and the forest-planners.
On the other hand, there are also likely impacts of different water management interventions,
which could be beneficial and or prejudicial on forestry.
First is the change in the tree species, because different trees tolerate different water-level
regime. In such case achieving consensus with the forestry company will be difficult, since
the market price of the various tree species differs a lot.
Second is the modification of nutrient-content of soil due to regular flooding and increased
water-level. However the good effect on growing potential of vegetation due to the increasing
nutrient-capacity of soil can be expected.
Third is that some areas would be covered by water permanently or temporarily. Therefore it
could cause extra costs for the forestry e.g. sustaining forestry roads and constructing new
bridges to access certain areas. On the other hand if the conditions of navigation were
improving, the reduction of transport costs by using boats could bring benefits.
Hunting
The game stock feeding capacity of the project area is a permanent problem. As much as the
feeding capacity decreases, the rentability of the game management decreases as well; e.g.
due to the need of applying food supplement. The question is that the planned water
management interventions will be beneficial for the feeding capacity of the area or not. For
example the increased water surfaces could reduce the supporting areas. On the other hand it
could improve the ground water regime it will increase the feeding capacity of the
surrounding arid areas and decrease the dry periods as well.
Higher water-levels and regularly flooded areas could raise other problems too e.g.:



Migration of game stock due to the change in the habitat circumstances
Change in the routes and moving space of game (decreased number of escape routes
during extreme floods)
Difficulties in reaching hunting grounds or even those disappearance
Fishery & Angling
Water regime regulation of oxbows, changes in water-levels and construction of engineering
works would modify significantly the fish stock and would play an important role on the
55
success and effectiveness of fish-settlements. The area of the project is very rich in fish.
Therefore fishery and angling brings significant income for the region. Many fishery cooperatives, -corporations and angler unions are concerned in the project area, which makes the
situation even more difficult.
For this reasons the water management interventions have to be treated with special care, in
such a way that these future interventions do not cause harm to the fish stock.
Navigation
The planned engineering works and locks could cause difficulties for the navigation on some
water-bodies. On the other hand the raised water level or larger depth affects the navigation
advantageously especially in the dry period.
The navigability plays an important role in forestry, trading and tourism, as well. For example
shortening nautical routes by connecting oxbows might have economical benefits in
transportation cost.
Recreation & Tourism
It is very important that the tourism attraction of the region do not decrease after the
implementation of the planned interventions, even it should improve. For this reason, it is
general expectation that all of the variety of tourism opportunities being present in the area
should be preserved expanded or even their quality to be improved. The tourism could create
high potential for economic development in the region.
Therefore the following aspects should be taken into consideration:






Good water quality for swimming and angling
Development of water- and ecotourism
Diversity of ways for the visitors to reach areas e.g.: on foot, by bicycle, by boat etc.
Attractive areas should not be restricted for visitors
Flooding of hiking paths would have a negative effect on tourism
Relocation of summer houses due to floods and raised water-level
Aspects of tourism are often against the interests of natural conservation. Hence, it is evident
that the balance has to be identified between sustainable tourism and sustainable nature
conservation.
56
3. Preliminary assessment of environmental impacts
This chapter introduces the results of assessment of environmental impacts related to the
‘Recommended Alternatives’ (RA-s) prepared for the 11 planning units of the Gemenc-BédaKarapancsa floodplain system (see Feasibility Study (GEF # TF 051 289)). Due to the very
limited time that was available for the preparation of this study, only qualitative assessment of
environmental impacts could have been implemented. (That’s why it is called ‘preliminary’.)
Quantitative assessment, involving the application of numerical modelling tools requires
much more time.
As far as reduction of nutrient discharges is concerned, we have arrived at the conclusion that
the nutrient load of the Danube itself cannot be influenced significantly by means of
interventions on the floodplain. The fraction of water that can be diverted to the floodplain is
negligible comparing to the discharge of the main bed. In addition these diversions can be
realized seldom, only when floods of the river inundates the floodplain systems. Otherwise
the Danube water stays in the main channel and its nutrient content is influenced only by
processes within the channel.
Efficient nutrient load reduction can be taken into consideration only in case of external
waters flowing into the Danube through the Gemenc and Béda-Karapancsa regions. With this
respect three planning units play a significant role:
- Sió floodplain where the Sió tributary flows through
- Báta oxbow lake, which is the recipient of the Szekszárd-Bátai canal
- Külső- and Belső-Béda oxbows, which receive the Vizslaki and Kölkedi canals
Successful nutrient load reduction, envisaged by the project, will be realized if the loads of
these inflow waters get trapped and/or removed in the wetlands of the Gemenc-BédaKarapancsa system. As far as the Black Sea is concerned, efficient reduction of nutrient load
can only be achieved if similar nutrient trapping wetlands are developed at several locations
along the Danube.
In general, the adverse side-effects of revitalisation alternatives, recommended by the
feasibility study for the selected planning units, are quite limited. The water regime of the
Danube for example will not be impacted at all. Flow and morphological conditions in the
main channel will also be unaltered. Compensation measures in river training and flood
control structures will not be needed. Land use conditions on the floodplain will not be
influenced adversely either (however certain positive impacts are expected).
The same applies to the groundwater underneath the floodplain. Model based groundwater
studies [Csökli, 1996; Schmidt, 1996] have proven that interventions on the floodplain do not
have impact on the groundwater regime. This is because the thick clay layer on the floodplain
virtually isolates the surface water system from the groundwater. On the other hand the
groundwater is heavily influenced by the main channel of the Danube. There is a considerable
draw-down during low and mean water levels, which contributes to the desiccation problem
of the floodplain.
The feasibility study concentrates on the development of special habitats termed as ‘fish
nursery’, ‘amphibian nursery’ and ‘feeding place for black storks’. These habitats are very
57
advantageous not just on local but also on regional, European scales. That is to say, the
Gemenc-Béda-Karapancsa system is an important resting and feeding place for black storks
and for other valuable birds migrating from other nesting sites of the continent. Providing
good feeding conditions for them is thus of special importance. Similarly, improving
conditions on the spawning and juvenile fish habitats is of great importance as far as the fish
stock of the entire Danube is concerned. The Gemenc-Béda-Karapancsa system thus has the
potential to become a ‘generator area’ [de Groot et al., 1990] within basin- (and continent-)
wide ecological networks.
Sustainability will be a major issue in case of all recommended alternatives. This concerns
first of all the periodic removal of floating debris and sediment accumulating in the water
bodies. Floating debris often causes problems in the small floodplain channels (so-called ‘fokchannels’) by clogging the channel bed. Thus, cleaning these fok-channels after floods is of
outmost important in order to ensure the envisaged ecological and nutrient removal functions
of the connected water systems. Aggradation is another issue that raise considerable
maintenance questions, especially in the water bodies having intensive hydrological
communication with the Danube. Periodic dredging in the future is inevitable in order to
sustain these water bodies in their desired states. All these maintenance works will probably
raise considerable financial concerns in the future.
It is also important to emphasize that, depending on local conditions, the types of appropriate
measures are not unambiguous, not even if objectives are the same. For example, it is not
unambiguous whether fok-channels should be opened by dredging or, to the contrary, they
should be closed by weirs. Opening improve the hydraulic connectivity on the one hand, on
the other hand it let the water escape from the system in low flow periods. Weirs retain the
water in the system, even though they do not allow smaller floods to enter. Thus, both
opening and closing may result in the unwanted desiccation.
Ecological revitalisation (and nutrient reduction) is thus a highly case-specific optimization
problem. Locating the optimal solution will inevitably demand the application of numerical
models for predicting hydrological, water quality and ecological processes.
Construction works related to the implementation of the recommended alternatives may have
considerable negative side effects, which have to be minimised. In order to decrease
disturbances caused by excavations and constructions, man-power is recommended instead of
machines. Concentrating construction works into ecologically less-sensitive periods of the
year (late autumn, winter) is also recommended.
The following sub-chapters present the results of assessments of environmental impacts
related to the recommended alternatives of the 11 planning units.
3.1 Veránka – Rezéti-Duna
The Recommended Alternative (RA) of the Feasibility Study proposes the gradual dredging
of the Rezéti side branch with the purpose to lower the flow threshold in the upper reach. The
water regime of the connected Janika and Zsubrik lakes are proposed to be improved by
opening/cleaning the Zsubrik and Sas fok-channels that connect them to the Rezéti. The
Janika and Zsubrik lakes are envisaged as fish nursery and feeding place for black storks
respectively.
Firstly it is important to state the Rezéti side branch is one of the most problematic water body
of the Gemenc. Due to very low water velocities this branch is subjected to continuous and
58
intensive aggradation caused by deposition of suspended sediment and bed load coming from
the Danube. Without interventions, the Rezéti branch will virtually disappear by 2030-2050
[Tamás & Kalocsa, 2003].
Measures against sedimentation are restricted. Only the intrusion of bed load can be stopped
or at least mitigated with the help of special structures in the upstream mouth (groin, bottom
sill, bottom panels). Thus, we agree with the nature conservationist expert (Gy. Buzetzky) and
we also recommend the installation of such structures at the upstream mouth. Stopping bed
load intrusion will decrease the cost of future maintenance dredging.
Dredging the upper reach of the Rezéti would decrease the flow threshold indeed, however
the flow velocities in this branch will remain very low comparing to that of the main channel.
In addition suspended sediment will keep on being deposited in the future too, resulting in an
aggrading silty bed. This all means that the Rezéti branch is not, and will never be an ideal
habitat for species preferring lotic river channels (sturgeon, barbel). This also means that the
objective of the feasibility study can only be the maintenance of the Rezéti as a predominantly
lentic water body with full connection to the main channel of the Danube. The proposed
dredging is appropriate for this purpose.
Appropriate deposition of dredging material is very important. Dredging material should not
be discharged into the main channel of the Danube, since it would just increase the nutrient
load of the river. It is recommended to use dredging material for building up small hills on the
floodplain for game rescue purposes. Such hills would provide safe place for animals during
high floods, thus decreasing the rate of game mortality.
Because of the ongoing aggradation process, dredging of Rezéti should be repeated with
certain frequencies [Tamás & Kalocsa, 2003]. Dredging is expensive and nothing guarantees
that economical conditions in the future will always enable it. Thus, continuation of the
aggradation process as well as the ultimate cut-off of the Rezéti from the Danube have to be
taken into consideration as a potential (although unwanted) scenario. If this will become the
accepted course of development, then transforming the Rezéti into a well-functioning oxbow
lake has to be supported (see RA of the Grébeci-Duna in chapter 3.7).
3.2 Buvat
The objective of the RA is to improve the water regime and connectivity of small water
bodies (Keszeges, Lídia, Zátony, Vajas-lap, and ditches along the dike) of the Buvat planning
unit. For this purpose the fok-channels connecting these water bodies to the Rezéti-Duna and
Malomtelelő-Decsi-Nagy-Holt-Duna water systems, are proposed to be cleaned and dredged.
Constructing and restoring culverts are also needed at two places.
The ecological aim is to turn these small water bodies into fish / amphibian nurseries and
feeding place for black storks. Improving the flow capacities of these channels contributes to
this aim significantly, as it makes these isolated water bodies accessible for fish for spawning.
The flat easily wadable Zátony lake will also be an excellent feeding place for black stork and
for other waders. Connecting the excavation ditches to the Malomtelelő-Decsi-Nagy-HoltDuna water system is especially positive as it will turn these dead puddles into ecologically
productive water bodies.
After all, the RA envisages the rehabilitation of several alluvial water bodies by means of
small scale, localised earth and construction works. It can be concluded that the hydrological
59
impact of such measures are negligible on the watersystem scales. Similarly, the impacts on
land-cover, forests and economical activities will also be negligible.
The RA developed for the Buvat system is an excellent example of efficient habitat
restoration without influencing the other functions of the region. In addition the proposed
measures are very cost-effective.
3.3 Béda-Karapancsa
The Béda-Karapancsa is a separate floodplain region that can be found about 30 km
downstream of the Gemenc. The Béda sub-region is situated on the right, while the
Karapancsa sub-region on the left bank of the Danube. The Béda can further be divided into
the Külső- and Belső-Béda oxbow lakes. The former is situated outside the flood control dike
(in the floodplain) while the latter can be found on the defended side of the dike. The
Karapancsa sub-region lies entirely on the floodplain. Its dominant water body is the Mocskos
oxbow lake.
The RV prepared for the Béda-Karapancsa planning unit proposes the construction of
retention weirs in the fok-channels connecting the Külső-Béda and Mocskos oxbows to the
Danube. The objective is to counteract desiccation by raising the water levels in this water
bodies.
As far as the Belső-Béda is concerned the RV prescribes the removal of closures that now
divide the bed into separate compartments. Raising the water level with 30 cm is also
recommended. It is important to note that this oxbow is the recipient of the Vizslaki canal.
Raising the water levels will thus result in increased pumping costs. Removal of nutrients
coming from the Vizslaki canal is also an important issue. The key to nutrient removal is
increasing the residence time. This is partly achieved by the increased water level, since
higher water level means bigger volume of water. Stimulating the development of aquatic
vegetation, as well as harvesting them is also an efficient way of nutrient reduction. Reed may
play a significant role with this respect. Combination of elevating water levels with aquatic
vegetation management has the potential of efficient nutrient reduction.
Although, the proposed increase of water level in the Külső-Béda and Mocskos water bodies
is quite considerable (1.5 and 1 m respectively), yet no significant negative side-effects are
expected to occur. Forestry will not be endangered as both oxbows are situated in strictly
protected areas (Figure 24), where forestry activities have already been restricted to a very
low level. On the other hand, the so-enlarged water bodies are advantageous for the aquatic
ecosystems and for nutrient retention. Nevertheless, increased pumping costs at the KülsőBéda has to be accounted for, as this water body is the recipient of external waters pumped
from the Belső-Béda dead branch and from the Kölkedi canal.
3.4 Sió unit
Several smaller water bodies are situated along the floodplain of the Sió tributary (Szilágyfok, Borrév-tó, Mércés-lapok, Taplósi-Holt-Duna, Nagy-Sáros, Kis-Sáros, (Hátfői) Kobolyató, Holt-Sió I. (W from the dike), Holt-Sió II. (East from the dike)). They are usually suffering
from desiccation.
60
The RA proposes the cleaning and dredging of fok-channels connecting these water bodies to
the main channel of the Sió. Construction of retention weirs in these channels is also
proposed. The objective is to raise the water levels for the benefit of aquatic ecosystems.
The Sió system has a special feature, namely it is situated upstream of the Sió sluice, through
which the river flows into the Danube. This means that it is possible to control the water
levels of the Sió on this reach with the help of the sluice. The RA does account for this option
and recommends the raising of the Sió levels for the benefit of the endangered aquatic
ecosystems. Elevating the water levels will enable to spread the Sió water over the floodplain
and also to increase the residence time in this reach of the river. These are significant
preconditions for increasing the nutrient retention.
As the RA pointed out, appropriate operation of the Sió sluice will enable to generate
‘artificial floods’ with ecologically optimal amplitude, duration, increase and decrease rates.
Thus, this system has the potential to restore the ancient, ecologically optimal water regime.
Raising water levels may however result in problems as far as the inlet of external waters is
concerned. That is to say, this reach of the Sió is the recipient of access waters accumulating
in the Tolna dead branch. Increased water levels will surely result in increased pumping costs.
3.5 Gemenc
The isolated water bodies of the Gemenc water system (Nagy-Forgó-tó, Forgó-fok, Peti-tó
(Hamis-tó), Sudár-fok, Kis-Forgó-tó) have very similar water supply problems as the water
bodies of the other similar planning units (Buvat, Báli). The RA developed for this planning
unit aims:

improvement of the water supply/refilling processes from the Grébeci-Duna by local
correction of the channel bed and the construction of a check gate in the Forgó-fok;

increase the volume of water by dredging of the Forgó-tó;
The objective of increasing significantly the size of aquatic habitats will be achieved by these
measures. Fish, amphibians, wading birds will benefit a lot. In addition the RA will not have
considerable negative side-effects, and also the investment costs seem to be low.
The check gate retain the water in the Forgó lake on the one hand, on the other hand it let
smaller floods fill the lake, which fixed weirs are not able to do. Thus, the check gate
optimizes the water supply and water retention in the system. Such a gate however requires
careful and more frequent maintenance than a fixed structure.
3.6 Báta-Duna
The RA envisages the construction of a flow control structure in the bed of the Báta oxbow
near to the village of Báta. The objective is to counteract the desiccation process by keeping
the water level in the oxbow on relatively high levels with the help of a retention structure
built into downstream outlet of the oxbow.
RA is advantageous from the point of view of nutrient load reduction. That is to say, the
envisaged structure prevents the nutrient rich water of the Szekszárd-Bátai canal from flowing
directly into the Danube. Instead, it flows into the Báta oxbow, where its nutrient content gets
61
decreased in a natural way thanks to prolonged stay in a biologically productive wetland. The
nutrient content of the water flowing into the Danube through the Bátai-Öreg-Duna (over the
structure) will probably be lower than today.
The RA is ecologically advantageous. This oxbow is especially exposed to the problem of
desiccation since the Bátai-Öreg-Duna channel virtually drains the system and maintains very
low water levels in the lake most of the time. The proposed control structure would keep the
water level in the system high and thus counteracts desiccation to a significant extend.
Speaking in concrete terms, increased water levels result in increased water surface and
volume which in turn mean increased habitats for fish, amphibians and macrophytes. Also the
several smaller water bodies surrounding the Báta oxbow would become connected to the
oxbow, which is very important from the point of view of water quality and fish reproduction.
The Feasibility Study envisages these lakes as ‘fish nurseries’, since their shallow beds are
excellent spawning sites, provided that hydrological conditions are appropriate. Connecting
these fish nurseries to the Báta oxbow will enable juvenile fish to leave the spawning site and
migrate into deeper waters more suitable for their development.
The RA does not make it clear weather the suggested structure will work as a fixed weir or as
a controllable sluice. The advantage of a fixed weir is threefold: cheaper to construct, doesn’t
need operation and maintenance and fits better into the natural environment. Because of these
facts, weirs are preferred instead of sluices (see the expertise of Gy. Buzetzky). Weir however
has its disadvantages. First of all, it prevents smaller floods from entering the oxbow. In case
of long-lasting low-water periods on the Danube, a weir may even enhance the desiccation
problem instead of mitigating it (see desiccation of the Nyéki oxbow in chapter 2.1.2).
Another problem with weirs is that they make fish migration very difficult. Only submerged
weirs at high water levels are passable for fish. Lateral migration of fish between the river and
the floodplain water bodies is very important because of reproduction and feeding reasons.
The Feasibility Study envisages the Báta as growth place for Trapa natans. At present the
occurrence of Trapa natans and of water plants in general is rather limited due to the high
amplitude of water level fluctuation (Figure 8), which inhibits the growth of water plants
[Brock et al., 1987; Zsuffa, 2001]. Reducing the amplitude can be achieved by building the
weir up to an appropriate elevation. The objective could be to reduce the amplitude of
fluctuation to that of the highly isolated Decsi oxbow, where Trapa natans does exist
[Rademakers, 1990]. This would however result in a very isolated Báta system, which may
not be accepted from other points of view (fish migration, water quality, danger of ‘total
desiccation’).
RA does not mean solution for the ecological problem arising from the flashy water level
fluctuation. Namely, the speed of water level rise and fall would remain as high as today
(Figure 8) (only the amplitude would be decreased), which endangers the envisaged role of
fish nursery. Slowing down the rate of fluctuation would require a very narrow weir, which on
the other hand would deteriorate further the ecological connectivity.
In order to overcome all these problems, it is recommended to improve the RA. It is suggested
to connect the Báta oxbow to the Cserta-Nyéki system as indicated on Figure 27. The water
regime of the Cserta-Nyéki system has already been revitalised in the nineties by dredging the
Sarkantyú fok channel and by constructing a threshold into the downstream outlet of the
Nyéki [Zellei et al., 1998]. Ecological revitalisation of the Báta system would be the
extension of this project. As Figure 27 indicates it is recommended to construct a channel
connecting the Báta and Nyéki oxbows, by utilizing the excavated ditches along the flood
control dike. This would in fact mean the restoration of the ancient Címer-fok, which used to
62
connect these oxbows until the moving bed of the Danube has cut it into two pieces. It is also
recommended to reopen the Kattyas fok in order to feed the entire system from upstream,
from the Rezéti branch.
Figure 27 Suggestion for improving the RA of the Báta system
The above described revitalization solution has already been investigated thoroughly, with the
help of a complex hydrodynamic and ecological model systems [Zsuffa, 2000; Zsuffa 2001].
According to hydrodynamic simulations, this solution would increase the water levels of the
Báta oxbow with 1-2 meters on average, thus eliminating completely the desiccation problem
(Figure 28).
63
water level (cmaD)
8800
measured data
8750
proposed solution (simulation)
8700
8650
8600
8550
8500
8450
8400
4/11/1995
7/20/1995
10/28/1995
2/5/1996
5/15/1996
8/23/1996
date
Figure 28 Impact of the improved RA on the water levels of the Báta oxbow;
simulation with the ‘FOK’ hydrodynamic model [Zsuffa, 2000]
Thanks to the large storage capacity of the connected system, the speed of water level
fluctuation would also be slowed down for the benefit of the fish nursery role. Fish embryo
and larva deposited and fertilized in the shallow vegetated waters would not be killed by the
sudden fall of water levels. Fish migration between the system and the main channel of the
Danube would be ensured through the Kattyas fok.
The decreased amplitude of water level fluctuation would be beneficial for water plants. This
solution has a higher chance for introducing Trapa natans in the Báta without endangering the
other roles, than the original RA.
Sedimentation would not cause problems either, as the proposed system is not a through-flow
but a ‘tank’ system, i.e. it is filled by and drained to the same water body, which is the Rezéti
branch. In addition, the sediment content of the inflowing water is relatively poor due to the
preliminary settling role of the Rezéti branch.
Thanks to the predominantly upstream draining direction, the proposed improvement of the
RA would be beneficial from the point of view of nutrient reduction too. Namely, the nutrient
rich water of the Szekszárd-Bátai canal would flow through a much larger system leaving
more space and time for nutrients to get removed.
Nevertheless, the nutrient content of the Szekszárd-Bátai canal is often very high, which may
endanger the wildlife of the Bátai-Holt-Duna if we let it flow in directly. Therefore, we
propose, as a mitigation measure, to construct a pre-filtering wetland zone inside the flood
control dike in case of both the original and the improved RA-s.
3.7 Fekete erdő, Grébeci-Duna
Like the Vén-Duna and the Rezéti-Duna, the Grébeci-Duna is also a side branch that has
come into being as a result of shortcutting the meanders of the Danube during river regulation
works. From the three side branches the Grébeci-Duna has been aggraded the most; it has
already reached the stage of turning into an oxbow lake. (According to some experts it is
64
already an oxbow lake.) Recognising the fact that restoring Grébec as a side branch is not
feasible any longer, the RA proposes just to propel forward the wheel of evolution and
transform the Grébec-Duna into a well-functioning oxbow lake. For this purpose the culvert,
built into the dam closing the upstream mouth of the Grébeci-Duna, is proposed to be
clogged, and a bottom sill is suggested to be built into the downstream mouth of the side
branch. The RA also prescribes the dredging of the highly aggraded downstream reach of the
Grébeci-Duna.
The proposed measures will ensure the fish nursery role envisaged for the Grébeci-Duna by
the RA. The bottom sill will maintain relatively high water levels in the branch thus enlarging
the aquatic habitat for the benefit of fish.
Clogging the culvert will turn the Grébeci-Duna into a ‘tank’ at low and mean waters; i.e. it
will be filled from and drained to the same downstream direction without through-flow.
Stopping through-flow will decrease significantly the amounts of water entering the water
body, which also means significant decrease in suspended load intrusion. In addition, the
bottom sill will practically terminate bed load intrusion. Thus, RA is very advantageous from
the point of view of aggradation.
Nevertheless, sedimentation will always remain a serious issue in the Grébeci-Duna. That is
to say, this water body is very close to the main channel therefore it will always be subjected
to heavy sedimentation, whenever flood waters leave the main channel and inundate the
floodplain. Thus, periodic dredging of the Grébeci in the future must be taken into
consideration.
As far as dredging is concerned, the excavated slush should be used for raising game rescue
hills on the floodplain. It must not be released into the Danube.
The RA also proposes the connection of the neighbouring small water bodies (Sulymos,
Akós-hókony, Keselyűs-Duna, Tehenes-lap) to the Grébeci-Duna by dredging and cleaning
the linking fok-channels. This will turn these small and flat water bodies into excellent fish
nurseries where the required water cover and depth is ensured by the elevated water levels of
the Grébec, while migration of juvenile fish to deeper waters (to the Grébeci) is guaranteed by
the dredged and cleaned fok-channels.
3.8 Kerülő-Duna
The Kerülő-Duna is a long and narrow channel branching off the Rezéti-Duna side branch,
encircling the Nagy-Rezét area and ending on the ground surface near the station of the
narrow gauge railway at Lassi. This water body is envisaged as amphibian nursery and as
feeding place for black storks.
RA prescribes the dredging and cleaning of this channel in order to create a uniform and
horizontal bed all along the branch. The closures in the bed are proposed to be removed in
order to make the water body continuous. This will make the long isolated upstream reach of
the channel (3600 m) accessible for fish for spawning and feeding and it will also prevent this
reach from desiccation, which would mean the total destruction of the fauna. Also a weir is
suggested to build into the downstream end of the channel with a crest elevation of 86.6 maD.
This weir will raise water levels in the channel with 20 cm with respect to the present
situation, in order to enlarge the aquatic habitat for the benefit of fish and amphibians. Yet the
new inflow threshold is low enough to ensure the frequent inflow from the Rezéti, thus
preventing total desiccation. With this respect the RA also suggests to connect the Kerülő-
65
Duna to the Lassi water system from upstream in order to improve further the water supply
conditions.
The RA will result in an excellent feeding place for black storks. In spite of the raised water
level, the depth of the channel will be 60 cm or less which is wadable for the storks and for
the other waders. The water body will not have deep regions where prey fish would find
shelter against the waders.3 In addition, the narrow and long channel enables the storks to
forage from the water edge without walking into the water. A well-functioning feeding place
however must not be exposed to disturbance, which black storks are very sensitive to. From
this point of view the location of the Kerülő-Duna is not that advantageous. There are several
sources of disturbance very close to the water body:
- Bátaszék-Baja road and railway
- the narrow gauge railway
- village of Pörböly
- road on the flood control dike
- agricultural lands behind the dike.
It would be very important to mitigate or terminate the disturbance coming from these
sources, at least for the main feeding period. This period is August and September when black
storks nesting in the Gemenc prepare for migration, and storks migrating from other regions
stop here for feeding. It is strongly recommended to constrain severely the traffic on the
narrow gauge railway and on the dike road, as well as the activities on the agricultural lands
for this period of the year. This may require the modification of the nature protection status of
the area.
As far as sedimentation is concerned, the Kerülő-Duna is in a very advantageous position. It
filled from the downstream reach of the Rezéti-branch where the sediment content of the
water is much less than in the Danube. In addition, the water body is quite far from the main
channel, which means that the water inundating the area during total inundation is quite
sediment poor as it has already settled its sediment on the way from the river. This situation
will not be changed by the RA, not even if the connection to the Lassi system will finally be
realized. Maybe, a sediment trap can be excavated right before the proposed weir in order to
minimize the intrusion of suspended load.
Nevertheless, accumulation of floating debris after floods will probably take place. Thus
cleaning the channel will be necessary in the future as well.
3.9 Báli
The objective of the RA is to improve the water regime and connectivity of the Báli, Csörösz
and Zsold-kaszáló water bodies. For this purpose the fok-channels connecting these water
bodies to the Simon-Duna and Nyéki-Holt-Duna water bodies, are proposed to be cleaned and
dredged. Constructing and restoring culverts are also proposed.
The ecological aim is to turn these small lakes into feeding places for black storks. The flat
bottoms of these water bodies are excellent foraging sites for the wading black storks indeed.
3
This also means however that the Kerülő-Duna cannot be viewed as fish nursery.
66
The large stock of prey fish is ensured by the restored fok-channel system that enables fish to
access these lakes for spawning.
From hydrological point of view, the RA results in ‘tank’ systems, which are advantageous
from the point of view of sedimentation (see Grébeci-Duna). In addition the obstacle free fokchannels will enable to wash the intruded sediment out of the channels during back flow.
Just like in case of the Buvat and Gemenc planning units, the proposed interventions are very
small scale and cheap, yet they will result in significant improvements as far as feeding
conditions for black stork are concerned. Other functions (flood safety, forestry) will not be
affected adversely at all.
Nevertheless, disturbance during the main feeding period (August-September) must be
minimized. This might require the restriction of forestry activities.
3.10 Móric-Duna
The Móric-Duna is a heavily aggraded side branch of the River Danube. The RA proposes to
close the upstream and downstream ends of the branch by means of bottom sills. The goal is
to retain water in the system for the benefit of the envisaged fish nursery and stork feeding
functions. Also large scale 50-70 cm deep and 10 m wide dredging is proposed along the 2000
m long upstream reach of the branch in order to enlarge the size of the aquatic habitat.
As Gy Buzetzky has pointed out the major problem of this RA is that the lateral motion of the
Danube has not been taken into consideration. The anticipated final position of the right bank
will be 150 meters East from the upstream mouth of the Móric-Duna Thus the Danube is
going to clog the upstream mouth by building up a huge point bar in the front of it. In
addition, the river does this with the ‘permission’ of the river managers. Taking this into
consideration it is important to revise and modify the RA.
We do agree with the proposal of Mr Buzetky, which says that the upstream connection has to
be modified by making use of the depression that runs parallel with the Danube bed upstream
of the Móric-Duna mouth. This would make the Móric-Duna much longer. The upstream
mouth would move about 0.5 km upstream, where the main channel has already been fixed
and point bar is not expected to be built up thank to the more advantageous curving conditions
(Figure 29).
Figure 29 Suggestion for improving the RA of the Móric-Duna
67
In case of the Móric-Duna there is a good chance to realize what is not possible at the Rezéti
and Grébeci side branches, namely to restore it as a morphological stable real side channel
(Figure 29). That is to say, this side branch is practically parallel with the Danube, which
makes it possible to develop velocity conditions similar to that of the main channel. This
gives the chance to prevent the deposition of bed and suspended load in the Móric-Duna. This
is of course a difficult question and the side channel must be planned carefully. Nevertheless,
this side channel would result in valuable lotic habitats, which is advantageous from the point
of view of the desired biological diversity.
3.11 Nagy-Pandúr
This system contains several small lakes as well as the long Szeremlei-Sugovica dead branch.
The Szeremlei-Sugovica is a big aquatic habitat, although it is heavily silted. The objective of
the RA is to turn this arm into a big, permanent water body, suitable for amphibians and fish
for breeding/spawning (‘nurseries’). The Szeremlei-Sugovica is also envisaged as fishing and
angling site. For all these purposes, dredging of the branch is proposed and also a sluice is
recommended to be built into the weir closing the mouth of the branch to the Danube. The
desired role of the small lakes is fish nursery and feeding place for black storks. This latter
requires disturbance free environment, which is ensured by the dead branch itself as it
surrounds and protects these water bodies from the human environment. The water supply of
these lakes is proposed to be improved by cleaning and dredging the fok-channels that
connect them to the Szeremlei-Sugovica branch. Increasing water levels in these lakes is
ensured by the increased water levels of the branch.
3.12 Qualitative investigation of dredging masses
Some of the recommended revitalisation alternatives envisage large scale excavations in the
water bodies. The dredging masses are proposed to be deposited on the surface of the
neighbouring floodplain in the form of game rescue hills. The question arises: what if the
excavated sediment is contaminated? Depositing contaminated sediment on the floodplain
surface may have adverse impacts on the flora and fauna of the site and also on the quality of
the neighbouring water bodies. Qualitative investigation of bed material at the dredging sites
is thus very important before any interventions.
The qualitative investigations are based on sediment samples taken from 10 sampling sites
(Figure 30). This field work took place on the 26th of May 2005. 5 samples have been taken
from the bottom of the Rezéti and branch along the ‘Senki’ island, while 2 samples have been
taken from the bottom of the Grébeci branch near to its downstream mouth. The reason of
selecting these sampling sites was that the recommended revitalisation alternatives related to
these two branches prescribe large scale extensive excavations at these locations (see chapter
3.1 and 3.7). The samplings were executed from a boat using a Van Veen type hand-grab.
This method restricts the sampling only to the surface of the channel bottom. Indepth
sampling would have required special drilling devices, which were not available at that time.
Nevertheless, the samples taken from the Rezéti branch are also representative for the
subsurface conditions to certain extend. That is to say, the sandy bottom of the branch is
moved by the floods and during this process the bottom sediment is being mixed in 10-20 cm
depth. This does not apply to the stagnant Grébeci branch. The silty samples taken from this
branch (samples 6. and 7.) represent only the surface of the bottom.
68
In order to investigate the quality of sediments deposited by earlier times, indepth samples
had to be taken as well. Due to flood conditions, such samples could not be taken from the
bed of the branches, nor from their banks. The most suitable places for indepth sampling were
the steep eroded banks of the main Danube. They were easy to access; the samples could be
taken without excavations (simply by spade); and first of all these places were not covered by
water. Accordingly, three soil samples were taken from the eroded bank of the Danube right
upstream of the lower mouth of Rezéti from depths of 1.5, 1, and 2 m (samples 8., 9. and 10.)
(Figure 30).
Figure 30 Sediment sampling points
The quality of samples has been investigated according to three aspects:
1. Toxicity. Toxic sediment seriously endangers the entire wildlife of the deposition site.
Toxicity of the samples is measured by means of ‘daphnia’ and ‘seedling’ tests.
Aliphatic and monoaromatic hydrocarbon content (TPH GC) of sample was also
measured.
2. Heavy metals. Soil contaminated with heavy metals does not inhibit the growth of
vegetation, however heavy metals get accumulated in the tissues of plants and so they
finally get into the animals, to which they are toxic on long term. The following heavy
metals have been measured in the samples: Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr),
Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As).
3. Nutrients. Nutrients do not endanger the wildlife; however nutrient concentration has to
be taken into consideration before depositing the excavated bed material over the
floodplain surface. Nutrient rich dredging masses may even be spread over the forest
plantations in order to support wood production. This should not be done with the
nutrient poor sandy masses; they should be deposited in the form of game rescue hills.
In case of very low nutrient content, the release of dredging masses into the Danube
might also be an option. The nutrient content of the samples have been determined by
measuring the total phosphorus, total nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) contents.
69
Evaluation of sampling results has been carried out on the basis of different reference and
limit values. As far as heavy metals are concerned the considered reference and limit values
are given in Table 3.
The results of the lab analyses are shown on Table 4. As the table indicates none of the
samples reaches any of the pollution or intervention limit values related to heavy metals (see
also Table 3). Most of the samples stay even below the Lowest Effect Levels (LEL) and the
Background values (exceedences of these values are marked by blue). The Reference value is
exceeded only once (yellow mark).
The daphnia and and seedling test have not indicated contamination either. The samples were
free from toxicity.
As far as the aliphatic and monoaromatic hydrocarbon content (TPH GC) is concerned, the
samples show the general pictures of Danube’s sediments. The sediments contain minute
amounts of hydrocarbons. The recognized hydrocarbons probably originate from old mineral
oil spills, which were frequently happened in Danube. No intervention is necessary. The
sediments can be deposited in any dumpsite which is located more than 100 meter from
drinking water resource. The low water solubility and slow migration of these compounds
cause low impact of environment.
It can thus be concluded that the bottom sediment of the Rezéti and Grébec branches are free
from heavy metal and toxic contaminations. Similar conclusions can be drawn with respect to
the subsurface sedimentation layers (samples 8, 9, and 10) too, which strengthen the
assumption that the bottom sediment of the branches is free from contamination down to 2 m
of depth.
Thus, the deposition of dredging masses on the surface of the floodplain will not endanger the
wildlife.
As far as nutrients are concerned, the samples taken from the sandy Rezéti branch show
significantly lower values, than those ones taken from the silty Grébeci branch and from the
clayey Danube bank. The very low nutrient content of the Rezéti bottom may even raise the
question of releasing the sand excavated from this branch into the Danube.
70
Table 3. Reference and limit values for heavy metal concentration in sediment/soil cited from different literature
Chemicals
Unit
Lowest
Effect
Level
(LEL)
Severe
Effect
Level
(SEL)
Reference
value **
B ***
A ***
Intervention
pollution
background
value **
limit
value
value
Intervention limit value
***
Ki
C1
C2
C3
***
Limit value
for waste sludge
deposit & use in
agriculture****
*
*
Mercury
Hg
mg/kg
0,2
2
0,3
10
0,15
0,5
1
3
10
K1
10
Cadmium
Cd
mg/kg
0,6
10
0,8
12
0,5
1
2
5
10
K1
15
Lead
Pb
mg/kg
31
250
85
530
25
100
150
500
600
K2
1000
Copper
Cu
mg/kg
16
110
36
190
30
75
200
300
400
K2
1000
Chromium
Cr
mg/kg
26
110
100
380
30
75
150
400
800
K2
1000
Cr-VI
mg/kg
-
-
-
-
det. limit
1
2,5
5
10
K1
-
Nickel
Ni
mg/kg
16
75
35
210
25
40
150
200
250
K2
200
Arsenic
As
mg/kg
6
33
29
55
10
15
20
40
60
K1
100
Manganese
Mn
mg/kg
460
1100
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2000
Zinc
Zn
mg/kg
120
820
140
720
100
200
500
1000
2000
K2
3000
Molibdenum
Mo
mg/kg
-
-
10
200
3
7
20
50
100
K2
20
Barium
Ba
mg/kg
-
-
200
625
150
250
300
500
700
K2
-
Cobalt
Co
mg/kg
-
-
20
240
15
30
100
200
300
K2
100
Selenium
Se
mg/kg
-
-
-
-
0,8
1
5
10
20
K2
100
Tin
Sn
mg/kg
-
-
-
-
5
30
50
100
300
K2
-
Silver
Ag
mg/kg
-
-
-
-
0,3
2
10
20
40
K2
-
mg/kg
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4000
Chromium VI
Cr+Cu+Ni+Zn
*
Reference and Intervention values from the „Circular Remediation Regulation Soil Protection Act” Ministry of Housing, Physical and
Environment, 22. December, 1994., Canada
** Limits for classification of the Danubian sediments and suspended solids pollution (Annex 1/2), in: Tendency and dynamics of water quality
changes of the Danube river and its tributaries (1989-1995), 1996, Holland
*** Background concentration for soil and limit values for geological structures/ media.
71
Ministerial decree on limit values for protecting the quality of the groundwater, soil and geological media, Hungary.
A
background concentration value,
B
pollution limit value, determined by the claims/ demand of soil and the voulnerability of groundwater
C
intervention limit value according to the sensibility of the area,
C1 – highly sensible,
C2 – sensible,
C3 – less sensible area.
Ki
classification of hazardous substances according to the EEC Directive 80/86 (17th Dec. 1979).
**** Land- and forest application of waste waters and sewage sludge (in Hungarian) Szennyvizek és szennyvíziszapok termőföldön történő
elhelyezése (MI-08-1735–1990 Mezőgazdasági és Élelmezésügyi Ágazati Műszaki Irányelv),
**** Limit value of hazardous chemicals for waste sludge deposit & use on agricultural lands, Hungary. (A szennyvíziszapban megengedhető
káros és mérgező komponensek határértékei mezőgazdasági elhelyezés és hasznosítás esetén)
72
Table 4. Results of lab analyses of the samples
Rezéti-Duna
Grébeci-Duna
Dunube bank
parameters
sample
id
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
methods for analyses
total dry material
(TDM)
%
71,6
77,6
78,8
78,3
79,9
51,3
45,0
79,1
80,0
80,3
MSZ 318-3:1979
total phosphorus
(TP)
mg/kg
380
200
300
280
210
670
1070
1330
550
590
MSZ 318-19:1981
total nitrogen (TN)
mg/kg
350
140
160
300
140
1300
1940
750
1070
990
MSZ 318-18:1981
total organic carbon
mg/kg
(TOC)
< 0,2
< 0,2
< 0,2
< 0,2
< 0,2
< 0,2
< 0,2
< 0,2
< 0,2
< 0,2
MSZ EN 13137:2003
Arsenic (As)
mg/kg
3
2
3
6
7
7
10
12
13
11
Cadmium (Cd)
mg/kg
0,10
0,20
0,20
0,25
0,35
0,70
0,75
0,55
0,59
0,65
Chromium (Cr)
mg/kg
6
3
5
5
3
14
16
15
16
22
Copper (Cu)
mg/kg
5
2
4
4
2
20
36
28
30
33
Mercury (Hg)
mg/kg
0,058
0,035
0,040
0,046
0,052
0,184
0,286
0,14
0,125
0,139
Nickel (Ni)
mg/kg
9
5
7
7
5
20
30
30
34
38
Lead (Pb)
mg/kg
9
6
7
8
7
21
31
29
32
34
TPH GC
mg/kg
85
5
<1
40
<1
<1
16
5
<1
<1
73
MSZ 1484-3:1989
TPH MSzL-9
3.13 Calculation of nutrient load reduction
General considerations
In general terms one may say with confidence that the means (scientific knowledge built into
computer models or other relationships) are available for the solution of this task. In principle
this task is very simply and consists of the calculation of water and mass (nutrient) budgets of
the water system in concern. In the practice, however, the level of solution will depend on the
availability of data of the given aquatic system.
At this point we may select, in function of the availability of data, from a very wide range
of options. The two extremes of this option are the following:

The simplest solution: Establishment of a simple budget of the entire system (or
series of parts of it). This approach is a very simple differential equation (see Figure
31) of water and mass balances. Nevertheless, even this approach needs accurate data
on the inflows and outflows (of mass and nutrients) and the basic geometry of the
water system. Apart from these basic data one needs to estimate the value of the of a
rate coefficient which is called by various names in the relevant literature, such as
“retention”, “detention”, “virtual settling”, “removal” etc. There are two ways of
estimating the value of this rate coefficient: 1/ calibration against records of influx and
outflux (for a time period, which is say 10 times longer than the mean water residence
time of the system; 2/ Estimation of a value on the basis of the relevant literature.
This latter solution is rather unreliable because the retention rates (translated to
percentage reduction of the total input) range between zero% (or even negative rate)
and 90% (depending on whether the author wanted to “sell” a nutrient reduction
scheme or has tested one as an operator of such a scheme.
Outflow
Inputs
dP L = 1 
Pin Qin - P L Qout - K set * P L
dt
A* h
LP
-(q+
)t
1 - e-(q+K set )t 
P L (t) = P L0 e K set +
q + K set
Q P
Q
LP = in in  q = out
h* A
h* A
Water
P
Settling (retention, removal) is the only
reduction process
dh 1
= Q - Q + P - E
dt A in out
Qout = Qin  z when h  h max  h  h min
z  (P  E) * A
Figure 31 Scheme and equations of the most simple water and mass (phosphorus)
budget model

The most complex solution: Although this solution relies on the same principle of
water and mass balances, it may (if time, financial resources an data permits) consider
the description of flow and mass transport pattern (in 1D-3D solution), the cycling of
nutrients within components of the aquatic system and the underlying sediment. This
means that a 3D hydraulic model of the entire water system may be coupled with
74
an ecosystem function model of say 15-25 state-variables (see Figure 32). Evidently
the number of actors (state variables) in a ecosystem model may be mach higher and
could much depend on the knowledge of their role in the nutrient cycling and budget.
(for example the nutrient mass transported out of aquatic system by the mass outfly of
chyronomidae insects my be worth considering in the total nutrient budget, in certain
water bodies). In the figure below a much simplified scheme is show (without
macrophytes) and evidently without the equations as they would (together with flow
equations) fill a smaller booklet.
Light
Inputs
Outflow
O2
Water
Algae
P
Org.
N
Org.
matter
NITRIFICATION
Fishing
Zooplankton
Fish
1
NO3
Fish
2
Oxygen
Bacteria
Sed.
P
Detritus
Sed.
N
Benthic
animals
Sediment
Figure 32 A much simplified scheme of nutrient cycles in the aquatic ecosystem
Within the given time frame and resources of this project and considering the rather restricted
availability of data, and especially the nearly complete lack of records on water quantity
(depth, flow velocity, discharge in and out, etc), water quality and ecosystem state variables,
of the individual water bodies of the two systems (Gemenc and Béda- Karapancsa) a much
simplified “ecohydrological” model should be selected. This model might be a bit more
complex than Figure 31, as it would be favourable to model the major nutrient trapping
process of aquatic systems (burial in the sediment or becoming non-exchangeable in it). The
coupling of the nutrient model with some parameter that estimates the status of the biota (like
Chl-a) is also desirable. Such a model is available at VITUKI and was frequently used for
various planning and design purposes.
There remains the basic question still open, namely the estimation of the removal
(reduction) rate kinetics of nutrients. In the lack of appropriate on-site records against which
the model could be calibrated one could use similar records of the same region. In Hungary
the only sufficiently reliable and long records of this type are available only for the
reconstructed wetland of Kis Balaton (little Balaton, a dual impoundment that were reestablished in the mouth of the River Zala flowing into Lake Balaton). Looking at the records
(Figure 33) of orthophosphate phosphorus retention (detention), marked with yellow dots on
the figure, one may conclude that for a few years the detention was growing in the beginning
from 60% to 90-95% then it was decreasing again until it turned into negative values.
Although the likely cause (which we are not discussing here) of this unfavourable change may
not be repeated in each case when wetlands are subject to human influence and control it
represents a strong warning that any intrusion to the life of aquatic systems must be
made with extreme care, as one may end up with a nutrient source instead of a sink.
75
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
-50
Hitó+I-b* ö. terhelés
-100
-150
V mióm3_ A
-200
-250
Hitó+I-b* ö. visszatartás
-300 Hitó: Hídvégi-tó
-350 I-b*: Ingói-berek 1993-tól
-400
-450
-500
-550 1991.:
-600 ZEG P-talanító
-650 Száraz periódus
2004.
2003.
2002.
2001.
2000.
1999.
1998.
1997.
1996.
1995.
1994.
1993.
1992.
1991.
1990.
1989.
1988.
1987.
1986.
Ingói-berek 1993-tól
6
sokévi átl.: 151 mió m3
V 10 m
3
1991.
85.2.félév
PO4-P (tonna)
A HÍDVÉGI-TÓ ÉS INGÓI-BEREK EGYÜTTES FOSZFÁT-FOSZFOR TERHELÉSE
ÉS VISSZATARTÁSA
ÉVES VÍZTÖMEG ZALAAPÁTINÁL
Figure 33 Phosphate phosphorus load into the two basins of Kis Balaton wetland
(purple columns) and the detention of the phosphate load by the system
(yellow line) (Courtesy of Dr. Piroska Pomogyi)
Then the final question is what nutrient retention/detention rate or ratio should be
assumed (with or without model application) for the nutrient reduction of the complex
water systems (as to be modified by planned control strategies), when we do not have (and
will not have during this project) appropriate records for estimating it from actual data
(calibrating against measurement data). Evidently it is very difficult to answer this question as
each aquatic system will act differently to natural and human influence. Any removal rate
between 95% and high negative values is possible. However, our very long professional
experience as well as literature data indicate that as a good rule-of-the-thumb estimate one
must not consider (especially on the long run) a removal ratio higher than 30%, not even
in the case of well operating systems.
Thus we may have to relay on such professional rules of the thumb, unless adequate
knowledge can be gathered on the expectable chemical and biological processes that will
govern the fate of nutrients (and of the function and structure of the ecosystem as a whole)
within each of the water bodies concerned and within the combinations of them, which
correspond to the various management alternatives.
Basic data of the systems for which nutrient load reduction shall be calculated
The general data demand
For any model calculation between the above discussed two extremes the following type of
data are needed:
1. Geometry of the system (or interconnected sub systems): area, cross-sections, depth
time series (at least depth-volume curve for larger units);
2. Inflow of water (time series or annual mean flow)
3. Records or multi annual mean concentration values of quality constituents of interest
in the inflow (nutrients, TSS, TDS, and others depending on the details of the
modelling concept),
4. Records or annual mean values for all other water budget elements (Precipitation,
evaporation, water intakes, ex- or infiltration (seepage), etc)
76
5. Records or initial values of as many biotic and abiotic (see Figure 32) state variables
as many we want to consider. When no records are available the estimation of initial
(zero time and place values) must be estimated for all state variables (at least for N
and P forms).
6. A long set of other data (light (irradiation), temperature, various chemical parameters)
should be made available if one needs to calculate details of the ecosystem dynamics
(see Figure 32).
These data should be available for the basic case (present state) and for each alternatives (e.g.
Changes in the geometry, inputs and outlets etc.)
The minimum requirements
The minimum requirements of applying the simplest models above is to give the following
data for each of the subsystems (See Figure 31):
h-
the average lake depth, [m]
A-
the average lake surface area, [m2]
Qin, Qout - the inflow and outflow rates of the lake, respectively, [m3/year]; (may also be given
in time series of the components of inflow and outflow or intake, water uses, etc
P and E the precipitation and evaporation onto/from the lake surface, respectively
[m/year] (if knowledge of other losses, such as seepage exist then should be given)
PL0 - is the initial total phosphorus (or other nutrient) concentration (at time t=0) of the lake
Pin-
is the mean inflow concentration of phosphorus,
Qin-
is the water inflow rate (m3/year)
Qout-
is the water outflow rate (m3/year)
h-
is the average depth of the lake (m)
A-
is the average surface area of the lake (m2)
LP- is the volumnar P (or other nutrient) loading rate to the lake (mg/m3/year) to be
obtained as the loading rate of P (MT-1) divided by the lake volume V [L3]
qis the hydraulic washout rate (year-1), calculated as the water outflow rate [L3∙T-1]
divided by the lake volume V [L3]
Kset- is the sedimentation (retention) rate [T-1], (year-1); to be estimated either from earlier
records (by calibration) or from the literature;
t-
is the time [T],
If these data cannot be made available for the present state and for each development and
control alternatives then the nutrient reduction calculation task cannot be solved, and the
estimation must be made by the rule of the thumb (which we call the best engineering
judgement)
77
4. Preliminary assessment of socio-economic impacts
In order to gain the social, economical and institutional acceptance of the recommended
interventions, the assessment of the positive and negative socio-economical impacts is
essential. Its key step is to determine the costs and benefits of the interventions having affects
on the activities of the identified stakeholders. It should be examined whether the gained
benefits are in proportion to the disadvantages to suffer. If not then mitigation measures
should be elaborated. Of course, the interests of the different stakeholders have not got
necessarily the same priority and this may be conflicting. In general we can declare that
within the area of the National Park nature conservation is the highest priority, all the other
economical and recreational aspects are of secondary importance.
The majority of the socio-economic impacts of the interventions is indirect, e.g. functions of
ecological impacts. For example: improvement of habitat conditions in a water body ->
growing of fish stock -> beneficial for fishery and angling -> profit for tourist accommodation
and catering. Since the ecological benefits themselves are very difficult to quantify, the direct
or indirect social and economical impacts could not be easily illustrated by figures. Therefore
in this preliminary study we have to confine ourselves to determine the directions and trends
of those impacts.
In general we have to bring forward the following comments:





The majority of the proposed interventions are subject of - at least - a preliminary
environmental impact assessment and all of them are subject of water right license.
The schedule/timing of the implementation should take into account the ecological
aspects as first priority in order to minimise the disturbance of the natural habitats.
This will be one of the key issues during licensing.
If the high transportation cost makes a dredging activity uneconomic, using of the
dredged material to form game rescue hills could be assessed as an option.
In general we can state that increasing the average level of water bodies and
controlling its fluctuation is favourable for aquatic and land ecosystems and therefore
the related activities, such as forestry, fishery and angling. However the qualification
and quantification of such impacts are beyond the opportunities of the present study.
Notwithstanding that it is not our goal to propose costly solutions either for
implementation, operation or maintenance point-of-view, it is obvious that the
implementation of the proposed technical interventions, the long-term operation and
the regular maintenance may introduce new, state financed job opportunities in the
region suffering from high jobless rate. This may be one of the aspects of the
municipalities.
Impacts on land use activities:
There are limited types and extension of antropogenic activities allowed on area concerned by
implementation/construction of the proposed technical alternatives. This is due to the fact that
the whole area is part of the Danube-Drava National Park, the permitted land uses are
restricted to forest and game management and fishing and should be inferior to the interest of
nature conservation.
78
If the implementation of dredging and construction is scheduled carefully in harmony with the
planned activities of Gemenc Rt. and the fisheries, preferably from November to March
spring, the land users would not suffer from significant disturbance during that period.
If the dredging masses will be placed within the area of the National Park it may cause limited
access to these locations for couple of months until the consolidation of the soil, therefore
harmonisation with the local seasonal works is necessary.
For tourism and recreation still many possibilities and sites remain open, therefore these
temporary limitations will not cause serious problems.
4.1 Veránka – Rezéti-Duna
“Rezéti-Duna” side branch is the largest water body in the Gemenc water system. The main
goal of the proposed interventions is to improve the flow of water, because due to its length
(14,85 km) and small grade very intensive sedimentation takes place in the bed. Therefore the
major intervention is dredging at the upper section of the branch, along the “Senki” island.
Small amount of dredging is planned at the fok-channels aiming at the increase of their
hydraulic capacity.
The positive socio-economic impacts of the recommended alternative can be summarized as
the following:



The improvement of flow conditions in the “Rezéti-Duna” branch and the lakes
connected by fok-channels will improve the habitat conditions of the fish and may
increase the fish stock. Stakeholders: fishery companies (Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and
Service Ltd, Gemenc Fish Ltd), local and county angling unions, angling tourism.
The navigation conditions improves at the upper section of the branch. Stakeholders:
fishery companies (Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and Service Ltd, Gemenc Fish Ltd),
forestry (Gemenc Rt.), angling unions and tourism.
No operation of works is needed. Stakeholders: Danube-Drava National Park
Directorate, Regional Environmental and Water Directorate.
There is negative impact to be mentioned:

“Senki” Island is surrounded by strictly protected nature conservation areas; therefore
the economical placement of the large amount of excavated sediment (approx. 72.000
m3) is very difficult. Stakeholder: Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, Gemenc
Rt.
Recommendations for mitigation measures:

One option is to transport the dredged sediment outside the area for agricultural use,
but it may be expensive due to the transport costs. Building game rescue hills within
the planning unit may be a viable solution at low cost and some extra benefit for game
management.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:


Quantitative assessment of benefits for fishery, forestry, angling and tourism.
Assessment of suitable placement of the dredged sediment from economical and
permission point of view.
79
4.2 Buvat
The recommended interventions are mainly restricted to dredging to a small extent dredging
in order to improve the hydraulic capacity of the feeding fok-channels. Additionally
construction and reconstruction of culverts under crossing roads are proposed.
Almost the whole area of the planning unit is strictly protected nature conservation area
therefore no access is allowed without the permission of the Directorate of the National Park.
The oxbow lakes of “Kis-Decsi-Holt-Duna” and “Nagy-Decsi-Holt-Duna” are also strictly
protected therefore no access to them is allowed without permission. Fishing is allowed for
research purposes only.
There are forest reserves on the planning area for scientific examination handled by Gemenc
Rt., where no commercial forestry takes place. On the other areas commercial forestry and
hunting is allowed with permission.
There are no specific advantages or disadvantages of the recommended alternative from
socio-economical point of view since no change in the present land use status is anticipated.
Placement of the dredged sediment needs careful considerations due to the lack of appropriate
places nearby.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:

Assessment of the appropriate placement of the dredged sediment.
4.3 Béda-Karapancsa
The aim of the interventions in this planning unit is to retain more water in the “Külső-Béda”
and “Mocskos-Duna” water systems by constructing weirs and carrying out dredging. The
weirs will increase the water-level of these oxbow lakes. The water level of “Belső-Béda”
oxbow lake will be increased by approx. 0,3 m following the modification of the operational
rules of the Béda Pumping Station. The recommended alternatives should encounter the
following socio-economic impacts:
Positive impacts:


The higher water level of the oxbow lakes will improve the water household of the
surrounding forests and may stop the drying tendency of the area. This may provide
extra yield for the forestry. The improved vegetation may result in savings in game
management, if less additional food supply was needed. Stakeholder: Gemenc Rt.
The more stabile water level and the larger water body improve the habitat conditions
of the fish and may increase the fish stock. Stakeholders: Petőfi Fishery Co-operative
(Mohács), angling unions, tourism.
Negative impacts:

This system is not self-sustaining (cleanup of sediment traps and dredging the beds on
regular basis will be needed). This will increase costs of the operating institution.
Stakeholders: Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, Regional Environmental and
Water Directorate..
80


The weirs to be constructed will block the boat traffic towards the Danube and the
movement of fish during low water periods.
The water level of “Külső-Béda” increased by 1.5 m, will generate extra costs of the
operator of the Béda pumping station, when lifting water from “Belső-Béda” oxbow
lake. Stakeholder: Regional Environmental and Water Directorate.
Recommendations for mitigation measures:


The construction of a boat slide and fish gate beside the weir may be considered.
The Danube-Drava National Park Directorate and the Regional Environmental and
Water Directorate should find funds to cover the costs of the operation and
maintenance.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:


Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits for fishery, forestry, angling and
tourism.
Quantitative assessment of costs operation and maintenance.
4.4 Sió unit
The “Sió-Canal” planning unit is the most complex one among the 11. It consists of four subsystems and its catchment is the largest nutrient source of the project area. The recommended
interventions include the construction of 6 weirs and 3 sluices and dredging of several
sections. It is recommended to modify the operational rules of the sluices at the mouth of the
Sió-Canal.
The expected positive socio economic impacts are the followings:



The higher average water level in the system will improve the water household of the
surrounding vegetation. This may provide extra yield for the forestry. The improved
vegetation may result in savings in game management, if less additional food supply
was needed. Stakeholder: Gemenc Rt.
The more stabile water level and the larger water body improve the habitat conditions
of the fish and may increase the fish stock. Stakeholders: Tolna Fish Trading Cooperative, angling unions, tourism.
Traffic conditions crossing the water bodies will be improved for forestry and tourism.
Stakeholders: Gemenc Rt. and tourists
There are negative impacts to be mentioned:

The operation of the sluice at the Sió mouth concerns other water systems e.g. the
Fadd water system. High level co-ordination of the operation of the old and new
sluices is needed on Sió. It requires extra attention and costs. Stakeholders: DanubeDrava National Park Directorate, Regional Environmental and Water Directorate.
Recommendations for mitigation measures:

The new operational rules of the sluice at the Sió mouth should be elaborated based on
modelling. In order to provide on-line data for the operation of the sluice installation
of monitoring system may be necessary.
81
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:


Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits for fishery, forestry, angling and
tourism.
Quantitative assessment of operation costs of sluices and maintenance of beds.
4.5 Gemenc
A large part of the planning unit is a nature conservation area with restricted access; therefore
tourist may visit it with the guides of the National Park Directorate. No fishing or angling is
allowed. The recommended interventions are mainly restricted to small extent dredging in
order to improve the hydraulic capacity of the feeding fok-channels and the lakes.
Additionally construction and reconstruction of culverts are proposed.
We may encounter the following positive socio-economic impacts:


The better flow conditions will improve water household of the forests around the
lakes and fok-channels. This may provide extra yield for the forestry and savings in
game management, if less additional food supply was needed. Stakeholder: Gemenc
Rt.
Traffic conditions on ground will be better. Stakeholder: Gemenc Rt. and tourists
There are no negative socio-economic impacts foreseen.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:

Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits forestry.
4.6 Bátai-Duna
The water supply of “Bátai-Holt-Duna” oxbow lake is carried out through the “Címer”-fokchannel in north, and through the “Bátai-Öreg-Duna” in southeast. In both cases the filling up
requires relatively permanent high water-level in the main river bed. Because of the high
evaporation rate of the oxbow lake, the water-level can subside significantly.
The recommended alternative involves the construction of a sluice in the lower railway piers
located in the bed of “Bátai-Holt-Duna” and restore the original bed by dredging from the
lower railway piers up to the ferry-road.
The possible positive socio-economic impacts of the interventions are:


The permanent connection between “Bátai-Holt-Duna” and River Danube is beneficial
for boat traffic. Stakeholders: Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and Service Ltd, angling
unions, tourists
The higher and controlled water level is favourable for the fish stock. Stakeholders:
Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and Service Ltd, angling unions
However, negative impacts can be listed, as well:

The higher average water level in the “Bátai-Holt-Duna” will result in additional
operational costs at the Báta Pumping Station, which forwards the inland water
collected by the Szekszárd-Báta Main Channel to “Bátai-Holt-Duna”. Stakeholders:
82
Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, Regional Environmental and Water
Directorate
 The sluice to be built at the lower mouth will make difficult the navigation between
the River Danube and the branch at low water periods. Stakeholders: Baja-Hal Ltd,
angling unions, tourism.
 The new sluice needs operation and maintenance at additional cost for the operator.
Stakeholders: Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, Regional Environmental and
Water Directorate.
Recommendations for mitigation measures:


The construction of a boat slide beside the weir may be considered.
The Danube-Drava National Park Directorate and the Regional Environmental and
Water Directorate should find funds to cover the costs of the operation and
maintenance.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:


Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits for fishery, forestry, angling and
tourism.
Quantitative assessment of operation costs of sluices and pumps.
4.7 Fekete-erdő – Grébeci-Duna
The concept of the recommended alternative includes dredging out of about 75.000 m 3
sediment from the upper section of the “Grébeci-Duna” side branch, closing down its upper
mouth and building a weir at the lower mouth connecting the branch to the Danube at 86 m
above Baltic Sea level. Dredging at smaller extent will take place at the fok-channels in order
to improve their hydraulic capacity.
This alternative involves the following positive impacts:



The controlled water level and the larger water body improve the habitat conditions of
the fish and may increase the fish stock. Stakeholders: Gemenc Hal Ltd, angling
unions, tourism.
Dredged sections and controlled water level may provide better conditions for using
boats on the upper section of the branch. Stakeholders: Gemenc Hal Ltd, angling
unions, tourism.
The controlled water level will improve the moisture household of the neighbouring
forests and may stop the drying tendency of the area. This may provide extra yield for
the forestry. The improved vegetation may result in savings in game management, if
less additional food supply was needed. Stakeholder: Gemenc Rt.
There are some disadvantageous impacts of this alternative:


The weir to be built at the lower mouth will make difficult the navigation between the
River Danube and the branch at low water periods. Stakeholders: Gemenc Hal Ltd,
angling unions, tourism.
The weir may block the traffic of the fish between the river and the branch at low
water periods. It is unfavourable in spawning periods. Stakeholders: Gemenc Hal Ltd,
angling unions.
83

The appropriate placement of the large amount of dredged sediment may cause
difficulties and results in high costs. It may be crucial point during the licensing
process. Stakeholders: Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, authorities.
Recommendations for mitigation measures:


The construction of a boat slide and fish gate beside the weir may be considered.
One option is to transport the dredged sediment outside the area for agricultural use,
but it may be expensive due to the transport costs. Building game rescue hills within
the planning unit may be a viable solution at low cost and some extra benefit for game
management.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:



Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits for fishery, forestry, angling and
tourism.
Assessment of impacts to navigation.
Assessment of dredged sediment placement.
4.8 Kerülő-Duna
“Kerülő-Duna” is an U-shape oxbow lake. It was originally connected with “Rezéti-Duna”
and “Lassi”-fok-channel. Later on its connection with “Lassi”-fok-channel was banked up.
One of the goals of the recommended alternative is to open this connection again by extensive
dredging in 3600 m length and constructing weir, culverts and bridges. Furthermore the
interventions involve the restoration of a section of the summer dike at the upper part of
“Kerülő-Duna”.
The following positive socio-economic impacts may be expected:



The controlled water level and the larger water body improve the habitat conditions of
the fish and may increase the fish stock. Stakeholders: fishing company, angling
unions, tourism.
The controlled water level will improve the moisture household of the neighbouring
forests. This may provide extra yield for the forestry. The improved vegetation may
result in savings in game management, due to less additional food supply was needed.
Stakeholder: Gemenc Rt.
Safety of the area protected by the summer dikes will improve after the maintenance
of sluices. Stakeholders: Regional Environmental and Water Directorate, Municipality
of Pörböly.
Negative impacts are also to be mentioned:


Extra cost for the operation of sluices and the maintenance of beds will arise.
Stakeholders: Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, Regional Environmental and
Water Directorate.
The appropriate placement of the large amount of dredged sediment may cause
difficulties and results in high costs. It may be crucial point during the licensing
process. Stakeholders: Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, authorities.
Recommendations for mitigation measures:
84


The Danube-Drava National Park Directorate and the Regional Environmental and
Water Directorate should find funds to cover the costs of the operation and
maintenance.
One option is to transport the dredged sediment outside the area for agricultural use,
but it may be expensive due to the transport costs. Building game rescue hills within
the planning unit may be a viable solution at low cost and some extra benefit for game
management.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:



Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits for fishery, forestry, game management,
angling and tourism.
Assessment of impacts to navigation.
Quantitative assessment of operation costs of sluices and costs of maintenance
dredging.
4.9 Báli
The recommended interventions are mainly restricted to small extent dredging in order to
improve the hydraulic capacity of the feeding fok-channels. Additionally construction and
reconstruction of culverts under crossing roads are proposed.
The positive socio-economic impacts of the interventions would be as follows:

The more frequent flooding of the wetlands will improve the water household of the
surrounding forests. This may provide extra yield for the forestry. The improved
vegetation may result in savings in game management, if less additional food supply
was needed. Stakeholder: Gemenc Rt.
The following negative impacts are expected:

One of the goals of the interventions is to establish feeding places for black storks.
This may result to the periodical restriction of the access to the concerned areas.
Stakeholders: tourism, anglers
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:

Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits for forestry.
4.10 Móric-Duna
“Móric-Duna” is a small, periodically drying up side branch of the River Danube. The main
goal of the recommended intervention is to retain the water in the bed permanently by
constructing two weirs at both ends of the branch. In order to improve the hydraulic
conditions and increase the volume of retained water dredging is planned in the upper half of
the channel.
This alternative involves mainly positive socio-economic impacts, such as:
85


The more stabile water level and the larger water body improve the habitat conditions
of the fish and may increase the fish stock. Stakeholders: Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and
Service Ltd, angling unions, tourism.
The controlled water level will improve the moisture household of the neighbouring
forests and may stop the drying tendency of the area. This may provide extra yield for
the forestry. Stakeholder: Gemenc Rt.
There are negative impacts to be mentioned:



The weirs to be built at the two ends of the branch will make difficult the boat traffic
to the River Danube at low water periods. Stakeholders: angling unions, tourism.
The weir may block the traffic of the fish between the river and the branch at low
water. It is unfavourable in spawning periods. Stakeholders: Baja Hal Fishery, Trade
and Service Ltd, angling unions.
Due to the two weirs, aggradation of the branch may increase therefore regular
maintenance by dredging will be necessary. It results in additional costs to the
operating institution. Stakeholders: Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, Regional
Environmental and Water Directorate.
Recommendations for mitigation measures:

The construction of a boat slide and fish gate beside one of the weirs may be
considered.
 The Danube-Drava National Park Directorate and the Regional Environmental and
Water Directorate should find funds to cover the costs of maintenance.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:



Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits for fishery, forestry, game management,
angling and tourism.
Assessment of impacts to boat traffic.
Quantitative assessment of maintenance costs.
4.11 Nagy-Pandúr
The largest water body of the “Nagy-Pandúr” planning unit is “Szeremlei-Sugovica”, which is
closed at its upper end by dike and the water level is controlled by a sluice at the mouth to
downstream.
This alternative involves mainly positive socio-economic impacts, such as:


The more stabile water level and the larger water body improve the habitat conditions
of the fish and may increase the fish stock. Stakeholders: Baja Hal Fishery, Trade and
Service Ltd, angling unions, tourism.
The more frequent flooding of the wetlands will improve the water household of the
surrounding forests. This may provide extra yield for the forestry. Stakeholder:
Gemenc Rt.
The negative impacts are:
86

The appropriate placement of the large amount of dredged sediment may cause
difficulties and results in high costs. It may be crucial point during the licensing
process. Stakeholders: Danube-Drava National Park Directorate, authorities.

Extra cost of operation and the maintenance of beds will arise. Stakeholders: DanubeDrava National Park Directorate, Regional Environmental and Water Directorate
Recommendations for mitigation measures:

One option is to transport the dredged sediment outside the area for agricultural use,
but it may be expensive due to the transport costs. Building game rescue hills within
the planning unit may be a viable solution at low cost and some extra benefit for game
management.

The Danube-Drava National Park Directorate and the Regional Environmental and
Water Directorate should find funds to cover the costs of operation and maintenance.
Recommendations for further assessment and data collection:


Quantitative assessment of costs and benefits for fishery, forestry and tourism.
Quantitative assessment of maintenance dredging and operation costs.
87
5. Comparative evaluation
In the previous chapters the preliminary exploration of environmental and socio-economical
impacts of the recommended interventions has been presented. The scope and the time frame
of the project did not allow us to go into a detailed assessment of those impacts by using
environmental models and cost-benefit analysis and had limited opportunity to disseminate
the content of the related Feasibility Study and also our findings among the identified
stakeholders.
Nevertheless we would like to summarise our assessment and perform an evaluation whereby
the impacts of the recommended alternatives can be compared to the present situation. This
comparison will support the decisions makers in the judgement of what are the benefits of the
recommended interventions, what aspects the detailed environmental impact assessment
should primarily focus on and consequently who are the stakeholders to be deeply involved in
the EIA procedure.
In order to qualify the advantageous or disadvantageous impacts of the proposed alternatives
on the elements of the environment and the social stakeholders we introduced a simple
scoring system presented on the following tables.
The scoring is made along the environmental and socio-economical “impact-bearers” for each
planning units. We assigned weight – on a scale between 1 and 5 - to each “impact-bearer”,
since their interests have different priorities from the project point-of view.
The scores were given in a range between -2 and +2 on a five element scale. The score -2
represents very unfavourable conditions from the “impact-bearer” point-of-view, -1 is “just”
unfavourable. Zero represents neutral situation. +1 and +2 mean favourable and very
favourable conditions respectively. The comparison of the total weighted scores show a
picture on the conditions taken into account at present and the after the implementation of the
recommended interventions. It should be noted here that we proposed the modification of the
recommended alternatives for Bátai-Holt-Duna and Kerülő-Duna. The scoring of these
modified alternatives are included in the tables, as well.
Table 5. Summary table
Planning Unit
1.Veránka
2.Buvat
3.Béda-Karapancsa
4.Sió-menti
5.Gemenc
6.Bátai-Holt-Duna
7.Fekete erdő, Grébeci-Duna
8.Kerülő-Duna
9.Báli-tó
10.Móric-Duna
11.Nagy-Pandúr
RA - Recommended Alternative
Summarized weighted scores
present state original RA modified RA
-9
17
-11
14
-8
34
5
40
-11
19
-22
16
40
-20
33
-26
26
-6
31
-14
8
32
-11
37
-
88
Table 6. Detailed scoring table I.
Veránka
Evaluation of Environmental and Socio- Weighting
Economic Impacts
Number
Béda-Karapancsa
Buvat
present state
RA
present state
RA
present state
Sió-menti
RA
present state
RA
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
Nutrient retention
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
5
2
10
1
5
2
10
Water quality
3
-1
-3
1
3
-1
-3
0
0
0
0
1
3
-1
-3
0
0
Aquatic wildlife
5
0
0
1
5
-1
-5
1
5
0
0
2
10
-1
-5
2
10
Forests
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
0
0
-1
-4
Waders (black stork)
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
1
5
0
0
2
10
Sustainability
5
-2
-10
-2
-10
-1
-5
-1
-5
-1
-5
-1
-5
0
0
0
0
Forestry
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
4
Game management
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
Fishery, angling
4
1
4
2
8
0
0
0
0
-1
-4
1
4
1
4
2
8
Agriculture
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Navigation within the water system
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
2
2
4
1
2
1
2
Navigation to the Danube
2
1
2
2
4
0
0
0
0
1
2
-1
-2
1
2
1
2
Ground traffic
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
2
8
Tourism
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Operation
3
2
6
2
6
2
6
2
6
0
0
-1
-3
0
0
-2
-6
Maintenance
4
-2
-8
-2
-8
-1
-4
-1
-4
-2
-8
-1
-4
-1
-4
-2
TOTAL WEIGHTED SCORES
-9
17
-11
RA - Recommended alternative
Scoring
Very unfavorable
Unfavorable
-2
-1
Neutral
0
Favorable
Very favorable
1
2
Weighting Numbers
Highest Priority:
Lowest Priority:
5
1
89
14
-8
34
5
-8
40
Table 7. Detailed scoring table II.
Bátai-Holt-Duna
Gemenc
Evaluation of Environmental and SocioEconomic Impacts
Weighting
Number
present state
RA
present state
original RA
Fekete erdő, Grébeci-Duna
modified RA
present state
Kerülő-Duna
RA
present state
RA
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
score
w. score
Nutrient retention
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
5
2
10
0
0
1
5
0
0
0
0
Water quality
3
-1
-3
0
0
0
0
-1
-3
-1
-3
-1
-3
0
0
0
0
0
0
Aquatic wildlife
5
-1
-5
1
5
-1
-5
1
5
2
10
-1
-5
1
5
-2
-10
1
5
Forests
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
1
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
0
0
Waders (black stork)
5
0
0
1
5
0
0
1
5
2
10
0
0
1
5
0
0
1
5
Sustainability
5
-1
-5
-1
-5
-1
-5
-1
-5
-1
-5
-2
-10
0
0
0
0
0
0
Forestry
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
4
1
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
4
Game management
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
Fishery, angling
4
0
0
0
0
-1
-4
1
4
2
8
-1
-4
1
4
-2
-8
1
4
Agriculture
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Navigation within the water system
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
2
4
1
2
1
2
0
0
0
0
Navigation to the Danube
2
0
0
0
0
-2
-4
-2
-4
-1
-2
1
2
-1
-2
0
0
0
0
Ground traffic
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
Tourism
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Operation
3
2
6
2
6
0
0
-2
-6
-1
-3
2
6
2
6
0
0
0
0
Maintenance
4
-1
-4
-1
-4
-1
-4
-1
-4
-1
-4
-2
-8
-1
-4
-2
-8
0
TOTAL WEIGHTED SCORES
-11
19
-22
16
RA - Recommended alternative
Scoring
Very unfavorable
-2
Unfavorable
-1
Neutral
0
Favorable
1
Very favorable
2
Weighting Numbers
Highest Priority:
5
Lowest Priority:
1
90
40
-20
33
-26
0
26
Table 8. Detailed scoring table III.
Báli-tó
Evaluation of Environmental and Socio- Weighting
Economic Impacts
Number
Móric-Duna
present state
RA
present state
original RA
Nagy-Pandúr
modified RA
present state
RA
score w. score score w. score score w. score score w. score score w. score score w. score score w. score
Nutrient retention
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Water quality
3
-1
-3
0
0
-1
-3
0
0
Aquatic wildlife
5
-1
-5
1
5
-1
-5
1
5
Forests
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
0
Waders (black stork)
5
0
0
2
10
0
0
1
Sustainability
5
0
0
0
0
-2
-10
Forestry
4
0
0
1
4
0
Game management
3
0
0
1
3
Fishery, angling
4
0
0
1
4
Agriculture
3
0
0
0
Navigation within the water system
2
0
0
0
Navigation to the Danube
2
0
0
Ground traffic
4
0
0
Tourism
1
0
Operation
3
2
Maintenance
4
-1
TOTAL WEIGHTED SCORES
0
0
0
1
2
6
-1
-3
0
0
2
10
0
0
2
10
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
5
0
0
0
0
1
5
-2
-10
0
0
-1
-5
0
0
0
1
4
1
4
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
3
1
3
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
4
2
8
1
4
2
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
2
4
0
0
1
2
-1
-2
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-1
-4
-1
-4
0
0
0
0
0
-1
-1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
6
2
6
2
6
2
6
2
6
-1
-3
-1
-3
-4
-1
-4
-1
-4
-1
-4
-1
-4
-2
-8
-1
-6
31
-14
RA - Recommended alternative
Scoring
Very unfavorable
-2
Unfavorable
-1
Neutral
0
Favorable
1
Very favorable
2
Weighting Numbers
Highest Priority:
5
Lowest Priority:
1
91
8
32
-11
5
-4
37
6. Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
This EMP reviews the potential negative impacts of the rehabilitation works to be carried out
as part of the Project in the Gemenc and Beda-Karapancsa areas and recommends appropriate
mitigations measures. The EMP distinguishes the specific impacts during the construction
period and the impacts linked to either the design or the operations periods. Additionally, it
proposes a set of monitoring indicators to ensure that the implementation of the recommended
mitigations measures can be appropriately evaluated in the future.
This plan outlines, with as much detail as can at present be supplied, the mitigation measures
for each of the issues identified in the Environmental Impact Assessment during both the
construction and the operation phases (See Table 9 and Table 10 below) These table should be
taken into account by the design engineers and other contractors and in the approval process
by the concerned authorities (i.e. the Ministry of Environment and Water) before the start of
the rehabilitation works.
6.1 Construction phase plan
It is recommended that the contractors undertaking the works are required to produce a more
detailed Environmental Management Plan as further details of the construction operations
become clearer. To ensure that the Environmental Management Plan is adequately
implemented a suitably qualified scientist or engineer should be employed on a part-time
basis to monitor the implementation of the plan once it has been approved. An environmental
management plan for this phase is provided in Table 9.
The cost of implementing such measures is to be included in the relevant contracts.
Table 9. Construction Phase Environmental Management Plan
Subject/Media
Potential Negative
Impact
Dust generation
AIR
Dust generation –
vehicular access
Mitigation Measure
 Employ dust suppression
measures, such as wetting and
dust enclosures
 Enclose contractor’s areas with
embankments
 Use traffic routing measures to
avoid built up areas and bottle
necks
 Routine control and
maintenance of all equipment
used for transportation
 Employ dust suppression
measures
92
Responsibility
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
(Table 9 continued)
Subject/Media
Potential Negative
Impact
Vehicle emission
(mobile)
AIR
Vehicle and engine
emissions (static)
WATER
SEDIMENTS
Mitigation Measure
Responsibility
 Use traffic routing
arrangements
 Routine control and
maintenance of vehicles
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
 Run only when required
 Routine control and
maintenance of equipment
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
 Restrict surface runoff from
site
Release of

Construct a surface water
suspended solids
runoff lagoon
into water courses
 Discharge water from site
following settlements
 Physically isolate area during
dredging and until
sedimentation
 Limit spilling of polluted
material in water and on soil

Use appropriate methods for
Dredging
the storage of dredged material
 Test materials to be dredged
for potential contamination
 Use appropriate methods for
the storage of polluted dredged
material
 All above ground storage tanks
and drums to be stored on low
permeability bases able to
Spillage of fuel from
retain 110% of the stored
construction sites
volume
 Reclaim land as soon as
possible after development
 Minimize the amount of
dredging during construction,
reuse dredged material where
Failure to recycle
practicable if of acceptable
dredged material
quality
and store dredged

Use appropriate methods for
material in the
the storage of dredged material
correct manner
 Dispose of dredged material to
an appropriate site according
to its quality
93
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
(Table 9 continued)
Subject/Media
NOISE
TRAFFIC
IMPACTS
Potential Negative
Impact
Mitigation Measure
Responsibility
Noise generation
 Construct noise barriers
between new works and
recreational areas during
construction
 Restrict work to daylight hours
 Place noisy operations as far
away as possible from
recreational areas
 Use equipment with
appropriate silencers
 Only run equipments when
required
 Time operation of equipment
to periods when no impact on
nesting or reproductive
activities takes place
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
Congestion capacity
 Designate traffic routes for all
heavy vehicles
 Limit the size of heavy
vehicles
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
SAFETY
Public safety
 Provide pedestrian access
 Provide safety barriers and
signs
CULTURE
AND
HERITAGE
Damage to
archeological
remains and
artefacts
 Avoid known sites (if any)
 Cease construction on
discovery of objects of cultural
value and notify relevant
authorities
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP and
MOEW
Ecological
disturbance of
endangered species
 Avoid known sites
 Dredging and construction
work to be concentrated during
ecologically less sensitive
periods of the year (late
autumn and winter)
 Regular ecological
assessments by relevant
authorities
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU,
DDNP and
MOEW
 Screen site area wherever
possible (belt of forest,
evergreen bushes)
Contractor
supervised by
WA PIU and
DDNP
NATURAL
HABITATS
VISUAL
Visual impact
94
6.2 Implementation of mitigation measures
To ensure that mitigation and environmental enhancement measures are properly
implemented, a plan should be included in the Operational manual to indicate:





the measure proposed and its purpose;
who is responsible for taking the required action;
how much the action is expected to cost;
a schedule for carrying out the proposed action;
who is responsible for monitoring to see that the action is effective.
The proposed measures should be taken into account, as appropriate, by the design engineers
and other contractors and in the approval process by the concerned authorities (i.e. the
Ministry of Environment and Water) before the start of the rehabilitation works.
Cost estimates presented in this table are tentative and indicate the order of magnitude
expected. They will need to be confirmed during the later design phase. Training for the use
of monitoring equipment will be included as part of the purchase cost of each equipment.
95
Table 10. Operation Phase Environmental Management Plan
Subject/Media
Wetland
functioning
Biodiversity
Flooding, and/or
excessive sediments
accumulation
Potential Negative
Impact
Mitigation Measure
 Development of measures
for sustainable
Nutrient
management of the
accumulation leading
wetlands, detailing the
to eutrophication
appropriate water regimes
Ecological impacts
for optimal trapping
on the ecosystem and
capacity, optimal
biodiversity
management of biomass
 Monitor ecological
benefits and biodiversity
 Elaboration of
recommendation for
Reduction in the
biodiversity conservation
number of species
living in and around  Development of specific
measures during the
the wetlands
nesting and reproductions
periods
High level of
sedimentation,
 Periodic removal of
damage to the
floating debris
constructed
 periodic dredging of
structures (weirs,
excessive sedimentation
small dikes) and
 Regular maintenance of
accumulation of
the constructed parts and
floating debris and
small dykes
eventually organic or
inorganic waste.
96
Responsibility
Cost
(U.S.$)
Timing
Monitoring
Agency
DDNP
together with
MOEW and
consultants
companies
Design and
throughout
5,000/year
operational
period
MOEW, WA
and DDNP
DDNP
together with
MOEW
Design and
throughout
2,500/year
operational
period
MOEW
DDNP
together with
MOEW and
consultants
companies
Design and
throughout
5,000/year
operational
period
MOEW and
WA
(Table 10 continued)
Subject/Media
Accidental organic
or inorganic
pollution in the
river, potentially
affecting the
wetlands
Potential Negative
Impact
Disturbance of rare
or endangered
species
Mitigation Measure

Malfunctioning of
the wetland trapping
capacity

Health risk linked
to significant
increase of
mosquitoes
populations
Possible
transmission of
diseases
Seasonal incomfort
of park visitors
Possible opposition
to the Project;
Misunderstanding
of Projects
achievements
slow down project
implementation;
bad image for
replication stage



Develop specific
procedures for
accidental pollution, oil
spills, sharp changes in
water levels, floods; or
prevention of increased
organic load into the
restored wetlands
Monitoring of fish
populations
Monitoring of
mosquitoes population
Incorporation of
mosquito management
measure in the
operational manual
Designate a public
relation manager
responsible for ensuring
that the press and local
population are aware of
the improvement
program and are have
access to monitoring
information
97
Responsibility
DDNP
together with
MOEW and
consultants
companies
WA together
with the
DDNP
WA together
with the
DDNP
Cost
(U.S.$)
Timing
Monitoring
Agency
2,000/year
Throughout
operational
period
MOEW
together with
other relevant
authorities
Throughout
operational
period
MOEW
together with
relevant
health
authorities
500/year
5,000/year Immediately
MOEW
6.3 Monitoring requirements
As part of the Project, a comprehensive monitoring system will be established including water
quality, with particular emphasis on nitrogen and phosphorus, sediment quality parameters,
biological, wildlife and others ecological indicators with emphasis on selected endangered
species. This system will comply with international, national and regional monitoring
programs and standards. It will be used as a basis for
Table 11 gives the proposed monitoring requirements during the construction phase. Table 12
gives the proposed monitoring during the operational phase, which will be revised after the
establishment of the monitoring system.
Table 11. Proposed monitoring during construction
Monitoring
Requirement
Monitoring Frequency
Responsibility
Water
Prior to the works and as required by
regulation
MOEW, together
with DDNP
Noise
Daily for one month, weekly thereafter
Contractor
Sediments
accumulation and in
water run-off
Before construction starts and weekly
during construction (composite
continuous sampling)
Contractor
Public Safety
Continuous
Contractor
Culture and Heritage
As required
Contractor
Natural Habitats
Daily for one month, weekly thereafter
DDNP
Dust and air pollution
Daily for one month, weekly thereafter
Contractor
Table 12. Proposed monitoring during operation
Monitoring
Requirement
Monitoring Frequency
Responsibility
Water Quality
Continuous for nitrogen, phosphorus,
BOD and COD. Weekly for all other
parameters
DDNP, together
with the Laboratory
for Water Quality
Water regime
Continuous
DDNP
Floating material
constructed
structures
After each flooding event, weekly during
the fall
DDNP
Sedimentation
After each flooding event, monthly
otherwise
DDNP
Biomass
Monthly, weekly between May and
October
DDNP
98
Wildlife and
biodiversity
Monthly
Health risks
Weekly between May and October
DDNP
6.4 Cost of environmental management plan
The cost of the proposed environmental management plan and monitoring for this project will
be small (in the order of 1% of the investment cost for this component) and borne mostly by
the Contractors who have to make the necessary provision as part of their contracts.
The cost for monitoring and supervision is also relatively small for such project and can be
considered to be included as part of the DDNP management responsibilities.
6.5 Institutional arrangements
Monitoring and environmental management reports will be produced on monthly basis by the
implementing agency on the basis of the information provided by the monitoring system.
These reports will be made available for public consultation at the WA and DDNP offices in
Pecs, as well as in the MOEW in Budapest. The reports will also be submitted to the involved
municipalities and World Bank supervision missions for review.
99
7. Proposal for the development of the monitoring programme
In order to make a proposal for an appropriate monitoring programme one should know the
present practice and the expectable future regulations on monitoring rules. These issues are
described below based on [VITUKI, 2004].
7.1 The present Hungarian practice of monitoring
Surface water quality: The regulations concerning sampling techniques, sampling sites and
sampling frequencies are included in Hungarian Standard MSZ 12749 (on surface water
quality, characteristics and classification). This standard has been put into force in 1994. The
standard deals with the following main groups of WQ characteristics: A) oxygen household;
B) Nitrogen and phosphorus forms; C) Microbiological characteristics; D) Micropollutants
and toxicity; E) Other water quality parameters. The standard, however, does not contain
regulations on classification according to water uses and according to biological water quality.
There are other water-use specific regulations and standards (for irrigation water, drinking
water, fisheries), but no standardized rules of biological water quality classification exists in
Hungary. The routine, long term, monitoring practice is only partially suitable for revealing
long term changes of the state of the aquatic system (due to the lack of regular biological
sampling and evaluation). (There were some changes in measurement techniques, as
introduced by this standard in 1994, and they must be taken into account in analysing trends
and other statistics.
The sampling sites of Hungarian water quality monitoring network can be grouped into the
following category:

National sampling sites, where samples are taken according the above mentioned
standard. The data are stored in the national water quality database VM. Of the project
sites the Danube and the Sió sampling sites belong to this category;

Regional water quality monitoring stations, where samples are taken a defined
frequency but the number of components is less. The data are also stored in the
database VM;

Local water quality monitoring stations, where a selected number of components are
determined at varying sampling frequencies. The data are stored only at the local
Environmental and Water Management Directorate (KÖVIZIGs), but they fit the
system of VM. The few regular water quality sampling sites of wetlands (oxbow
lakes) belong to this group. In the area of the project pilot zones, of Gemenc and
Béda-Karapancsa, there are no regular WQ sampling sites
7.1.1 Quantitative monitoring of surface and subsurface waters
In a national scale the quantitative monitoring of surface and subsurface waters can be
considered suitable one and long term records exist. These data are suitable for calculating
trends and statistics.
100
The relevant data and information are stored in the Information System for Water
Management (VIZIR). Within VIZIR there are two subsystems the MAHAB (contains
controlled and processed data) and the HIDRO, which holds the records of hydrology. Data of
subsurface waters (water level of wells) are stored in the hydrogeological information system
VIFIR. The Hydrological Data Processing, Storage and Information System (SATIR) stores
further data on the rivers, thus on Danube.
Similarly to the water quality database the quantitative monitoring system also includes
national, regional and local stations. Stations of the Danube and the Canal Sió are national
stations, while potential other stations of the oxbows are local stations. Their data, if any, are
not forwarded to the above mentioned databases and thus their availability is very restricted.
7.1.2 Data bases of pollution sources and dischargers
The national survey of large environmental polluters was launched in the early 1990-ies as a
special task (for example the survey of abandoned Soviet army barracks, urban-industrial
brwonfields, alleviation of polluted areas resulting from the privatisation process). The Law
LIII of 1995 on the rules of protecting the environment formed the basis of the National
Environmental Programme. A part of this programme is the contingency survey and the
rehabilitation of areas, which suffered long-lasting environmental damages. This programme
is called the National Environmental Damage Elimination Programme (OKKP).
Within OKKP there are two large geographical information systems (GIS), the Environmental
Register of Subsurface Waters and Geological Media (FAVI) and the Damage Elimination
Information System (KÁRINFO). The activities of operation and upgrading of these systems
and the continuation of the survey of contaminated areas are performed under OKKP.
These GIS databases are in online connection with the Ministry for the Environment and
Water Management (KvVM), FI, VITUKI Kht and with the environmental inspectorates. The
task of the latter is the upgrading and filling of the database.
The retrieval of data of point sources can mostly be obtained via FAVI and KÁRINFO.
There is another information system for supporting flood control and the drainage of excess
inland waters, this is called the Damage-fighting Information system VIR. Information for
Water Quality damage-fighting is stored in the VIKÁR, which is a part of the National
Environmental Information System (OKIR). This system supports mainly the work of the
work of the organs of the operative control actions Environmental Inspectorates (KÖFE)
Environmental and Water Authorities (KÖVIZIG) and, Water Inspectorates (VIFE). The
Information system of Environmental Safety (KBIR) can be reached via the Internet and
contain the most important environmental risk spots. However no quantitative discharge data
are contained in this system.
In addition to these databases the Central Bureau of Statistics (KSH) collects and stores
county-level environmental data, such as level of sewerage and sewage treatment, agricultural
production, usage of fertilizers, animal stock, etc). These data are not really useful for
analysing potential or actual loads of water bodies as they are lumped data for the counties.
7.2 The expectable future regulation, the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC)
The purpose of WFD is to establish a framework for the protection of inland surface waters,
transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwater which:(a) prevents further deterioration
101
and protects and enhances the status of aquatic ecosystems and, with regard to their water
needs, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands directly depending on the aquatic ecosystems; (b)
promotes sustainable water use based on a long-term protection of available water resources;
(c) aims at enhanced protection and improvement of the aquatic environment, inter alia,
through specific measures for the progressive reduction of discharges, emissions and losses of
priority substances and the cessation or phasing-out of discharges, emissions and losses of the
priority hazardous substances;(d) ensures the progressive reduction of pollution of
groundwater and prevents its further pollution, and (e) contributes to mitigating the effects of
floods and droughts (etc).
It also follows from WFD that integration of the survey and monitoring of surface and
subsurface waters and their sources of pollution should be achieved. Thus in the near future
the existing Hungarian data bases should be integrated (within 7 years of the enactment of the
WFD!). This shall result in the ceasing of the above described databases, that were made on
the basis of different principles, programming structures and scientific approaches.
Since WFD provides only a general frame and approach the Member States have flexibility to
adjust their actions to the local needs and this also refers to the forming of their monitoring
systems. This also allows the creation of special monitoring systems for the various water
bodies in respect to both water quality and water quantity.
Regulations of WFD concerning the monitoring are provided in Article 8. The essence of
these regulations is that the status of surface and subsurface waters shall be surveyed by a
monitoring of parameters of hydromorphological conditions, chemical and ecological status.
The three main elements of the monitoring system (surveillance monitoring, operational
monitoring and investigative monitoring) shall be provided in such a way as to give a
comprehensive insight into the state and changes of the water bodies. In the table below these
three monitoring types are described in connection with their implication in Hungary and in
the case of monitoring the wetlands (oxbow lakes) of Hungary.
Table 13.
Monitoring
Reference
Surveillance
AnnexV,
paragraph
1.3.1
Objective
Importance
Information is provided for:
For impact assessment and
for its strengthening (Annex
II.)

The efficient planning of
future monitoring

The assessment of long
term changes of natural
conditions

For the evaluation of long
term changes caused by
widespread human activities

Should be performed for all water bodies, as
this provides the basis for the design of
further monitoring phase and for the making
of water management plans. This provides
basis for the distinction between water bodies
of different type, meeting certain specified
objectives (or not).
Surveillance monitoring should be performed
for all (biological, hydrological-morphological,
chemical and physical) indices and
parameters.
As wetlands (oxbow lakes) belong to the less
explored water bodies very detailed
surveillance monitoring should be performed
for the oxbow lakes, which should be
selected with appropriate care
Operational
Annex V.
paragraph
1.3.2
The objective of the investigations
are as follows:

Provide information on the
status of these water bodies
on the basis of hydromorphological,
biological
and
chemical-physical
102
Should be performed in such water bodies
where it is likely that they will not meet the
environmental objectives set in Article 4.
Water bodies receiving loads of priority
pollutants
or
subject
to
significant
hydromorphological stresses and/or are
under substantial human impact belong also
elements;
To define the state of those
water bodies, which are not
likely
to
meet
the
environmental
objectives
set (e.g. which receives
substantial point- or diffuse
source loads or hydromorphological stresses);

Detection of all such
changes of the water
bodies, which will result
from
the
planned
interventions
This monitoring should be
implemented in the following
cases:

If the cause of violating any
limit value is unknown;

If the results of operational
monitoring indicate that the
water body is not likely to
meet the environmental
objectives set in Article 4,
and in the case of such
water bodies, which do not
meet the environmental
objectives
This
monitoring
should
be
implemented in the following
cases:

Protected, nature conservation
areas;

Bathing waters;

Water bodies sensitive to
nutrient loads;

Water bodies which are
important for the protection of
economically
important
aquatic species

Investigative
Additional
(protected
areas)
Annex V.
Paragraph
1.3.3
Annex V
paragraph
1.3.5
to this category.
Operational monitoring should be performed
for those parameters, which are the most
sensitive ones regarding the pollution loads,
stresses received by the water bodies.
Since the hydromorphological conditions
would change with the flooding for a
substantial number of the wetlands in the
floodplain (greater flood channel), the
operational monitoring should be performed
for each selected oxbows.
Provision of information for making the plans
needed for meeting the environmental
objectives, including the planning of special
actions that would be needed for the
alleviation of the effects of accidental
pollution incidents.
As in the case of most of the wetlands
(oxbow lakes) rehabilitation plans should be
developed, this monitoring should serve the
problem-specific investigations, needed for
the development of rehabilitation plans
Such areas should be included in the
operational monitoring programme if the
results of the status assessment and of the
surveillance monitoring indicated that there is
a risk of not meeting the environmental
objectives,
Since among the wetlands (oxbow lakes)
there are 53 ones, which fall into the
“sanctuary type” category and about further
30 are protected there is a definite need for
additional (operational) monitoring. This is
strengthened by the fact that recreational use
and fishery utilisation also characterizes most
of the oxbow lakes
In course of introducing the WFD in Hungary the nomination of water bodies has already
been made. In the light of this the following findings can be made, regarding the water bodies
of the Project pilot areas. The oxbow lakes (or braided river arms) of the Gemenc area are not
to be considered separate water bodies but are auxiliary elements of the related Danube reach,
as a water body. Thus their monitoring in accordance with the WFD would not be obligatory.
Nevertheless their need for protection and their character as of Natura 2000, the adoption of
WFD rules will be needed. In the case of the Béda-Karapancsa area the situation of the
external (Külső) Béda Oxbow is the same as the Gemenc oxbows, while the Internal (Belső)
Béda Oxbow shall be specified as a separate water body (of area larger than 50ha) and this
will make its monitoring an obligatory activity.
The uniting or combining the state administration units of water management and the
environmental protection in the year 2002 resulted in an expressive need (as stated in the
relevant document: 2000/60/EC: The water Framework Directive of the EU and the related
international and national tasks) for the harmonisation of the monitoring and information
103
systems of the two branches of the economy (e.g. water and the environment), as these
systems were built up on the basis of much different approaches and principles.
In the field of environmental protection OKIR is the “brother system” of VIZIR of the water
management. The system VIR of the water management sector was constructed to support the
water pollution damage elimination activities (Contingency actions). VIKÁR is the
information system of the environmental sector aimed at supporting the damage elimination
(contingency planning) activities by securing the flow of information in the case of polluting
incidents. Both systems contain many information and thus should be harmonized and united.
In the course of making efforts for the elimination of the contradictions of these systems and
for their harmonisation the first step is to provide two-way interconnection between the Basic
Environmental register KAR and Basic Data and Object Handling System (OTAR) of the
water management.
7.3 Local characteristics
The areas involved in this Project are floodplains of high ecological value and of national
level protection, having also an all-European interest. The monitoring of the smaller water
bodies (the oxbows) of this area is in worse condition than the present national monitoring
level of such water bodies, which latter can be also considered backward one. No continuing
regular water chemical and ecological monitoring has been performed in any of the oxbows
(river arms) of these areas. The only data available are those connected to research surveys.
Nevertheless the Danube-Drava National park and the local environmentalist NGOs have
detailed experiences and information on certain selected and protected species (such as the
black stork) and on their habitats (nesting places).
7.4 Review of deficiencies and needs
Deficiencies:

The water quality monitoring performed at the national-level stations of river Danube
and the Canal Sió, carried out in accordance with the presently valid standard, do not
include ecological elements and would not provide sufficient information on the
chemical water quality of the floods (that would define the inputs to the wetlands).
The reason of this latter situation is that flood hydrographs pass the stations within few
days, while sampling is made bi-weekly;

Practically no monitoring of the wetland exists. Some sporadically scattered data (both
in time and space) exist as the result of research project investigations. These are,
however, entirely insufficient for describing the hydromorphological, chemical and
biological status and changes of these wetlands;

While in the Danube the regularly made channel surveys were able to indetify the
deepening of the channel bed, the level of sedimentation (up-silting) of the floodplain
and the oxbows can be only estimated by the rough engineering judgement as no
detailed flood-channel surveys or geodetical measurements were made;

The water budget elements cannot be reliably determined. Water level gauges needed
for the sufficient description of water level changes are available only in the larger
104
oxbows of the Béda-Karapancsa system. Recorded data are not the elements of the
national hydrological database (thus cannot be retrieved).

The extent of diffuse or non-point source pollution, which is likely to stem from the
adjoining areas (direct catchments) cannot be estimated, as the data base of KSH
contains county level aggregated data only and the data of VIKÁR are also
insufficient. This is an especially serious disadvantage as fertilizer application might
be an important local source (drained via drainage canals into some oxbows);

The various databases are not integrated their accessibility is restricted.
Note by the project manager: these deficiencies exclude the application of any of the models
(or even rough calculation methods) of nutrient loads and nutrient load reduction, which were
described in the relevant chapter.
Needs (see also the nutrient load calculation chapter for more details)

Detailed geodetical survey of the flood-channel and the oxbow-channels is needed. In
the lack of such data the hydromorphological conditions cannot be described and the
control strategies cannot be planned appropriately,

Establishment of a detailed and integrated hydrological and water quality monitoring
system that covers the hydrological and water quality changes over the year and with
the hydrological regime (meeting also the model demands:-see in section… on
nutrient reduction calculations) for the main rivers (Danube, Sió and the Szekszárd
Bátai canal and for the oxbows involved (with the inclusion of at least some biological
status indicators);

Appropriate recording of hydrometeorological parameters;

Measurement of the water level changes of subsurface waters for the identification of
the type of connection with the surface waters;

A full survey of all existing sources of pollution (point and non-point) including the
identification of seasonal changes of pollution loads.
7.5 Proposals
Surveying the main dimensions of the planning units
The first proposal concerns the performing of a geodetical survey of the area as these data
would be unconditionally needed for the appropriate design of the proposed control strategies
and the basic geometry of the sub-systems is also an essential requirement for any water and
nutrient budget calculation or modelling (the primary aim of the project).
Hydrometeorology and water budget
A hydrometeorological station should be set up. All inflows and outflows must be regularly
measured into and out of the water bodies concerned (for all strategies envisaged).
Communication with subsurface water should be assessed (water levels of observation wells
should be measured in such a way as to allow the detection of seasonal changes.
Dynamics of water quality and ecological changes
105
It stems from the special “life cycle” of these oxbow lakes that the monitoring system should
be designed in such a way as to reveal the dynamics of all components of interest (e.g quality
and quantity). It means that both flooding conditions and the low water conditions and the
transition in between should be appropriately covered by measurements.
Thus the surveillance monitoring of the oxbows should cover the following periods (both in
quantitative and qualitative terms):
1.
As the exchange (refreshing) of the water of the oxbows happens during floods it is
evident that conditions before, during and after the inflowing floods should be
measured. As these processes are rapid ones the water level recording should be made
on the daily basis. Chemical and physical parameters, should be measured once
before, during and after the flood. Sampling of the main nutrient forms would be
desirable at an even higher frequency as concentrations in the flood change rapidly.
Phytoplankton, zooplankton, phytobenthos, macrophytes and fish would be
expediently measured just before and after the floods. The main physical and chemical
parameters (sediments, nutrients) should be measured simultaneously in both the main
channel and the oxbows.
All other inflows (drainage canals) should be sampled for sediments nutrients and
other basic parameters (COD) in order to reveal loads coming from the direct flood or
excess water prone catchment;
2.
After the floods having passed the oxbow starts its new “refreshed life”. This drying
period should also be followed by monitoring as the most important processes of
“nutrient trapping” will occur in this period. In this period the surface and the water
depth of the oxbow will be reduced via evaporation (which is usually higher than
precipitation) and thus one may expect the enrichment of various organic and
inorganic substances in the water phase. This process should be followed by
measurements. As this process is rather slow (1-3 months) the following frequencies
seem to be desirable (as sample per month): water stage 4-8; physical, chemical
parameters, phyto- and zooplankton 4-6, simplified macrophyte survey and
phytobenthos 3-4; fish once in the period when the dynamic balance have been
achieved.
Sampling frequency might be varied in function of the time-period when the flood
occurs. In the case of spring floods the above sampling frequency is desirable. In the
case of summer floods (which frequently occurs in Gemenc in August) the sampling
should be increased in the preceding period and then the flooding emptying process
should be followed in the above manner.
3.
The investigation of the transitional phase is also important for learning the dynamics
of the entire hydrological cycle. As this is a long period (lasting 8-10 months) the
monitoring of the physical, chemical and ecological parameters (phyto-, zooplankton
and phytobenthos) is sufficient with a monthly frequency. Water level measurements
could be continued with the former frequency. Macrophytes, macro invertebrates and
fish must not be measured but (in the first few years) the following of changes might
still need more frequent sampling.
The above sampling strategy was justified by out investigations which were carried out during
and after flooding in the Tisza River oxbows.
After having made such a detailed surveillance monitoring one could describe the physical,
chemical and ecological processes with reasonable accuracy. This would allow the
106
construction of models that could be used for analysing the potential impact of envisaged
management and control strategies. These investigations would provide basis for the selection
of parameters and frequencies for long term monitoring programmes of the future.
In planning the national monitoring systems of such wetlands one should take into
consideration of the future regulations (of WFD and Natura 2000), the national development
concepts (NFT and NKP) and a special attention should be paid for the integration and
harmonisation of the existing databases.
107
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112
Appendix I Protected plant species described from Gemenc
(SZARVAS, 2003)
1.
Listera ovata
16.
Equisetum hyemale
2.
Carex strigosa
17.
Vitis sylvestris
3.
.Orchis purpurea
18.
Marsilea quadrifolia
4.
Crataegus x degenii
19.
Senecio palodosus
5.
Scilla vindobonensis
20.
Leucojum aestivum
6.
Cephalantera damasonium
21.
Salvinia natans
7.
Nymphaea alba
22.
Clematis integrifolia
8.
Crategus nigra
23.
Trapa natans
9.
Carpensium abrotanoides
24.
Epipactis helleborine
10.
Dactylorhiza incarnata
25.
Iris sibirica
11.
Cephalanthera longifolia
26.
Dryopteris carthusiana
12.
Acorus calamus
27.
Dryopteris dilatata
13.
Platanthera bifolia
28.
Nymhoides peltata
14.
Gentiana pneumonanthe
29.
Orchis militaris
15.
Ophioglossum vulgata
30.
Platanthera clorantha
113
Barna kánya
9
1
1
6
300
385
1680
353
Böjti réce
9
Búbos vöcsök
1
2
12
36
Cankók
65
Csörgő réce:
1
Danka sirály
12
14
8
90
Daru
2000
610
Sárgalábú sirály
32
Fehér gólya
1
Fekete gólya
5
5
Fütyülő réce
15
2
7
44
Kabasólyom
Kárókatona
1
55
392
570
423
Kerceréce
20
675
1535
391
Kis bukó
10
61
124
59
509
406
615
kis kárókatona
Kiskócsag
71
7
27
1
26
Kis vöcsök
4
Kontyos
2
Libák
42
Nagy bukó
Nagy kócsag
április
március
február
január
december
3
bütykös hattyú
Barátréce
november
október
szeptember
augusztus
Appendix II Waterfowl counting 2002-2003 winter, Baja – country border
30
3
114
12
430
42
40
1
2460
27
1
5
54
2
1
Nagy lilik
Nyári lúd
12
Nyílfarkú réce
2
Örvös galamb
18
600
120
15
849
2
Parlagi sas
Rétisas
1
2
8
5
7
Szárcsa
Szürke cankó
5
16
31
10
18
95
100
124
4
10
Szürke gém
42
37
25
6
14
11
12
3
16
Tőkés réce
1148
2325
3099
2190
1300
2860
7200
693
200
Üstökös réce
1
Vetési lúd
15
115
Appendix III. The observed numbers of waterfowl species BAJA - country
border, 2002-2003 winter
Figure 34 Number of Crested grebes and Little grebes between Baja and the southern
country border (1479-1433 fkm) (KALOCSA, TAMÁS, 2003)
Figure 35 Number of Cormorants and Grey Herons between Baja and the southern
country border (1479-1433 fkm) (KALOCSA, TAMÁS, 2003)
Figure 36 Number of Whitefronts and Bean geese between Baja and the southern
country border (1479-1433 fkm) (KALOCSA, TAMÁS, 2003)
116
Figure 37 Number of Pochards and Mallards between Baja and the southern country
border (1479-1433 fkm) (KALOCSA, TAMÁS, 2003)
Figure 38 Number of Goldeneyes and Tufted ducks between Baja and the southern
country border (1479-1433 fkm) (KALOCSA, TAMÁS, 2003)
Figure 39 Number of Smews and Goosanders between Baja and the southern country
border (1479-1433 fkm) (KALOCSA, TAMÁS, 2003)
117
Appendix IV. Analysis of nesting data of White-tailed Eagles
Figure 40 Wintering White-tailed Eagles on the investigated reach of the river
Danube, winter 2002-2003 (KALOCSA, TAMÁS, 2003)
Figure 41 Correlation between the number of wintering Mallards and White-tailed
Eagles, winter 2002-2003. (KALOCSA, TAMÁS, 2003)
118
Appendix V. Grouping of bat species according to their frequencies
Frequently occurring species:

Korai denevér (Nyctalus noctula)

Törpe denevér (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)

Vízi denevér (Myotis daubentoni)

Durvavitorlájú denevér (Pipistrellus nathusii)
Rare species bounding to special habitat type:

Pisze denevér (Barbastella barbastellus)

Tavi denevér (Myotis dasycneme)

Horgasszőrű denevér (Myotis nattereri)

Bajuszos denevér (Myotis mystacinus)

Brandt denevér (Myotis brandti)

Szőröskarú denevér (Nyctalus leisleri)

Barna hosszúfülű denevér (Plecotus auritus)

Szürke hosszúfülű denevér (Plecotus austriacus)

Kései denevér (Eptesicus serotinus)
Locally occurring rare species:

Fehérszélű denevér (Pipistrellus kuhli)

Fehértorkú denevér (Vespertilio murinus)
119
Appendix VI. The serial number of sampling sites on the Vén-Duna (1-4)
and the Danube River (6) – 5 and 7 shows localities in the vicinity
(downstream) of the reopened rock fill
120
Appendix VII. Characteristic macroinvertebrate species in the Gemenc
region (VITUKI 1992-2000)
a
b
c
d
Figure 42 Aquatic snail species from the Danube and the Vén-Duna: a- Viviparus
acerosus; b- Valvata piscinalis; c- Lithoglyphus naticoides; d- Theodoxus
fluviatilis
Figure 43 Corbicula fluminea
Figure 44 Corbicula fluminalis
121
a
b
d
c
e
Figure 45 Mussel species from the Danube and the Vén-Duna: a- Unio pictorum; bU. tumidus (adult); c- U. tumidus (juvenile); d- Anodonta anatina; eSinanodonta woodiana
122
Appendix VIII.
List of fish species found in diferent water bodies (1: main riverbed, 2: connected backwaters,
3: disconnected standing waters) in the Gemence region of the Danube. Black boxes common,
grey boxes rare, x historical data (GUTI, 2001).
1
Fish species
2
3
Eudontomyzon mariae
Acipenser ruthenus
Acipenser güldenstaedti
x
Acipenser nudiventris
x
Acipenser stellatus
x
Huso huso
x
Hucho hucho
Oncorhycus mykiss
x
Umbra krameri
Esox lucius
Rutilus rutilus
Rutilus pigus virgo
Ctenopharyngodon idella
Scardinius erythrophthalmus
Leuciscus leuciscus
Leuciscus cephalus
Leuciscus idus
Aspius aspius
Alburnus alburnus
Blicca bjoerkna
Abramis brama
Abramis ballerus
Abramis sapa
Vimba vimba
Pelecus cultratus
Tinca tinca
Chodrostoma nasus
123
1
Fish species
Barbus barbus
Barbus meridionalis
Gobio gobio
Gobio albipinnatus
Pseudorasbora parva
Rhodeus sericeus amarus
Carassius carassius
Carassius auratus
Cyprinus carpio
Hypophtalmichthys molitrix
Aristichthys nobilis
Misgurnus fossilis
Cobitis taenia
Silurus glanis
Ameirus nebulosus
Ameiurus melas
Anguilla anguilla
Lota lota
Lepomis gibbosus
Micropterus salmoides
Perca fluviatilis
Gymnocephalus cernuus
Gymnocephalus baloni
Gymnocephalus schraetzer
Stizostedion lucioperca
Stizostedion volgense
Zingel zingel
Proterorhinus marmoratus
Neogobius fluviatilis
Neogobius kessleri
Neogobius syrman
124
2
3
Appendix IX.
Related legal regulation
Act CXL of 2004
on the general rules of administrative public authority
procedure and service
Act XXVI of 2003
on the Nation Country Planning
Act XXXV of 2000
on plant protection
Act CLIX of 1997
on the armed safety guarding, on the nature preservationand the field guard service
Act CXXXII of 1997
on the affiliates and commercial representations in
Hungary of undertakings with foreign seat
Act LXXVIII of 1997
on the formation
environment
Act XLI of 1997
on fishing and angling, in a unified structure with FM
Decree 78/1997. (XI. 4.) on its implementation
Act XXXIII of 1997
on certain issues connected with the closure of the
property compensation procedures
Act LV of 1996
on game protection, on game management, as well as on
hunting, in a unified structure with FVM Decree 79/2004.
(V. 4.) on its implementation
Act LIV of 1996
on forests and forest protection, in unified structure with
FM Decree 29/1997. (IV. 30.) on its implementation
Act LIII of 1996
on nature conservation
Act XCIII of 1995
on the restoration of the protection level of the protected
areas of nature
Act LIII of 1995
on the general rules of environmental protection
Act LV of 1994
on arable land
Act XLIX of 1994
on the forest owners’ association
Act XLVIII of 1993
on mining, in a unified structure with Governmental
Decree 203/1998. (XII. 19.) on its implementation
Act II of 1993
on the land settlement and land delivery committees
Act XXXVIII of 1992
on the state budget
Act II of 1992
on Act I of 1992 on co-operatives entering into force, and
on the transitory rules and regulations
125
and
protection
of
constructed
Act XXV of 1991
on the partial compensation for the damages caused
wrongfully by the state in the property of the citizens, for
the sake of settling the ownership relations, in a unified
structure with Govt. Decree 104/1991. (VIII. 3.) on its
implementation
Govt. D. 2/2005. (I. 11.)
on the environmental testing of certain plans and programs
Govt. D. 368/2004. (XII. 26.)
on the amendment of Govt. D. 220/2004. (VII. 21.) on
the rules and regulations of protecting the quality of the
surface waters
Govt. D. 367/2004. (XII. 26.)
on the amendment of Govt. D. 219/2004. (VII. 21.) on the
protection of subsoil waters
Govt. D. 341/2004. (XII. 22.)
on the scope of activity and competence of the National
Inspectorate for Environment, Nature Conservation and
Water, the National Directorate of Environment, Nature
and Water in Hungary, as well as the regional bodies
under the control of the minister for environment and
water
Govt. D. 340/2004. (XII. 22.)
on the supervision of the scope of activity and competence
of the bodies under the control of the minister for
environment and water
Govt. D. 276/2004. (X. 8.)
on the detailed rules pertaining to certain subsidies serving
for the conservation of the nature, as well as to
indemnification
Govt. D. 275/2004. (X. 8.)
on areas of environmental protection-destination with
European Union-wide importance
Govt. D. 221/2004. (VII. 21.)
on certain rules of water collection management
Govt. D. 220/2004. (VII. 21.)
on the rules of protecting the quality of surface waters
Govt. D. 219/2004. (VII. 21.)
on the protection of subsoil waters
Govt. D. 183/2003. (XI. 5.)
on the scope of activity and competence of the National
Inspectorate for Environment and Water, the National
Directorate of Environment, Nature and Water in
Hungary, as well as the bodies under the control of the
minister for environment and water
Govt. D. 173/2003. (X. 28.)
on supplying accommodation for non-profit purposes, for
public and leisure-time use
Govt. D. 30/2003. (III. 18.)
on limiting the water traffic on certain inland waterways
out of environmental protection purposes, and on the
operational permits that can be issued in the areas under
the limitation
Govt. D. 155/2002. (VII. 9.)
on the scope of activity and competence of the minister for
environment and water
126
Govt. D. 65/2002. (III. 30.)
on proclaiming the Convention between the Government
of the Republic of Hungary and the Federal Government
of Austria on the tourist traffic crossing the state
boundaries between Írottkő Natúrpark and Naturpark
Geschriebenstein, signed in Lutzmannsburg on 23rd
February 2002.
Govt. D. 201/2001. (X. 25.)
on the quality requirements of drinking water, and on the
order of control
Govt. D. 193/2001. (X. 19.)
on the detailed rules of unified licensing procedure of the
use of the environment
Govt. D. 166/1999. (XI. 19.)
on the licensing procedures belonging to the scope of
competence of the landscape conservation professional
public authority
Govt. D. 46/1999. (III. 18.)
on the use and utilisation of alluvial plains, the bank
strips, as well as on the areas flooded with water and
endangered by underseepage
Govt. D. 33/1997. (II. 20.)
on the rules connected with imposing environmental
protection fine
Govt. D. 7/1996. (I. 18.)
on possessing properties by foreigners
Govt. D. 147/1992. (XI. 6.)
on the order of recording the property assets owned by the
municipalities and supplying data on them
Govt. D. 20/2001. (II. 14.)
on the environmental impact assessment
Govt. D. 166/1999. (XI. 19.)
on the licensing procedures belonging to the competence
of the landscape conservation professional public
authority
Govt. D. 46/1999. (III. 18.)
on the use and utilisation of alluvial plains, the bank
strips, as well as on the areas flooded with water and
endangered by underseepage
Govt. D. 67/1998. (IV. 3.)
on the limitations and prohibitions pertaining to the
protected and highly protected living communities
Govt. D. 8/1998. (I. 23.)
on the detailed rules of the protecting, keeping, presenting
and utilising the protected animal species
Govt. D. 132/1997. (VII. 24.)
on the tasks connected with water quality damage
prevention
Govt. D. 123/1997. (VII. 18.)
on the protection of water bases, long-rate water bases, as
well as the water facilities serving for drinking water
supply
Govt. D. 106/1995. (IX. 8.)
on the environmental protection- and nature conservation
requirements of liquidation procedure and final settlement
Govt. D. 21/1970. (VI. 21.)
on protecting the trees
127
FVM D. 150/2004. (X. 12.)
on the detailed rules of making use of the
agrarian/environmental protection subsidies accomplished
on the basis of the National Country Development Plan,
co-financed by the central budget, as well as the a
Guarantee Section of the European Agricultural Guidance
and Guarantee Fund
FVM D. 7/2001. (I. 17.)
on the detailed rules of implementing the plant health
tasks
FVM D. 5/2001. (I. 16.)
on the plant protection activity
FVM D. 88/2000. (XI. 10.)
on the Forest Organization Rules and Regulations
FVM D. 85/2000. (XI. 8.).
on land formation
FM-KTM Joint D. 73/1997. (X. 28.)
GKM D. 27/2002. (XII. 5.)
on the fish species and aquatic animals that may not
be caught (angled), as well as on the fishing
prohibition times of certain fish species
on the signs serving for directing the water traffic and for
signalling the navigation route, as well as on establishing,
operating, altering and terminating such signs
KöM-EüM Joint D. 8/2002. (III. 22.)
on determining the limits of noise- and vibration
loads
KöM D. 30/2001. (XII. 28.)
on the rules pertaining to making environmental
protection management plans, to their maker and content
KöM D. 16/2001. (VII. 18.)
on the list of wastes
KöM D. 9/2000. (V. 19.)
on the Service Regulations of Nature Conservation Guard
Duty
KöM D. 4/2000. (III. 24.)
on declaring certain protected natural areas located in the
competence area of Duna-Dráva National Park Directorate
to be forest reserves
KöM-KöViM Joint D. 9/2002.
(III. 22.) on the emission limits of used- and
wastewaters, as well as on the rules of their application
KöViM D. 21/2002. (IV. 25.)
on the operation of water public utilities
KTM D. 18/1998. (VI. 25.)
on the requirements of the contents of area development
concepts, programs, and country planning
KTM D. 33/1997. (XI. 20.)
on the civil nature guards
KTM D. 13/1997. (V. 28.)
on recording the protected natural areas and values
KTM D. 12/1997. (IV. 25.)
on scheduling the expropriations needed for the
restoration of the protection level of protected natural
areas
KTM D. 7/1996. (IV. 17.)
on establishing the Duna-Dráva National Park
128
KVM D. 7/1990. (IV. 23.)
on declaring certain natural areas protected, declaring
nature conservation areas of local importance to those of
national importance, as well as on amending the
boundaries of nature conservation areas
KvVM D. 31/2004. (XII. 30.)
on certain rules of monitoring surface waters and
evaluating their condition
KvVM D. 30/2004. (XII. 30.)
on certain rules of testing subsoil waters
KvVM D. 29/2004. (XII. 25.)
on the competence of inspectorates for environment,
nature conservation and water, as well as on the scope of
operation of the national park directorates and the
directorates of environment and water
KvVM D. 28/2004. (XII. 25.)
on the emission limits of water pollutants and on certain
rules of their application
KvVM D. 27/2004. (XII. 25.)
on the classification of the settlements located in sensitive
areas from the standpoint of the condition of subsoil water
KvVM D. 24/2004. (XII. 18.)
on amending KvVM Decree 6/2002. (XI. 5.) on the
pollution limits of the surface water used for drinking
water intake or designated as drinking water base, as well
as of the surface waters designated for providing the living
conditions for fishes, together with amending the control
of such limits
KvVM D. 22/2004. (XII. 11.)
on amending KöM Decree 16/2001. (VII. 18.) on the list
of wastes
KvVM D. 6/2002. (XI. 5.)
on the pollution limits of the surface water used for
drinking water intake or designated as drinking water
base, as well as of the surface waters designated for
providing the living conditions for fishes, together with
the control of such limits
OGY Resolution 132/2003.
(XII. 11.) on the National Environmental Protection
Program for the period between 2003 and 2008.
KvVM Order 16/2003. (K. Ért. 6.)
on amending KöM Order 17/2001. (K. Ért. 8.) on
xercising certain scopes of competence due on the
minister of environment, on the basis of certain legal
regulation
KvVM Order 5/2003. (K. Ért. 3.) on certain procedural rules connected with the restoration
of the protection level of protected areas and those
intended to protect
KvVM Order 4/2003. (K. Ért. 3.) on the 2003 utilisation rules of allowances of sectional
management
LÜ h Circular Letter 1/1997. (ÜK. 4.) on the attorneys’ competence to institute an action in
law in matters of environmental protection and
nature preservation
129
Affected international conventions
Act CXIV of 2000. on proclaiming the Supplementary Protocol dated in 26th March 1998 of
the Convention on the regulations of the order of navigation on the Danube, dated in Belgrade
on 18th August 1948, together with its Protocol on Signing
Act LXXXI of 1995. on proclaiming the Convention on Biological Diversity
Act XLII of 1993. on proclaiming the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance
especially as Waterfowl Habitat accepted in Ramsar on 2nd February 1971, together with its
amendments accepted on 3rd December 1982 and between 28th May – 3rd June 1987, in a
unified structure
Decree-law 7 of 1981. on proclaiming the Protocol signed in Bucharest on 29th June 1979 on
amending Article 17 of the Convention for the fishing utilisation of Danube concluded in
Bucharest on 29th January 1958, and proclaimed with Decree-law 9 of 1962
Decree-law 9 of 1962. on proclaiming the Convention for the fishing utilisation of Danube
concluded in Bucharest on 29th January
Govt. Decree 74/2000. (V. 31.) on proclaiming the Convention concluded in Sofia on 29th
June 1994 for the protection and the sustainable use of the Danube
Govt. Decree 148/1999. (X. 13.) on proclaiming the Convention on Environmental Impact
Assessment in a Transboundary Context signed in Espoo (Finland) on 26th February 1991.
OGY Resolution 28/1991. (IV. 30.) on certain international environmental tasks connected
with the Danube
Govt. Resolution 2118/2000. (V. 31.) on the representation in the International Committee
for Danube Protection, as well as on providing the fundamental conditions of participating in
the Convention for the co-operation aimed at the protection and the sustainable use of the
Danube established in Sofia on 29th June 1994.
130
inundation
inundation
Appendix X.
Results of statistical analyses of concentration
Components taken as a function of water levels (1994-2003)
Components taken as a function of water levels (1994-2003)
Danube - Fajsz (1576,0 rkm)
Danube - Baja (1480,2 rkm)
5
5
4
3
2
spring
summer
autumn
winter
1
0
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Nitrate (NO3-N mg/l)
Nitrate (NO3-N mg/l)
4
spring
summer
autumn
winter
inundation
3
2
1
0
-100
1000
0
100
200
600
700
800
900
1000
Components taken as a function of water levels (1994-2003)
Danube - Baja (1480,2 rkm)
spring
summer
autumn
winter
100
50
0
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
inundation
600 700 800
200
Orthophosphate (PO4-P ug/l)
Orthophosphate (PO4-P ug/l)
500
Components taken as a function of water levels (1994-2003)
150
spring
summer
autumn
winter
150
inundation
100
50
0
-100
900 1000
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900 1000
Water level (mm)
Water level (mm)
Components taken as a function of water levels (1994-2003)
Components taken as a function of water levels (1994-2003)
Danube - Fajsz (1576,0 rkm)
Danube - Baja (1480,2 rkm)
spring
summer
autumn
winter
inundation
400
300
200
100
0
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
1000
800
Total Phosphorous (ug/l)
500
Total Phosphorous (ug/l)
400
Water level (mm)
Danube - Fajsz (1576,0 rkm)
inundation
inundation
spring
summer
autumn
winter
600
400
200
0
-100
900 1000
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900 1000
Water level (mm)
Water level (mm)
Components taken as a function of water levels (1970-2003)
Components taken as a function of water levels (1970-2003)
Danube - Fajsz (1576,0 rkm)
Danube - Baja (1480,2 rkm)
300
300
200
150
100
250
Chlorophyll-a (ug/l)
spring
summer
autumn
winter
250
Chlorophyll-a (ug/l)
300
Water level (mm)
spring
summer
autumn
winter
inundation
200
150
100
50
50
0
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0
-100
900 1000
0
100
200
Water level (mm)
300
400
500
Water level (mm)
Figure 46 Components taken as function of water level
131
600
700
800
900 1000
Results of the Joint Danube Survey (2001)
Concentration of NH4-N and NO2-N in the water
Concentration of NO3-N and Organic Nitrogen in the water
Concentration of Organic N is the bottom sediment and suspended solids
Concentration of PO4-P and Total P in the water
132
Concentration of Total P in the suspended sediment solids and bottom sediment
Figure 47 Results of Joint Danube Survey
133
Results of load calculation in the Danube
18000
NO2-N
NH4-N
NO3-N
14000
18000
Danube 1480,2 rkm - Baja (03FF07)
NO2-N
NH4-N
NO3-N
16000
Inorganic Nitrogen load (g/s)
Inorganic Nitrogen load (g/s)
16000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
14000
Danube 1451,7 fkm - Mohács (03FF02)
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
0
2003
1994
1995
1996
1997
years
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
Figure 48 Calculated loads for the investigated period based on measured data
(Nitrogen forms)
2000
Total Phosphorous
PO4-P
2000
Danube 1480,2 rkm - Baja (03FF07)
1500
Phosphorous load (g/s)
Phosphorous load (g/s)
1500
1000
500
0
Danube 1451,7 rkm - Mohács (03FF02)
Total Phosphorous
PO4-P
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
1000
500
0
2003
1994
1995
1996
1997
years
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
Figure 49 Calculated loads for the investigated period based on measured data
(Phosphorus forms)
220000
Danube - Baja
Danube - Mohács
200000
160000
140000
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
280000
240000
200000
160000
120000
80000
40000
0
-40000
-40000
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
years
Figure 50 Yearly loads of Nitrate in the Danube reach of Gemenc
134
Danube - Mohács
Danube - Baja
320000
-20000
1994
Danube - Fajsz
Sió - Szekszárd
360000
NO3-N load - 90% percentile (t/year)
180000
NO3-N load - average (t/year)
400000
Danube - Fajsz
Sió - Szekszárd
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
4000
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: -4200 t/year
4000
2000
0
-2000
LDifference = LDanube,Baja - (LDanube,Fajsz + LSió,Szekszárd )
-4000
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Differences of Inorganic Nitrogen load (g/s)
Differences of Inorganic Nitrogen load (g/s)
6000
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: 9200 t/year
2000
0
-2000
LDifference = LDanube,Mohács - LDanube,Baja
-4000
2003
1994
1995
1996
1997
years
100
0
-100
-200
LDifference = LDanube,Baja - (LDanube,Fajsz + LSió,Szekszárd )
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Differences of Ammonium-N load (g/s)
Differences of Ammonium-N load (g/s)
200
100
0
-100
-200
LDifference = LDanube,Mohács - LDanube,Baja
-300
2003
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
2000
0
-2000
1996
1997
1998
2001
2002
2003
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: 24400 t/year
4000
1995
2000
4000
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: -17900 t/year
1994
1999
years
Differences of Nitrate-N load (g/s)
Differences of Nitrate-N load (g/s)
2003
200
2000
0
-2000
LDifference = LDanube,Mohács - LDanube,Baja
LDifference = LDanube,Baja - (LDanube,Fajsz + LSió,Szekszárd )
1999
2000
2001
2002
-4000
2003
1994
1995
1996
1997
years
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
400
300
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: -6600 t/year
300
200
100
0
-100
-200
LDifference = LDanube,Baja - (LDanube,Fajsz + LSió,Szekszárd )
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Differences of Orthophosphate load (g/s)
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: 9250 t/year
Differences of Orthophosphate load (g/s)
2002
300
years
-300
2001
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: -18800 t/year
300
-4000
2000
400
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: 18500 t/year
6000
1999
years
400
-300
1998
200
100
0
-100
-200
LDifference = LDanube,Mohács - LDanube,Baja
-300
2003
years
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
years
135
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
500
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: 900 t/year
400
300
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
LDifference = LDanube,Baja - (LDanube,Fajsz + LSió,Szekszárd )
-400
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Differences of Total Phosphorous load (g/s)
Differences of Total Phosphorous load (g/s)
500
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: -6600 t/year
400
300
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
LDifference = LDanube,Mohács - LDanube,Baja
-400
2003
1994
1995
1996
1997
years
150
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: -4400 t/year
100
50
0
-50
-100
LDifference = LDanube,Baja - (LDanube,Fajsz + LSió,Szekszárd )
-150
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
1999
2000
2001
2002
Differences of Chlorophyll-a load (g/s)
Differences of Chlorophyll-a load (g/s)
150
1998
100
50
0
-50
-100
LDifference = LDanube,Mohács - LDanube,Baja
-150
2003
years
Sum of annual load differences (90% percentil) in 1994-2003: -800 t/year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
years
Figure 51 Differences of calculated load between two investigated stations (19942003)
136
Pollutants,
Settelments
(population)
Bátaszék (7211)
Decs (4264)
Őcsény (2762)
Szekszárd (35385)
1
Várdomb (1212)
Sárpilis (664)
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
Pörböly (652)
1
2
Alsónyék (839)
2, (1)
2, (1)
2, (2)
Total (places) from ‘KÁRINFO’ database
137
1
3
1
1, (1)
3
1
1
Mórágy (872)
1
1
1
1
2
Total
1, (1)
oil and substances polluted with oil
Salt for defrosting the road network
(NaCl)
technological sludge containing
inorganic material
metal wastes, heavy metal
containing residues, batteries
Hazardous: polluted sludge from
electroplate, galvanize activity
Hazardous: strong acids, strong
caustic, alkali
Hazardous : organic solvents
Pesticides
chemical materials, paints,
enamels, and their packages
municipal waste water sludge
liquid manure
litter, manure, parts of dead animal
bodies (dögkút)
fertilizers
household solid wastes
mixed waste (disposal construction
and demolition debris, and deposit
municipal debris
Results of load calculation in the Szekszárd-Bátai System
Table 14. Potential source of pollution on the watershed of Szekszárd-Báta Channel-System
1
3, (1)
Báta (2052)
2
2
Bátaapáti (436)
1
1
2
7
1
1
2
6, (1)
1
1
1
6
1
4
1
29, (9) 49, (12)
78, (14)
Table 15. Main features and calculated loads of Bátaszék MWWTP
Bátaszéki Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plan
Agglomeration of Bátaszék, Báta, Mórágy, Bátaapáti, Alsónána, Mőcsény, Kismórágy, Recipient: Lajvér-creek
Components
Basic features
Amount of
waste water
M3/day
M3/year
Dry year
Wet year
850
1600
310250
584000
Snuff
COD
BOD5
NH4-N
Susp.s.
TP
TN
8
g/m3
g/m3
g/m3
g/m3
g/m3
g/m3
Removal
pH
Temp
oC
%
95,7
96,8
66,9
86,3
WW in
g/m3
1576
878
121
27
8
WW out
g/m3
68
28
40
3,7
7,9
21,097
8,687
12,410
1,148
t/year
138
Table 16. Rough valuation of diffuse loads on the watershed of Szekszárd-Báta Channel-System
TP load
kg/ha.year
TN load
kg/ha.year
NO3-N load
kg/ha.year
1822,95
0,9
6
3
1640,7
10937,7
5468,9
431,10
0,9
6
3
388,0
2586,6
1293,3
26271,29
1
10
6
26271,3
262712,9
157627,7
2698,26
2
15
5396,5
40473,9
0,0
Orchard (berries)
265,44
2
15
530,9
3981,6
0,0
Pasture, meadow
261,89
0,3
7
0,5
78,6
1833,2
130,9
Complex cultivated structure
415,06
0,5
0,9
0,2
207,5
373,6
83,0
Land principally occupied by agriculture, with
significant areas of natural vegetation
1650,77
0,2
10
0,3
330,2
16507,7
495,2
Broad-leaved forest
4083,54
0,2
8
1,2
816,7
32668,3
4900,2
75,85
0,07
6
0,7
5,3
455,1
53,1
1262,97
0,15
8
1
189,4
10103,8
1263,0
Intermediate forest-bush
90,63
0,05
6
0,5
4,5
543,8
45,3
Water body
74,75
Landuse type
Discontinuous urban area
Industrial or commercial area
Non-irrigated arable land
Vineyard
Coniferous forest
Mixed forest
Area (ha)
TP load
kg/year
TN load
kg/year
NO3-N load
kg/year
Loads in t/year
Total area of Szekszár-Báta watershed unit:
39404,50 Total load of Szekszár-Báta Watershed unit:
139
35,9
383,2
171,4
Table 17. KSH database on agriculture on the watershed of Szekszárd-Báta Channel-System (see all the tables below)
name of administrative unit
Tolna County
area administrative unit
3 703 000
Year
sqm
Population
Landuse
inhabitants
Agricultural Area
Arable
Land
All
Forests&Woods land
other
1000 ha
1997
247 000
256
215
52
87
1998
245 235
251
211
53
80
1999
243 701
239
202
64
77
2000
243 701
255
215
52
46
name of administrative unit
area administrative unit
Livestock no. or animal units
Year
Cattle
Sheep
Pigs
Mineral fertilizer consumption
Chickens
Head
Ducks
Geese
Turkeys
Nitrogenous Phosphate
Potash
1000
1997
47
39
23
824
45
14
5
13 921
3 149
3646
1998
47
41
363
791
76
11
10
12 926
1 837
2564
1999
48
42
361
898
68
12
8
13 292
1 799
2287
2000
39
52
312
905
65
15
8
12 105
2 491
3349
140
name of administrative unit
Tolna County
area administrative unit
3 703 000
sqm
Crop statistics
Wheat
Barley
Year Area Harv
Yield
(ha)
(kg/ha)
Maize
(ha)
Oats
Millet
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
Production Area Harv
(t)
Rye
1997
57 524
5 060
290 814
12 008
4 960
59 605
87 106
7 800
679 754
647
2 784
1 801
616
3 416
2 104
57
1 807
103
1998
55 537
4 840
268 854
12 184
4 360
53 086
91 938
7 220
672 169
855
3 165
2 706
858
3 224
2 766
114
2 596
296
1999
41 504
4 180
173 369
10 707
4 220
45 158
87 725
7 500
658 566
895
2 303
2 061
880
2 866
2 522
280
2 079
582
2000
46 185
4 480
207 018
9 114
4 300
39 155
100 678
5 080
511 090
850
2 382
2 025
860
2 814
2 420
270
2 130
575
name of administrative unit
Tolna County
area administrative unit
3 703 000 sqm
Crop statistics
Sorghum
Year
Triticale
Area
Harv
Yield
(ha)
(kg/ha)
Production Area Harv
(t)
(ha)
1997
Potatoes
Sugar Beets
Sunflower Seeds
Rapeseeds
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
3 526
4 140
14 597
979 20 130
19 709
5 438 36 370
197 801
16 782
1 518
25 478
6 103
1 564
9 544
1998
5
1 200
6
3 741
3 472
12 987
885 19 724
18 456
2 969 46 373
137 681
18 517
1 836
34 004
2 040
1 514
3 088
1999
5
1 200
6
3 843
3 114
11 966
885 21 200
18 765
2 331 53 020
123 590
18 581
1 829
33 981
11 882
2 118
25 163
2000
5
1 200
6
3 850
3 034
11 680
749 17 250
12 923
1 580 43 070
68 052
18 500
1 832
33 900
10 560
2 337
24 680
141
name of administrative unit
Tolna County
area administrative unit
3 703 000
sqm
Crop statistics
Grapes
Year
Pimento, Allspice
Pulses,Total
Vegetables&Melons, Total
Fruit excl Melons,Total
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
Area
Harv
Yield
Production
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
(ha)
(kg/ha)
(t)
1997
6 051
5 921
35 830
78
8 872
692
11 430
5 324
60 854
1 929 10 279
19 828
1 289
5 289
6 817
1998
6 039
6 517
39 357
2
721 500
1 443
11 325
5 423
61 410
1 568 15 857
24 864
1 287
4 784
6 157
1999
5 971
4 697
28 046
70
14 214
995
12568
4 904
61638
1767 13 940
24 632
1345
5 413
7 281
2000
5 792
1 278
7 400
65
13 231
860
8183
4 312
35288
1081 16 610
17 955
1433
5 164
7 400
142
Appendix XI. MEMO of the forum held on the project „Reduction of
nutrient load (DDNP)” (TF #051289)
Date:
2005.03.24.
Venue:
Eötvös József Műszaki Főiskola, Török hall
Participantst: See the enclosed list of attendees
1. László Menyhért Tóth (DHV) introduced the main elements of the project, the
methods of the development, the comparison and the evaluation of the different
engineering alternatives.
2. László Zellei (EJF MF) expert’s presentation of the recommended engineering
interventions for the „Sió-mente” and the „Gemenc” planning units.
3. Béla Kalocsa (ADUKÖVIZIG) expert’s presentation of the recommended
engineering interventions for the "Buvat", the "Fekete-erdei" and the "Nagy-Pandúr"
planning units.
4. Enikő Tamás (EJF MF) expert’s presentation of the recommended engineering
interventions for the "Veránka", the "Bátai-Duna" and the "Báli" planning units.
5. János Sziebert (EJF MF) expert’s presentation of the recommended engineering
interventions for the „Móric-Duna” and the „Kerülő-Duna” planning units.
6. Árpád Csillag (Pécsi Hydroterv) expert’s presentation of the
engineering interventions for the „Béda-Karapancsa” planning unit.
recommended
7. Lóránt Deme (DHV) presentation on the results of the financial-economical analysis.
8. Tamás Gruber (WWF): What was the basis of the financial-economical analysis of
nitrogen and phosphor removal?
Lóránt Deme (DHV): It was based the costs taken from industrial analogies. The
costs of wastewater treatment and the costs of the innovation for the reduction of
nitrogen and phosphor emission of traffic origin were taken into consideration.
9. István Zsuffa’s (VITUKI Rt.) presentation on the results of the environmental and
socio-economic impact analysis.
10. László Márk (DD-KÖVIZIG): In the course of dredging large amount of material is
removed, which have to be disposed in an appropriate way. The placement of the
sediment in the Danube’s thalweg is against the main goal of the project therefore it is
not possible.
Enikő Tamás (EJF MF): The environmental protection authority would not authorize
the placement of the sediment in the Danube’s thalweg. The quantity of the sediment
in „Veránka” is approx. 72.000 m3.
143
Sziebert János (EJF MF): In the „Kerülő-Duna” planning unit the quantity of the
recommended dredging is approx. 43.000 m3. It could be used to reconstruct the
summer dike, and for constructing game rescue hills and dirt roads.
11. László Bodor (Gemenc Rt.): The amount of nitrogen mentioned during the
presentation of financial-economical analysis represents an equivalent amount of
150.000 railway carriage of chemical fertilizer. Where will this large amount get into?
In the forest? If the raised water level just reaches the foot of the forest, it will appear
in the root zone. This could damage the forest, which results to the appearance of
nitrogen fancier tree species. The protection against these kinds of trees is impossible.
It is not indifferent that the forest is flooded only 2-3 times a year or more frequently
due to the backcharged water level. This also could result to changing in tree species.
The forest-directive obliges Gemenc Forest and Game Co. Ltd. to repopulate the
cutout forests. However, Gemenc Forest and Game Co. is not able to undertake the
repopulation of the forests damaged due to the harmful environmental impacts. It is
necessary to specify the impacts on forests in the later impact assessments, including
the quantity of nutrient loads.
Lóránt Deme (DHV): The increase of nutrients to 146% level should be compared to
the present 100% level. This means that 100% of the nutrients are already on the area.
Szabolcs Závoczky (DDNPI): The impacts on forests have to be analysed in the
course of the detailed impact assessment. This analysis has to be carried out in a full
vegetation period. The impact of the weirs in the alternatives is to retain the water on
the area and delay the emptying.
12. József Kovács (Állami Erdészeti Szolgálat Pécsi Ig.): Out of the two project, the
goal of one is to reduce the nutrient load of the Black Sea and of the other is to reduce
the nutrient load of Gemenc. Therefore, if the goal is reached in the Gemenc project,
the Black Sea nutrient load increases. The National Park and the State Forest Service
have to be involved in the permitting process.
Menyhért László Tóth (DHV): The two projects have one goal, which is the
reduction of nutrient load of the Black Sea. We intend to reach this goal by the
revitalisation of the Gemenc floodplain.. The two projects have a decision-support
role. Following these projects, the World Bank will decide upon financing or not the
further steps.
Britta Hadinger (DD-KÖVIZIG): The main goal is that the Hungarian Government
would like to get financial support from the Global Environmental Foundation (GEF)
for the Gemenc project. The condition of this is that it should have global benefits.
The Gemenc project matches this criterion, if it is possible to find such alternatives,
which will bring global benefits. Of course it is feasible to realize local benefits
incidentally. The two preliminary projects establish the decision of World Bank in
technological and environmental protection aspects. These will be followed by
detailed analyses.
The interventions are only appropriate if they do not have negative impacts on the
National Park even more they would improve the conditions and would reduce the
nutrient load of the Black Sea brought by the Danube
The title of the project can be misunderstood in English and in Hungarian, it should be
modified in the documents.
144
13. Bea Pataki (VITUKI Rt.): We analyzed the nutrient load of Danubian sections, this
proved to be a very large amount. Based on data after1994, the floodplain do not have
significant impact on the water quality of the main riverbed of the Gemenc Danubesection. Sometimes this balance is negative or positive in a small extent.
We analyzed the nutrient load of the Danube, which comes through the Sió and the
Szekszárd-Báta main channel and we think that we should concentrate on these. The
catchment area of Sió and Szekszárd-Báta main channel is large compared to the
catchment area of Gemenc. Therefore if this two nutrient loads could be reduced by
the interventions, this would be measurable on the Danube as well.
On the other hand the whole River Danube was measured from the source to mouth
but not Hungary is the main nutrient source. If the Budapest and Gemenc projects will
be impemented, then Hungary made its job.
14. Enikő Tamás (EJF MF): The foresters worried about the area because its becoming
drier, as it have been read for 15 years. The foresters pointed this out first 20 years
ago. It should be finally decided that the Gemenc forest is becoming drier or not?
The interventions change flooding frequency of several waterbeds with the change in
the duration of water levels. However, with this we only recover an earlier state and
not that what it was 20 years ago.
15. Szabolcs Závoczky (DDNPI): First of all the National Park supported this project
because presumed that it would be ecologically beneficial for the area where DDNPI
is concerned.
Zsófia Szi-Ferenc (KvVM): When the preparation of the project took place, an
agreement was made between DDNPI, Gemenc Rt, KvVM, and DD KÖVIZIG about
the support of the project.
16. Béla Kling (KÖDU-KÖVIZIG): The operation of the mouth sluice of Sió is not
simple, because it has impact on several water systems outside the project area e.g.:
„Fadd” water system. This circumstance should be assessed
The Szekszárd-Báta main channel is collecting wastewater from the surrounding
settlements, and that goes to the „Bátai-Öreg-Duna”. As the result of the backcharge
the nutrient load would increase significantly in the „Bátai-Öreg-Duna”.
17. János Sziebert (EJF MF): The goal of the interventions is the retention of water at
limited extent. The majority of the interventions, - mostly dredging - serve the
backcharging the inner water bodies. These do not result to necessarily higher water
levels. In order to make an assessment of it a detailed geodetic survey has to be carried
out.
Only estimation can be made on the impacts on forests.. As István Zsuffa said in his
presentation, the flood levels of Danube do not increase the groundwater levels in such
a way that it could reach the topsoil.
18. Zsolt Kempl (BITE): The Hungarian Government made an agreement on ecological
interventions and for this reason the government would compensate the damages of
the forestry.
19. Zsófia Szi-Ferenc (KvVM): In the feasibility study, the proprietary and the operating
relations of the concerned areas and engineering works should be clarified.
20. Lajos Gecse (Horgászegyesületek Tolna Megyei Szövetsége): In the name of the
angling unions, it can be declared that the recommended interventions are favourable
in economical and technical point of view. The investigated areas concern many
145
angling unions, fishery companies, fisher-men and fish-producers. They spend a lot
for planting juvenile fish. For example: in „Keselyűsi-Holt-Sió” 300-400 people come
for sporting on yearly bases, the unions sell 450 locenses a year and 350-400 people
visit the area as angling tourist. The unions on “Sió” spend approx. 80 million HUF in
a year for planting juvenile fish. On the water-system there are many fish-producers,
as well.
The unions are not against replanting and sustaining native that they would appropriate
for this from the 80 million HUF. Due to the many different interests we recommend
to discuss the questions concerning the 11 planning units separately in smaller
workshops later on. For this we would appreciate to receive the preparatory
documents.
The unions are ready for the cooperation.
21. Szabolcs Závoczky (DDNPI): The consultants of the socio-economic impact analysis
did not consult with the stakeholders.
Gergely Szalay (VTK Innnosystem): During the socio-economic impact assessment,
we identified the stakeholders, the potential impacts of the interventions and the
possible stakeholders who are concerned by the impacts. Due to the two parallel
projects and the time limits, we did not have the opportunity to quantify the impacts
and involve the stakeholders on significant level.
22. László Menyhért Tóth (DHV): Summarising the relevant points of the forum:
 It is necessary to investigate the impacts on forests and forestry in a later stage
 The title of the project should be made exact
 It is necessary to specify the quantity of nutrient load of the area
 It is possible to cooperate with anglers and fishermen through the county unions,
this opportunity should be used
 The way of sediment disposal should be determined
 The impacts of the interventions on traffic should be determined, especially from
the forestry’s point-of-view.
23. László Zellei (EJF MF): The alternatives include many possibilities to cross waters
e.g.: construction of a paved crossing passage. These solutions result to improved
conditions compared to the present state.
24. László Menyhért Tóth (DHV): The Hungarian documents and the memo of the
forum will be distributed to the stakeholders.
25. Lajos Gecse (Horgászegyesületek Tolna Megyei Szövetsége): The impacts on other
wildlife should be investigated.
László Bodor (Gemenc Rt.): The impacts on game management should be
investigated.
26. László Menyhért Tóth (DHV): Closing down the forum.
Editor of the memento: Gergely Szalay
Supervised: László Menyhért Tóth
146
Appendix XII. List of endangered species
Amphibians
Hungarian name Scientific name
Impacts during Impact of the final
implementation. state
1
vízisikló
Natrix natrix
-
+
2
kockás sikló
Natrix tesselata
-
+
3
erdei sikló
Elaphe longissima
4
rézsikló
Coronella
austriaca
5
mocsári teknõs
Emys orbicularis
6
fürge gyík
Lacerta agilis
7
zöld gyík
Lacerta viridis
Mammals
Hungarian name Scientific name
Impacts during
implementation.
1
vakond
Talpa europaea
2
erdei cickány
Sorex araneus
3
sün
Erinaceus europaeus
4
kislábú erdei egér
Apodemus microps
5
eredi egér
Apodemus silvaticus
6
sárganyakú
egér
7
pirókegér
Apodemus agrarius
8
mogyorós pele
Muscardinus
avellanarius
9
erdei pocok
Clethrionomys
glareolus
10
hód
Castor fiber
11
pézsmapocok
Ondathra zibethica
Impact of the
final state
erdei Apodemus slavicolis
+
147
12
mókus
Sciurus vulgaris
13
mezei nyúl
Lepus europaeus
14
nyest
Martes foina
15
nyuszt
Martes martes
16
menyét
Mustela nivalis
17
mezei görény
Mustela eversmanni
18
görény
Mustela putorius
19
borz
Meles meles
20
vidra
Lutra lutra
21
róka
Canis vulpes
22
vadmacska
Felix silvestris
23
õz
Capreolus capreolus
24
gímszarvas
Cervus elophus
25
vaddisznó
Sus scrofa
+
Fish
Hungarian
name
1
Scientific name
Impacts during
implementation.
Impact of the final
state
dunai ingola Eudontomyzon
vladykovi
2 kecsege
Acipenser ruthenus
3 csuka
Esox lucius
4 bodorka
Rutilus rutilus
5 amur
Ctenopharyngodon idella
6 vörösszárnyú
keszeg
Scardianus
erythrophalmus
+
7 nyúldomolykó Leuciscus leuciscus
8 domolykó
Leuciscus cephalus
9 jász
Leuciuscus idus
10 balin
Aspius aspius
148
11 küsz
Alburnus alburnus
12 karika keszeg
Blicca bjoerkna
13 dévérkeszeg
Abramis brama
14 lapos keszeg
Abramis ballerus
15 bagolykeszeg
Abramis sapa
16 szilvaorrú
keszeg
Vimba vimba
17 garda
Pelecus cultratus
18 compó
Tinca tinca.
19 paduc
Chondrostoma nasus
20 márna
Barbus barbus
21 fenékjáró
küllõ
Gobio gobio
22 kínai razbóra
Pseudorasbora parva
23 szivárványos
ökle
Rhodeus sericeus
24 kárász
Carassius carassius
25 ezüstkárász
Carassius auratus
26 ponty
Cyprinus carpio
27 fehér busa
Hypophthalmichthys
molitrix
28 pettyes busa
Aristichtys nobilis
29 réti csík
Misgurnus fossilis
30 harcsa
Silurus glanis
31 törpeharcsa
Ictalurus nebulosus
32 fekete
törpeharcsa
Ictalurus melas
33 angolna
Anguilla anguilla
34 menyhal
Lota lota
35 naphal
Lepomis gibbosus
36 sügér
Perca fluviatilis
+
+
149
37 vágódurbincs
Gymnocephalus cernuus
38 széles
durbincs
Gymnocephalus baloni
39 selymes
durbincs
Gymnocephalus
schraetzer
40 fogassüllõ
Stizostedion lucioperca
Frogs
Hungarian
name
Scientific name
Impacts during
implementation.
Impact of the final
state
1
pettyes gõte
Triturus vulgaris
-
2
dunai gõte
Triturus
dobrogicus
-
3
kecskebéka
Rana esculenta
-
+
4
tavi béka
Rana ridibunda
-
+
5
mocsári béka
Rana arvalis
6
erdei béka
Rana dalmatina
-
7
vöröshasú
unka
Bombina
bombina
-
8
barna ásóbéka Pelobates fuscus
9
zöld varangy
10
barna varangy Bufo bufo
-
+
11
zöld levelibéka Hyla arborea
-
+
+
-
Bufo viridis
-
150
Colophone
Client :
South-Transdanubian Environmental and Water Authority
Title
Reduction of Nutrient Load (DDNP) (GEF # TF 051 289)
:
Volume
:
134 pages
Edited by
:
dr. ZSUFFA, István
Experts:
dr. CSÁNYI, Béla
biological impact assessment
dr. ERŐSS, Tibor
biological impact assessment
Prof. dr. JOLÁNKAI, Géza
concept, nutrient load calculation methods
dr. MAJOR, Veronika
socio-economic impact assessment
MÁNDOKI, Mónika
nutrient load assessment
MESTER, Ákos
socio-economic impact assessment
PATAKI, Beáta
water quality impact assessment
SZALAY, Gergely
socio-economic impact assessment
ZAGYVA, Andrea
biological impact assessment
dr. ZSUFFA, István
hydrological impact assessment
Project leader :
Prof. dr. JOLÁNKAI, Géza
Date
March, 31, 2005.
:
Name/Signature
:
151
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